Japanese suppliers in Thailand continue to expand production and R&D capacities
Activities of H-One, Calsonic Kansei, GS Yuasa, JTEKT, Taiho Kogyo, Teijin, and others
This report summarizes activities of Japanese parts suppliers in Thailand in the eleven months to early August 2014, including establishment of new plants and enhancement of production capacities as well as augmentation of development offices and expansion of production items.
In the January to June 2014 period, automobile production in Thailand decreased by 29.0% year-over-year (y/y) to 953,000 units, marking a continuous decline since the latter half of 2013. This is mainly because the domestic sales volume plunged by 40.5% to 441,000 units in this period under economic slowdown and political turmoil in Thailand. The export, on the other hand, showed a relatively solid growth of 3.6% y/y to 560,000 units.
Under this environment, Toyota Motor Corporation and Honda Motor Co., Ltd. announced to revise their 2014 sales targets in Thailand downward. Honda may also postpone the start of operations at a new plant from 2015 to a later year. In the medium term, however, Japanese OEMs, including Toyota, have not made any significant changes to their plans to enhance production capacities. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. started operations at its new plant in July 2014 and plans to minimize the influence of declining sales in Thailand by increasing exports.
Following these movements of OEMs, Japanese parts suppliers have been particularly active in enhancing their production capacities. These enhancements have been made not only to support their existing customers but also to meet orders from new customers. Other activities include conversion of a local plant to a wholly owned subsidiary, acquisition of a local company, establishment of a regional headquarters, and reinforcement of development functions in Thailand. Movement to construct new plants has also continued, although not as active as before.
Activities of Japanese suppliers in Thailand
|New entries||Asteer (stamped metal parts for pickups), Jatco (CVTs), Teijin (tire cords), Topre (frame components), Toyoda Iron Works (frame components), Taiyo Stainless Spring (spacer and other parts), Fukui Byora (headed parts)|
|Enhancement of production capacities||
Construction of new plants and buildings:
H-One (stamping plant), Kanemitsu (second pulley plant), Taiho Kogyo (vacuum pump plant), Tsubakimoto Chain (fourth building), Nisshinbo Brake (commercial vehicle brake plant), Nitto Seiko (third spring plant), Piolax (new building for plastic fastening components), Fine Sinter (new plant for powder metal products), Molten (third plastic parts plant), Murakami Corporation (new building for door mirrors)
Expansion of facilities:
Teijin (hose cords), Yorozu (die production), Aichi Steel (forgings), Calsonic Kansei (heat exchangers), Kitagawa Iron Works (casting parts), Nittan Valve (automotive valves), Nidec Tosok (control valves)
Postponing capacity enhancement:
Sumitomo Rubber Industries (production increase of radial tires for passenger cars), Yutaka Giken (start of operations at the second plant for torque converters)
|Expansion of production items||JVC Kenwood (in-vehicle cameras), JTEKT (power steering components), Nippon Molymer (precision parts), Press Kogyo (rear axle cases for heavy-duty trucks and 1-ton pickups), Univance (transfer units)|
|Reinforcement and restructuring of businesses||Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal (management integration of two subsidiaries), Tanaka Seimitsu Kogyo (regional headquarters), Tachi-S (conversion to a wholly owned subsidiary), Calsonic Kansei (conversion to a consolidated subsidiary), Nippon Molymer (acquisition), Yamashita Rubber (production transfer from Japan)|
|Development and technical centers, etc.||
Asteer (design and development functions for metal parts), GS Yuasa (development and survey company for lead-acid batteries),
Expansion and reinforcement:
Polyplastics (new technical center), The Yokohama Rubber (expansion of the tire performance test course and establishment of a development center)
Sources: Press releases by each company
For activities of Japanese suppliers in ASEAN countries other than Thailand, please refer to "Japanese suppliers in Indonesia" and "Japanese suppliers in Vietnam, Malaysia, Laos, and Myanmar" posted on June 2014.
Japanese suppliers Related Reports:
* Indonesia (Jun. 2014), Vietnam, Malaysia, Laos, and Myanmar (Jun. 2014), Europe (Jul. 2014), the U.S. (Apr. 2014)
* China (Part 2): Northern, Northeastern & Southern regions (Mar. 2014),
China (Part 1): Eastern and Central China (Mar. 2014)
* Latin America (Part 2) (Mar. 2014), Latin America(Part 1) (Mar. 2014),
* Thailand (Part 1) (Jan. 2014), Thailand (Part 2) (Jan.2014), ASEAN (Nov. 2013)
* Europe (Oct. 2013), India (Sep. 2013)
Establishment of new plants by Jatco, Teijin, Topre, and others
To start producing metal components of body frames at local supplier's plant in fall 2014In fall 2014, Asteer will start manufacturing metal stamped components of body frames by providing dies and other equipment to a local supplier in Thailand. Those components will be supplied to Mitsubishi Motors' local plant and used on next-generation 1-ton pickups. In July 2013, Asteer established a local design and development subsidiary, Asteer (Thailand) Co., Ltd.
Starts full-scale production of CVTs at new plant in July 2013In July 2013, Jatco started producing continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) for small cars at a new plant of Jatco (Thailand) in Chonburi. Production started initially with an annual volume of 500,000 units, and the company plans to increase the volume to 700,000 units in the near future. According to Jatco, the capacity can be increased up to 1 million units. Export to Japan has also started to satisfy a growing demand for CVTs due to an increase in sales of mini vehicles.
|Taiyo Stainless Spring||
Constructs new plant for spacer and other partsIn April 2014, Taiyo Stainless Spring constructed a new plant of Taiyo Stainless Spring MFG (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi. Initially, the plant produces 100,000 units of stainless spacer, bush, and other parts per month and supplies them to local parts manufacturers. The company intends to enhance the production capacity gradually to achieve annual sales of JPY 300 million.
Starts exporting truck and bus mirrors to Japan; supplying products also to local automakerDaito Press Mfg. plans to increase its sales of truck and bus mirrors outside Japan from JPY 100 million in FY 2013 to JPY 400 million in FY 2015. To achieve this goal, the company has expanded the production capacity at its Chinese subsidiary. Meanwhile, its Thai subsidiary, Daito Lang Mirror (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi, started supplying arms for truck mirrors to a local commercial vehicle manufacturer in April 2014. By the end of 2014, the subsidiary plans to start supplying mirror products in sets including back mirrors and peripheral equipment. In December 2013, the subsidiary also started exporting finished truck and bus mirrors to Japan.
Expanding rubber material business for automobilesIn June 2014, Teijin established Teijin FRA Tire Cord (Thailand) Co., Ltd. within the premises of Teijin (Thailand) Limited in Ayutthaya. The new company was established jointly with Ayaha Corporation, a Japanese manufacturer of tire cords (tire reinforcements). The joint venture (JV) was capitalized at THB 380 million. The plant will start operations in October 2015, including twisting, weaving, and bonding of tire cords. JPY 3.6 billion will be invested to develop an annual capacity of 16,000 tons. Teijin is also enhancing the production facilities for hose cords (automotive hose reinforcements) at Teijin Cord (Thailand) Co., Ltd in Ayutthaya. By April 2015, its annual production capacity will be increased by 70% to 7.5 million tons from the level in the fiscal year ended in March 2014 (FY 2013).
To construct own stamping parts plant to start operations in July 2015Topre has decided to construct a new plant of its stamping parts sales subsidiary, Topre (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Bangkok. The plant is scheduled to start operations in July 2015. Currently, the company outsources production of body frame components. However, Topre will switch to in-house production when it receives new orders. The plant will also have the capacity to process ultra-high-tensile steel sheets. JPY 10 billion will be invested in this plant. The new plant is expected to generaterevenue of JPY 8 billion in FY 2016.
|Toyoda Iron Works||
New plant to start operations in April 2015 to supply brake pedals to Toyota and body frame components to HondaIn June 2013, Toyoda Iron Works established Toyotetsu (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Prachin Buri. It was capitalized at JPY 3.1 billion. The new plant is scheduled to start operations in April 2015. The plant will supply brake and clutch pedals to Toyota for next-generation models under Toyota's Innovative International Multi-purpose Vehicle (IMV) project. Toyoda Iron Works also received the first order from Honda and will supply body frame components to Honda's new vehicle assembly plant. The investment will amount to JPY 3.5 billion.
Holds opening ceremony for specially designed headed parts plant in March 2014In March 2014, Fukui Byora held an opening ceremony for a new plant of Fukui Byora (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Rayong. The company established the plant in Thailand to meet expected increases in demands from automotive, home appliance, and electronics manufacturers in Asia for related components. The plant will produce headed parts in micro and special designs.
Expansion of customer base and establishment of regional hubs
Starts supplying lamps to Ford's local plantIn March 2013, Ichikoh Industries started producing various lamps at Ichikoh Industries (Thailand) in Rayong for Nissan's and Mitsubishi Motors' plants in the ASEAN region. In 2014, the company has also started supplying lamps to Ford Motor's plant in Thailand. The order from Ford was received through its partner, Valeo. In partnership with Valeo, Ichikoh Industries further aims to win more orders from U.S. and European automakers in ASEAN countries as well as to increase the utilization ratio of its Thai plant.
Establishes lead-acid battery development center in January 2014 to develop annual production capacity of 5 million units of automotive lead-acid batteries by FY 2018In January 2014, GS Yuasa established a wholly owned subsidiary, GS Yuasa Technical Center Ltd. in Samutprakarn. It was capitalized at JPY 100 million. The investment is expected to reach JPY 300 million. The subsidiary will conduct market research and develop lead-acid batteries for automobiles and motorcycles to meet local demands in Southeast Asia and neighboring countries. GS Yuasa will also develop high-quality, low-cost production facilities.The company plans to increase the production of automotive lead-acid batteries in Thailand from 3 million units in FY 2012 to 5 million units by FY 2018. GS Yuasa expects increases in demands for vehicles with start-stop systems in Thailand as well as in exports to neighboring countries.
|Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal||
To integrate two local subsidiaries in July 2014In March 2014, Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal announced that it will integrate Siam Nippon Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. (SNP) and Thai Steel Pipe Industry Company Limited (TSP) in July 2014. SNP, a subsidiary of the former Nippon Steel, and TSP, a subsidiary of the former Sumitomo Metal Industries, are both producing electric-resistance-welded pipes and tubes for automobiles in Thailand. The two subsidiaries will be amalgamated into a new company, Nippon Steel & Sumikin Pipe (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi, to fortify the business foundation and use business resources more efficiently. The new company will produce 176,000 tons of pipes and tubes per year.
Dissolves JVs with U.S. Lear to convert two of them into wholly owned subsidiariesIn April 2014, Tachi-S announced that it will change the shareholding ratio in its four JVs with Lear of the U.S. Among the four, the Tachi-S group will acquire 100% ownership of Thai and American JVs. The subsidiary in Samutprakarn, Thailand will be renamed from Tacle Seating Thailand Co., Ltd. to Tachi-S Automotive Seating (Thailand) Co., Ltd. As eight years have passed since the establishment of these four JVs, operations and productions have become stable at each JV. Under these circumstances, the conversion was decided to further improve the speed and quality of customer support at each area.
|Tanaka Seimitsu Kogyo||
Establishes local headquarters in April 2014In April 2014, Tanaka Seimitsu Kogyo established Asian Tanaka Bangkok Co., Ltd. as a regional headquarters in India and Asia Pacific region. It was capitalized at JPY 30 million. The automotive and motorcycle markets in this region are expected to grow further in the future. To ensure a global competitiveness in these markets, the company is optimizing business operations among its manufacturing subsidiaries in Thailand, India, and Vietnam as well as providing support related to management resources.
Technical center expanded and relocated in February 2014In February 2014, Polyplastics held an opening ceremony for ASEAN Technical Solution Center of Polyplastics Marketing (T) Ltd. in Bangkok. The technical center was relocated from a nearby location to the Thailand Science Park in Pathum Thani .The new center has an area that is two and a half times greater than that of the former one. JPY 160 million was invested in the project. The company is also expanding facilities and human resources for export and sales of various engineering plastic products. The expansion is being made to enhance support for automakers and parts suppliers in local development and designing operations. The new technical center is positioned as an important hub that covers not only Thailand but also other ASEAN countries and India.
To complete transfer of anti-vibration rubber production from Saitama plant within 2014Yamashita Rubber will discontinue production at its plant in Saitama, Japan within 2014. Most of the production, including hoses, tubes, and anti-vibration rubber, has already been transferred to Y-TEC Co., Ltd. in Prachinburi, Thailand. After the production capacity is fully established in Thailand, the company plans to transfer production of anti-vibration rubber completely from Japan.
|The Yokohama Rubber||
Expands tire performance test course and adds new development center to increase production ratio of original equipment tiresIn October 2013, The Yokohama Rubber completed the expansion work of the tire performance test course at Tire Test Center of Asia owned by Yokohama Tire Manufacturing (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Rayong. The expansion has enabled the company to conduct complete tests of handling and vibration performance. A development center was also newly established on the same premises to transfer design-related tasks and responsibilities gradually from Japan. The company plans to increase the production ratio of original equipment tires in Thailand from 30% in 2013 to over 50% by the end of 2015. Yokohama Rubber intends to increase the production capacity in Thailand according to local demands, from an annual capacity of 4 million units in 2013.
Receives first order for IMV parts from Toyota; expanding die production capacityYorozu received the first order from Toyota for components used on the IMV series, which includes pickups, sports utility vehicles (SUVs), and minivans. In line with launches of new models, Yorozu (Thailand) Co., Ltd (YTC) and Y-Ogura Automotive (Thailand) Co,. Ltd., both located in Rayong, will gradually start supplying frame components and rear suspension links in 2015. Regarding production of dies used for suspension parts, the company will expand facilities at Yorozu Engineering Systems Thailand (located on YTC's premises) to increase the annual production capacity from 250 units of dies in FY 2013 to 700 units of dies by FY 2016.
Expansion of production capacities by H-One, Calsonic Kansei, and others
To enhance production capacity of forgings in medium termAichi Steel will increase the ratio of engine forgings produced outside Japan from 29% in FY 2013 to 34% in FY 2015. As a part of this plan, the company will expand forging production facilities at Aichi International (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi to increase the supply capacity in the medium term. For its Thai employees, Aichi Steel has provided on-site trainings at its Japanese plant, and will further help them acquire more advanced techniques, mainly in the forging production line. The company will also ramp up its efforts to make Japanese production expertise prevailing at its Thai plant by dispatching Japanese trainers there.
Expanding stamping plant in southern Thailand to respond to orders from Japanese automakers other than HondaH-One expanded a welding-dedicated plant of H-One Parts Sriracha in Chonburi, southern Thailand, by constructing a new plant and by introducing new equipment such as a 2500-ton transfer press machine. In February 2014, the stamping plant started supplying stamping parts for pickups to Hino Motors, Suzuki, and Mitsubishi Motors. The investment is estimated at JPY 1.3 billion. In 2015, the company plans to introduce another 1500-ton transfer press machine. The new plant was established exclusively for automakers other than Honda.
Completes construction of second pulley plant in November 2013; to add preprocess line in FY 2014In November 2013, Kanemitsu completed the construction of its second plant at Kanemitsu Pulley in Rayong. The plant has increased the company's annual production capacity, mainly automotive pulleys, by 50% to 9 million units. In FY 2014, the company will increase the number of the processing line dedicated for bosses to two lines to meet increases in demands.
Converts production company in south to consolidated subsidiary; to enhance production capacity for heat exchangersIn December 2013, Calsonic Kansei raised its shares in Siam Calsonic in Chonburi from 49% to 51% to convert it into a consolidated subsidiary. In addition to its existing customers such as Nissan and General Motors, the company has received the first order from Mitsubishi Motors while supplying an increasing number of products to Mazda. To support this expansion in its heat exchanger and exhaust component business, Calsonic Kansei will increase the plant's production capacity within 2014.
|Kitagawa Iron Works||
To expand production capacity of casting parts within 2014Within 2014, Kitagawa Iron Works will increase the production capacity at Kitagawa (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi. By January 2015, the annual production capacity of casting parts, including gray, ductile, and high-nickel castings, will be enhanced by 170% from 12,000 tons in FY 2013. In addition to Thailand, products will be shipped to other Southeast Asian countries and China. The company plans to increase its sales from JPY 4.5 billion in FY 2013 to JPY 6 billion in FY 2015.
|Sumitomo Rubber Industries||
Delaying production increase of radial tires for passenger carsSumitomo Rubber Industries has rescheduled the plan to increase the daily production of radial tires for passenger cars to 100,000 units at Sumitomo Rubber (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Rayong. The plan has been delayed from 2014 to 2016. The postponement was decided because tire exports from Thailand have been declining with a sluggish economy in Europe.
To increase production of fuel hoses for HondaIn FY 2014, Tigers Polymer will increase its production capacity of fuel hoses at Tigerpoly (Thailand) Ltd. in Ayutthaya by 30% on a monetary basis to JPY 300 million. The decision was made to accommodate expected increase in production at Honda, its major customer.
To increase production capacity of engine bearings by FY 2015; also constructs new plant for vacuum pumpsTaiho Kogyo plans to increase its monthly production of engine bearings from 30 million units in FY 2012 to 40 million units in FY 2015. Out of the total increase, its plants in Southeast Asia, including Thailand and Indonesia, will produce 3.5 million units. As part of global support for fuel-efficient engines, a new vacuum pump plant was established at its Thai subsidiary, Taiho Corporation of Thailand in Prachin Buri, in February 2014.
To enhance production capacity of timing chains within FY 2014Tsubakimoto Chain is establishing a fourth plant at Tsubakimoto Automotive (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi and installing assembly line and parts production equipment into the plant. Within FY 2014, the company will increase the production capacity of timing chains and their components by 150% from the FY 2013 level. The expansion is being made to meet growing demand in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. As for components, the company is also planning supplying them to its own plant in China.
Constructs new plant for commercial vehicle brakes to start production in December 2014In July 2013, Nisshinbo Brake established Nisshinbo Commercial Vehicle Brake Ltd. in Rayong. It was capitalized at THB 270 million. In May 2014, a plant dedicated to drum brakes for commercial vehicles was completed to start production and shipment in December 2014. Products will mainly be shipped within Thailand and to Indonesia. The investment is expected to reach JPY 1.5 billion. In the future, the company plans to use the first plant at Nisshinbo Somboon Automotive Co., Ltd. in Rayong as a friction material-dedicated plant and the second one as a drum brake plant for passenger cars.
Expanding production capacity of automotive engine valvesIn the 2014 to 2016 period, Nittan Valve will introduce an additional production line for automotive valves at its plant of Nittan (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi. In total, its annual production capacity including valves for motorcycles will be expanded by 20% from the FY 2013 level to 30 million units. The company aims to grow out of its current motorcycle-oriented operations to enhance sales from automobiles.
Starts producing screw in new plant in April 2014In April 2014, Nitto Seiko started operations at the third plant of Nitto Seiko (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Samutprakarn. To meet increasing orders from automotive parts suppliers, the company will increase its screw production capacity by 15% y/y. The amount of investment is JPY 300 million. Through the plant expansion, Nitto Seiko plans to increase FY 2014 sales in Thailand by 70% y/y to JPY 2 billion.
Renting group company's plant to enhance production capacityIn Thailand, Nidec Tosok has a liaison office in Bangkok as a purchase hub, but does not have its own plant. To produce control valves and other automotive parts, the company has rented unused space and equipment at the Rangsit plant of its group company, Nidec Electronics (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Pathumthani. The plant has originally produced spindle motors for HDDs. Capacity enhancement is also under way at this plant.
Acquires building near its existing plant to expand production spaceIn 2013, Piolax purchased land and building at a site adjacent to its existing plant of Piolax (Thailand) Ltd. in Rayong. With an investment of JPY 400 million, its production space has been increased by 230%. The investment was made to increase its production volume in the medium term. At present, the plant mainly produces plastic fastening components, but Piolax is also considering producing metal fastening components in the future.
To construct new plant in same industrial zone as existing plant to start operations in 2015Fine Sinter is enhancing the capacity at Thai Fine Sinter Co., Ltd. in Rayong to supply transmission components used on Toyota's next-generation IMVs. To accommodate further growth, the company has acquired a site in the same industrial zone as its existing plant. A new plant for powder metal products will be constructed on this site. The new plant will produce engine valves as well as components for shock absorbers and transmissions, the same product items as the existing plant produces. The plant is scheduled to go into production in 2015, expecting increases in supplies to Toyota and other Japanese automakers. JPY 3 billion to JPY 4 billion will be invested in this plant. Fine Sinter intends to save investment costs by introducing a small-scale, high-efficiency production line to the new plant.
Constructing third plant to expand plastic parts production capacityMolten is constructing a third plant within the premises of Molten Asia Polymer Products Co., Ltd. in Rayong to enhance its capacity to produce plastic parts. The expansion is being made to cope with increased production of automobiles in Thailand and other ASEAN countries. The plant is scheduled to start operations in September 2014. THB 82 million will be invested in this plant. Products will be supplied to Japanese parts suppliers.
Expands second plant to increase production capacity of door mirrorsMurakami Corporation constructed a new building at the second plant of Murakami Ampas (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Samutprakarn. The construction has increased the plant's total floor from 5,000 square meters to 13,000 square meters and the company's production capacity of door mirrors for passenger cars by 20%. The plant started operations in April 2014. JPY 800 million was invested in this expansion.
Delaying start of operations at second plant (for torque converters and other products) to 2015 or laterYutaka Giken plans to construct a second plant of YS TECH (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Prachinburi in two phases by 2016. After the plant is completed, its annual capacity to produce torque converters will be increased from 400,000 units in 2013 to 600,000 units. Although the plant building was completed in the first phase in January 2014, its start of operations has been postponed from within 2014 to 2015 or later due to sluggish local market. The second plant will produce silencers, catalytic converters, and torque converters, the same products as the first plant produces.
Expansion of production items by JVC Kenwood, JTEKT, and others
Starts producing in-vehicle cameras for North American Market in March 2014JVC Kenwood added a production line at JVC Optical Components (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Nakhon Ratchasima and started producing in-vehicle cameras in March 2014. The company started in-house production of this product because installation of in-vehicle cameras is required in North America in the near future. JVC Kenwood also expects that more in-vehicle cameras will be fitted in digital cockpit systems. The company plans to ship 50,000 units of this product in FY 2014. The FY 2016 target has been set at 1 million units. The company is considering installing another production line or constructing a new plant building, depending on trends in demand. The amount of investment is yet to be determined.
To start in-house production of power steering components to reduce costsUnder its new mid-term management plan (for FY 2014 to FY 2018), JTEKT aims to achieve an operating profit margin of 7.5%. As a part of this initiative, the company intends to reduce the costs for producing power steering systems, one of its mainstay products. At its plants in Nara, Japan and Thailand, JTEKT will establish additional production lines for power steering components before starting producing products for FY 2015's new models. The company will start in-house production of some components that are currently purchased from external vendors, but the name of the components are yet to be released.
Acquires local Thai company to produce precision partsIn July 2013, Nippon Molymer acquired a local Thai company, TIK Manufacturing Co., Ltd. in Samut Prakarn, and renamed it to TS Molymer Co., Ltd. In 2014, Nippon Molymer obtained a majority of shares in a neighboring local company, Munekata Thai Plastics Co., Ltd, and converted it into its subsidiary. These acquisitions have completed an integrated production system for precision parts from mold manufacturing to molding, painting, and assembly. Production will start in September 2014. JPY 1 billion has been spent in this project.
Starting producing rear axle cases for 1-ton pickups in 2014Press Kogyo expanded a plant of Thai Summit Pkk Bangpakong Co., Ltd. in Chonburi and started producing rear axle cases for heavy-duty trucks in August 2013. The company also received a new order for rear axle cases used on a fully redesigned 1-ton pickup truck model and is starting producing the product in 2014.
Starts producing transfer units for Nissan vehicles at rented plantIn 2014, Univance developed its production capacity at a rented plant near an existing plant of Univance (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Chonburi and started producing transfer units for Nissan's front-wheel drive SUVs. JPY 400 million was invested in this project. Outside Japan, this transfer unit product has mainly been produced at plants in the U.S. and Indonesia.
(Sources: Press releases by each supplier and newspapers)
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