The growth of xEVs and improvements to ICE vehicles (Part 2)

Hyundai comprehensively advances developments in anticipation of 2030

2017/07/12

Summary

 According to Hyundai Motor Company, green vehicles (hybrid engine vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid engine vehicles (PHEVs), electric vehicles (EV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs)) are expected to reach a global sales volume of 9 million vehicles by 2023 (equivalent to 9.1% of all global vehicle sales). Among these environmentally friendly vehicles, HEVs and PHEVs are expected to grow considerably, by 39% and 36%, respectively. The Hyundai Group believes that it is too risky to focus development on only one type of green vehicle, and has decided to instead develop all types. With regards to internal combustion engines (ICEs), the OEM will develop downsized engines with improved thermal efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. Developments to optimize fuel consumption and increase efficiency in hybrid systems are also underway. The automaker released its first hybrid vehicle in 2009, the Sonata HEV in 2011, and a PHEV model in 2013. Additionally, the OEM released its Tucson FCEV and has focused on basic development. In 2016, Hyundai developed a specific platform for third-generation green vehicles, and released HEV, EV, and PHEV versions of its IONIQ series. In 2018, the OEM plans to release its next-generation FCEV. Following this, the Hyundai Motor Company Group announced it will release 28 environmentally friendly vehicles (ten HEVs, eight PHEVs, eight EVs, and two FCEVs) by 2020. This report will introduce the OEM’s powertrain developments.

(北米2017年型IONIQ HEVとその搭載エンジン:現代自動車プレス資料より) (The 2017 North American model of the IONIQ HEV and its engine: From Hyundai Motor Company press release materials)
(The 2017 North American model of the IONIQ HEV and its engine: From Hyundai Motor Company press release materials)

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Green vehicle lineup plan: 28 models by 2020

 The Hyundai Motor Company Group has been releasing green vehicles since 2009. The first phase, lasting from 2009 to 2010, was called the research and development phase, and the OEM released the Elantra HEV and the BlueOn EV. From the second phase, the OEM expanded its lineup of HEVs, and mass-produced four types of green vehicles. Hyundai announced its third phase, which started from 2016, will involve the release of its IONIQ series of next-generation green vehicles. Hyundai’s green vehicle models by category will increase from 11 models in 2016 to 28 in 2020.



Green vehicle-exclusive platform: Highest EPA fuel efficiency for HEVs and EVs in North America

 2016’s IONIQ series utilizes a dedicated platform. An HEV model was released in December, followed by an EV and PHEV in June. The powertrain for these models was developed using common technology. The 2017 North American models came in at the top of the EPA’s fuel efficiency rankings in both the HEV and EV categories. The HEV ranked even higher than Toyota’s Prius, whereas the EV outranked BMW’s i3 and Chevrolet’s Bolt for the top position. Additionally, although the Kia Niro is an SUV, it shares a common powertrain with the IONIQ series, and ranked fifth. IONIQ models have a high air-resistance coefficient (CD) of 0.24. Moreover, the HEV’s 1.6 liter engine employs the Atkinson cycle and achieves a thermal efficiency of 40%.

Top 10 EPA HEV fuel efficiency rankings (2017 year models): Source: EPA

Fuel efficiency ranking Vehicle Powertrain Type EPA fuel efficiency
Comb City/Hwy
1 Hyundai IONIQ Blue 1.6L, 4cyl, Auto(AM6=DCT) Hybrid 58 57/59
2 Toyota Prius Eco   1.8L, 4cyl, Automatic(variable gear ratios) Hybrid 56 58/53
3 Hyundai IONIQ 1.6L, 4cyl, Auto(AM6=DCT) Hybrid 55 55/54
4 Toyota Prius  1.8L, 4cyl, Automatic(variable gear ratios) Hybrid 52 54/50
5 Kia Niro 1.6L, 4cyl, Auto(AM6=DCT) Hybrid 49 51/46



Top 10 EPA EV fuel efficiency rankings (2017 year models): Source: EPA

Fuel efficiency ranking Vehicle Powertrain Type EPA fuel efficiency
Comb City/Hwy
1 Hyundai IONIQ Electric Automatic(A1) EV 136 150/122
2 BMW i3 BEV 60Amp-hour battery Automatic(A1) EV 124 137/111
3 Chevrolet Bolt Automatic(A1) EV 119 128/110
4 BMW i3 BEV 94Amp-hour battery Automatic(A1) EV 118 129/106
5 Fiat 500e Automatic(A1) EV 112 121/103
Note) The EPA fuel efficiency of electric vehicles is determined by measuring the amount of expended power and driving distance by driving in a predetermined mode for one hour. The expended power is then converted to gasoline calorific value, resulting in MPGe (MPG equivalent). The EPA cites 33.7 kWh as equal to 1 gallon’s worth of gasoline energy.



Specs and performance of models in the IONIQ series (2017 model)

Specs Performance
IONIQ HEV  Engine 77kW Kappa1.6GDI engine(Atkinson cycle) Fuel economy 58MPG(Comb)
Motor 32kW Acceleration
(0→100km/h)
10.8 sec
Battery 1.26kWh lithium polymer
T/M 6 DCT Max. Speed 185km/h
IONIQ PHEV  Engine 77kW Kappa1.6GDI engine(Atkinson cycle) Electric Range >43km(27mile)
Motor 44.5kW FE(Charge-Depleting)
FE(Charge-Sustaining)
>5km/kWh
>20km/L
Battery 8.9kWh lithium polymer
T/M 6 DCT Acceleration
(0→100km/h)
10.6 sec
Max. Speed 178km/h
IONIQ  EV  Vehicle IONIQ A B Vehicle IONIQ A B
Battery(kWh) 28 30 24 Acceleration(sec) 10.2    1) 11.6 10.4
Motor Torque(Nm) 295 254 270 Max Speed(km/h) 165 145 140
Power(kW) 88 80 85 Driving Range(mile) 124 107 83
Charge(kW) Normal(AC) 6.6 6.6 6.6 Fuel Economy(MPGe) 136 112 116
Quick(DC) 100 50 50 Charge Time Normal 4hrs25m ~6hrs ~4hrs
Quick 23min  2) 30min 30min
1)9.9s in Sport-mode
2)30min@50kW charging
(Source: The 9th Automotive World Conference Hyundai Motor Company presentation materials)


PHEV running costs half those of HEVs: The Korean utilization environment

 Commuting distance in Korea averages at 40 km to 50 km. If the IONIQ or SONATA PHEV models are in an environment where they can be charged daily, PHEVs, which can drive through central urban areas in EV mode, have half the daily running cost of HEVs. In comparison to gasoline engine vehicles, running costs can be reduced by roughly 70%.



Mass production of Tucson FCEV starts from 2013

 Hyundai Motor Company implemented lease sales of FCEVs from 2013 in Korea, Europe, the U.S., and Canada. Its FCEVs have passed all safety regulations, and 300 or more component manufacturers cooperated in developing and manufacturing parts and systems. Practical driving tests have been implemented in Europe, Korea, and the U.S., and sales will end in 2017.

Specs Performance
FC stack 95kW Acceleration(0→100km/h) 12.5s
Motor 100kW Max speed 160km/h
Battery 24kW Fuel efficiency 76.8km/kg
Hydrogen tank 700 bar Cruising range 415km
(Source: The 9th Automotive World Conference Hyundai Motor Company presentation materials)

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Keyword

IC, ICE, Internal combustion engine, thermal efficiency, electrification, electrified vehicle, PHEV, HEV, FCV, FCEV, BEV, EV, Hyundai Motor Company

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