Tokyo Motor Show 2013: Suppliers display EV/HV components

Exhibits include drive systems, air conditioning and braking technologies



 The 43rd Tokyo Motor Show was held from November 20th to December 1st, 2013. This report covers the parts and technologies associated with electric vehicles (EV), hybrid vehicles (HV), and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHV) exhibited by parts suppliers. Aside from the EV/HV drive system technologies, air conditioning and braking technologies were also exhibited that were designed to solve problems unique to EV/HV. Exhibits of start/stop system technologies for gasoline-fueled vehicles are summarized at the end of the report.

 In June 2011, five German OEMs announced an agreement regarding the standardization of the 48V on-board power supply asking the parts suppliers to cooperate. First models adopting the 48V power supply technology are expected to reach markets in 2016. In this regard, European suppliers (Bosch, Continental AG, Schaeffler) exhibited platforms with a 48V power supply, lithium-ion batteries and mild HV systems.

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EV/HV concepts and dedicated platforms

 The EV Commuter Q'mo II fitted with in-wheel motors (exhibited by NTN), the EMIRAI 2 that highlighted the motor control technology deriving from the exhibitor's electric power steering technologies (exhibited by Mitsubishi Electric) and other EV concept cars were exhibited. Bosch introduced PHV systems. Schaeffler proposed a platform having a 48V on-board power supply.

☆ Click the photo for a larger image.


EV Commuter Concept Q'mo II fitted with in-wheel motors
                       (exhibited by NTN)
The rear section of the EV concept EMIRAI 2 exhibited by Mitsubishi Electric
 (the rear wheels are driven by right and left motors)


EV/HV concept cars

NTN Q'mo II  NTN demonstrated the EV Commuter Concept Q'mo II, the evolved version of the Q'mo that was exhibited at 2011 Tokyo Motor Show. The two-seater vehicle has an in-wheel motor and a reduction gear in all four wheels. The maximum speed of the original Q'mo of 10km/h was increased to 60km/h in the Q'mo II to make it a road-going vehicle. It has a driving range of 50km after six-hour charge.
 The vehicle features a steer-by-wire system for steering all four wheels independently. Combined with the all-wheel in-wheel motor drive system, the car is capable of lateral move and pivot turn.
Microcompact EV  Aside from the Q'mo II, the company developed a Microcompact EV having an in-wheel motor in the two rear wheels. It was approved as the first in-wheel motor-driven microcompact vehicle under the "Microcompact EV Certification System" which was introduced this year by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Five units of the EV are leased now to the City of Ise, Mie Prefecture, and other organizations for proving tests.
Mitsubishi Electric EMIRAI 2  The two-seater EV Concept, the EMIRAI 2, measures 3160mm in length, 1786mm in width and 1320mm in height. The rear wheels are driven by two motors, and the front wheels by a single motor. The motor's torque is monitored every 1/1000th second to control the motor accurately. According to Mitsubishi Electric, the concept car is developed based on the company's accumulated expertise in electric power steering control.
 The company also exhibited a driving simulator. It features a new-generation display system in which the information in the three variable displays (transforming displays) and the windshield HUD (Head-Up Display) changes seamlessly according to the driver's driving habits and the driving conditions. The system allows the driver to get necessary information with the least eye movement.
Toyota Auto Body T・COMS  The company exhibited the T-COMS, a tandem vehicle authorized by the "Microcompact EV Certification System" of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Compared with the solo-seater COMS already on the road, it has the same overall length of 2395mm but 1145mm in width, wider by 50mm. The T-COMS has a door which is not found on the solo-seater COMS. It uses lead storage battery with the driving range of about 50km per charge.
Mitsuba EV
Racing cart
 Mitsuba Corporation exhibited an EV-turned racing cart normally powered by a 200cc two-cycle gasoline engine. With special permission of the racing organization, Mitsuba has been entering the EV cart races to accumulate technical data.


PHV system exhibited by Bosch
PHV system exhibited by Bosch. The motor is seen to the left, lithium-ion battery in the far-ground, the "ESP hev" (ESC exclusive for HVs) on right-side foreground, and a brake booster behind.
Special platform for EVs
Special platform for EVs exhibited by Toyota Industries
48V on-board power supply and motor-driven axle
48V on-board power supply and motor-driven axle
exhibited by Schaeffler


Special platforms and systems for EV/HV

Bosch PHV System  The PHV system exhibited by Bosch will be adopted on upscale models in Europe. The system comprises lithium-ion battery, inverter, motor, electronic control unit, brake boosters (either vacuum or electric types) and ESP hev (which coordinates the regenerative brake and hydraulic brake while performing the common ESC function). According to Bosch, the system has the potential to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by up to 65% compared with the gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Toyota Industries Special Platform for EV  Most EVs in the market are built upon platforms for gasoline-fueled vehicles. Converting them to EVs is often associated with difficulty and waste. For example, more parts are required to install collision safety measures and special batteries for different models are required.
 Use of a special platform for EV allows multiple uses of straight lines and makes it easier to use high tensile strength steel. In comparison with an EV built upon a platform for a gasoline-fueled vehicle, the platform dedicated to EVs enables 40% reduction in the parts count, 30% reduction in weight, and 30 to 40% reduction in cost for the underbody. The company is proposing the use of replaceable battery. The platform on display has the size of a mini vehicle.
Schaeffler 48V Platform  Mild HV systems with a 48V on-board power supply are expected to reach markets in Europe around 2016. Schaeffler exhibited a 48V platform fitted with rear-wheel assist motor and other products from its lineup.
48V Axle  The 48V electric motor and the reduction gear to assist the rear wheels are mounted on the 48V platform. The motor has the maximum output of 12kW. Although designed as a mild HV, the vehicle will be able to cruise on the motor alone at the speed of 50 to 60km/h.



Transmissions for EV/HV


Toyota's medium torque capacity RWD 2-motor HV transmission
Toyota's medium torque capacity RWD 2-motor
HV transmission exhibited by Aisin AW
          (fitted on the new Crown HV, etc.)
Belt-drive CVT8 Hybrid
Belt-drive CVT8 Hybrid being developed by JATCO
(for vehicles powered by a 2000cc class engine)
DCT with a built-in motor used on the Honda Fit HV
DCT with a built-in motor used on the Honda Fit HV
(exhibited by Schaeffler)


Transmissions for EV/HV

AISIN AW RWD 2-motor HV Transmission  The newly-developed medium torque capacity Rear-Wheel Drive (RWD) 2-motor HV transmission is combined with a 2500cc engine and two motors. It is used on the new Crown HV and Lexus IS300h/GS300h.
 Toyota has two types of RWD hybrid systems. One is used on the new Crown Majesta and Lexus GS450h fitted with a 3500cc engine. The other is the hybrid system for the Lexus LS. The new transmission is smaller and more lightweight.
JATCO Chain-drive CVT8 Hybrid  The transmission for HV use combines the CVT8 and a motor. It is fitted on the Pathfinder HV produced and sold by Nissan in the U.S. The chain-drive HV transmission is designed for use with 3000cc or larger engines and torque over 300Nm.
 The chain-drive CVT is more resistant to high torques (JATCO is the manufacturer of the belt-drive CVTs known for quiet operation and a broad range of gear ratio).
Belt-drive CVT8 Hybrid  The company is developing a belt-drive CVT8 Hybrid for use with 2000cc class engines with maximum torque of 200Nm.
EXEDY Flywheel damper and clutches for HV  The flywheel damper (used to absorb engine vibrations) and the clutch are being supplied for JATCO's CVT8 Hybrid transmission. The on-board configuration comprises the engine, flywheel damper, and motor. Inside these parts, the clutch, CVT pulley and belt are placed. The clutch engages and disengages the engine and the motor with the driveshaft.
Schaeffler i-DCD on the Fit HV  The i-DCD (Intelligent Dual-Clutch Drive) is used on the Fit HV released by Honda in September 2013. Schaeffler supplies the 7-speed DCT with a built-in motor.
 Schaeffler also supplies the DCT with a built-in motor for the 3-motor hybrid system used on Acura RLX/Acura NSX.
EV System with Torque Vectoring  The EV system being proposed by Schaeffler comprises the motor, lithium-ion battery for driving, small lithium-ion battery for torque vectoring, two-speed transmission and lightweight differential. The rear-wheel torque vectoring (torque distribution between the right and left wheels according to rotation) substantially improves the vehicle's driving stability.
Continental AG Belt driven Starter Generator  The official product name is the 48V belt driven starter generator with an integrated inverter. It is being developed as a 48V system with start/stop system and driving assist.


Other motors and EV/HV-related technologies


A motor for EV/HV that uses rectangular wire
A motor for EV/HV that uses rectangular wire
(exhibited by Hitachi Automotive Systems)
Rear Toe Control
The "Rear Toe Control" produced by Nissin Kogyo Co., Ltd., and used on the Acura RLX. It controls the toe of the rear wheels independently to increase the vehicle's accelerating and turning performances and braking stability.
The rear-wheel independent steering system
The rear-wheel independent steering system exhibited by NTN. It steers the rear wheels and their toes independently as does the "Rear Toe Control" written above.
The two-way clutch system
The two-way clutch system exhibited by NSK. It has two clutches, one placed over the other in opposite directions.


Other motors for EV/HV use

Mitubishi Electric Various Motors  Mitsubishi Electric exhibited motors for use on the EV concept (EMIRAI 2) that was also exhibited at the show. They ranged in four sizes from size S for mini-vehicles through size LL. According to the exhibitor, the motors will be manufactured by the same production engineering regardless of the size differences.
Hitachi Automotive Systems Motor for EV/HV  The use of the rectangular wire (wire with a rectangular rather than a circular cross-section) to form the stator coil increases the space factor of the coil by approximately 10%. This allows more electricity which contributes to increasing the motor's torque density and efficiency and reducing the torque fluctuation.
Denso Motor for Toyota Aqua  The stator motor developed by Denso for the Toyota Aqua also uses rectangular wire. In addition, the coil shape and layout was improved to reduce the height by 15% from the conventional stators. As a result, the diameter was reduced by 10%.

(Note) The all-new Fit HV launched by Honda in September 2013 also uses motors formed with rectangular wire.

Hitachi Metals Generator  The generator exhibited by Hitachi Metals, Ltd., uses NEOMAX magnet. It is one of the strongest among all permanent magnets. It has ten times greater magnetic force than the cheap and common ferrite magnets. According to the exhibitor, the amount of a rare metal, dysprosium (Dy) was reduced considerably from the conventional magnet.
EXEDY Rare Earth-less Motor  This motor uses ferrite magnets and is entirely free of rare earths. It is being developed jointly with the Hokkaido University and the ferrite magnets are supplied by Hitachi Metals. Exedy exhibited a concept car powered by rare-earthless motors at the 2012 Automotive Engineering Exposition.


Toe control mechanisms and related components
Nissin Kogyo Rear Toe Control  The Rear Toe Control is supplied for the all-new Acura RLX which will be launched by Honda in 2014. The vehicle's rear wheels are driven independently by two motors. By moving the knuckle, the toe of the two wheels (the tire angle as viewed from above) is also controlled independently to increase the vehicle's pivoting and braking stability.
 On conventional rear-wheel steering vehicles, the rear wheels are steered to the same angle on both the right and left wheels.
NTN Rear-wheel independent Steering System  NTN had a reference exhibit of a rear-wheel independent steering and toe control system. It has two motors, one for steering and the other for toe control, that coordinate with each other. The addition of toe control contributes to improve the vehicle's drivability. A world premiere.
NSK Two-way Clutch  NSK exhibited a prototype of a two-way clutch with switchable directions of engagement by an external control (consisting of two one-way clutches having opposite directions of engagement). The prototype will be presented as an input switching clutch from the engine and the motor of a hybrid vehicle.



Lithium-ion battery and related products


Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium-ion batteries exhibited by Hitachi Automotive Systems (Lithium-ion Battery pack for Nissan's Pathfinder HV, center, battery for Hitachi's fourth-generation HV system, lower center, and battery being developed for EV/PHV use, lower left)
Coil unit for wireless charging systems
Coil unit for wireless charging systems
(exhibited by Sumitomo Electric Industries)
Active cell balancing type cell monitoring unit
Active cell balancing type cell monitoring unit
exhibited by Omron (reference exhibit)


Lithium-ion battery and related products

Hitachi Automotive Systems Lithium-ionBattery pack for Nissan's HV  Cylindrical lithium-ion battery pack supplied for front-wheel drive hybrid vehicles such as the Pathfinder produced by Nissan in the U.S. Cells are produced by Hitachi Vehicle Energy and packed by Hitachi Automotive Systems at its Kentucky plant in the U.S. The cells are Hitachi's third-generation cells that are also supplied to General Motors. But they are referred to as the fourth-generation because of the new packing method in use. The pack is mounted in the rear trunk room.
 Each pack contains 40 cells for a pack voltage of 144V (3.6V x 40 cells). About one third of the left-hand side of the pack (as seen in the photo) contains the battery controller, junction box and the service plug. The pack is air-cooled by a fan.
 (Note) Nissan is producing lithium-ion batteries for the Leaf at its Smyrna plant in the U.S. Since the batteries are exclusive for EVs, it appears that Nissan decide to use lithium-ion battery manufactured by Hitachi for HV use.
Rectangular Lithium-ion Battery  The company developed Hitachi's fourth-generation rectangular lithium-ion battery for HV use. The output density was increased from 3,000W/kg (third-generation) to 4,500W/kg. The new battery also has a larger surface area which means it has a better cooling efficiency.
Lithium-ion Battery for EV/PHV  The lithium-ion battery is being developed for EV/PHV use. The active electrode material is improved to realize a high energy density of 130Wh/kg, 4 to 5 times higher than that of the conventional material. The high energy density is expected to increase the EV cruising range and provide high power output assist.
Panasonic Lithium-ion Battery  Panasonic exhibited type 18650 cylindrical lithium-ion batteries used on Tesla Model S. In October 2013, Panasonic and Tesla Motors renewed and expanded the agreement originally signed in 2011. The renewed agreement calls for Panasonic to supply 2 billion lithium-ion cells to Tesla Motors from 2013 through 2017.
Continental AG Lithium-ion Battery  The company exhibited a 48V lithium-ion battery module.
Sumitomo Electric Wireless Charging System  Sumitomo Electric Industries exhibited a wireless (inductive) charging system based on electromagnetic induction. When electric current flows to one of the two coils in proximity, a magnetic flux is generated causing an electromotive force in the other coil. The photo shows the sender coil (sender and receiver coils are nearly the same). The system is being developed for charging EV/PHV.
OMRON Active Balancing Unit  Omron presented an active cell balancing type cell monitoring unit for EV use. Repeated charge and discharge after EV drive causes lost balance in capacity between cells in the battery pack for EVs. The passive balancing, currently used on today's EVs, prevents overcharged cells. When a cell becomes fully recharged before other cells, the unit converts electricity to that cell into heat to avoid overcharge and continues charging other cells.
 In active balancing, the unit monitors all cells for the level of state of charge (SOC). When a cell becomes fully recharged, the unit redistributes electricity to other cells to recharge them. According to Omron, the active balancing unit can increase the effective battery capacity by 10%.



Air conditioning systems for EV/HV use

Denso and Sanden Corporation exhibited heat pump type air conditioning systems. Since heat from the engine cannot be used for heating on EVs, it is said that the heating efficiency has serious impact on the actual driving distance in cold seasons.


Heat pump type air conditioning system
Heat pump type air conditioning system exhibited by Denso. The outside heat exchanger is shown to the left, an electromagnetic valve in the left-hand foreground, an electric compressor in the back, an accumulator at center, an evaporator on the right-hand foreground, and a cabin condenser behind.


Air conditioning systems for EV/HV use

Denso Heat pump type A/C  Denso exhibited an air conditioning (A/C) system based on the principle of heat pumping. Heat pump is commonly used in A/C for homes. Since electric energy is used solely for the electric compressor, Denso's A/C system has high efficiency along with an extended EV drive range.
 The heat pump type A/C system is used on Nissan Leaf X model and G model since the fall of 2012. According to Denso, the heat pump type A/C is likely to be used on many PHVs and HVs as well since the engine's heat cannot be used for heating while the engine is not running.
Sanden Heat pump type A/C  Sanden also exhibited a heat pump type A/C system having the same structure as Denso's. Sanden's world premiere.
Electric coolant heater  "Electric coolant heater" refers to a type of heater with the heating element directly soaked in water and other liquids. According to Sanden, this type of heater is getting attention for use on HVs as well since the heat amount for heating is not enough (Sanden's heaters are actually used on some HVs).



Brake energy regeneration and start/stop systems

 Improving fuel economy is an important challenge for automakers, especially those facing fierce competitions in small HV and mini vehicle markets. Several companies exhibited new technologies related to start/stop and deceleration energy regeneration systems that are most likely to contribute to improving fuel economy.

 The EVs and HVs in the market use cooperative regenerative brakes. All are basically identical in terms of structure (assisting the brake force with the motor-generated hydraulic pressure and cooperatively controlling the regenerative brake from turning the generator. The systems vary in details and OEMs and parts suppliers are developing new systems using original parts and components.

 Nissin Kogyo makes an electric servo brake that is supplied to Honda. The brake is unique in that it uses a servo motor for precise control of the hydraulic pressure. The new system makes it possible to regenerate energy from deceleration immediately after the onset and before the end of braking. According to the company, it will contribute to increasing energy efficiency of the EV and fuel efficiency of the HV. Other systems were also exhibited that were designed to recover more deceleration energy.

 The EVs and HVs naturally have no or not enough vacuum generated by the engine that can be used in conventional brake assist systems. Solutions to this problem were exhibited by some suppliers.


Electronically-controlled brake system
Electronically-controlled brake system for HVs supplied by Advics to Toyota. The motor and the accumulator (cylinder-like part painted in black) are shown in the foreground.
Vacuum-less brake
Zero vacuum brake (ESC-BOOST) exhibited by Hitachi Automotive Systems. Hydraulic pressure is generated by motor and pump shown at the bottom.


Cooperative regenerative brakes for EV/HV used by Honda, Toyota and Nissan

Nissin Kogyo Electric Servo Brake for Honda vehicles  The electric servo brake is used on Honda's Fit EV, Fit HV and Accord HV. It is made up of two parts. The Brake Operating Simulator has a sensor that detects the driver's braking intension. The sensor signal is sent to the control unit to regulate the braking force. Except for emergency situations, the hydraulic pressure generated by the brake pedal stroking is normally shut off from the brake line.
 Hydraulic pressure is generated in the Tandem Motor Cylinder by the servo motor. The pressure is combined with the regenerative braking force of the generator to provide optimal braking in a cooperative manner. The hydraulic brake function is suppressed by precise control while the regenerative brake is effective. This increases the amount of regenerative energy being recovered.
Mitsuba Motor for the above  The brushless motor for the electric servo brake has a small motor diameter. This increases responsiveness, which contributes to increasing energy efficiency of the EV and fuel efficiency of the HV.

(Note) Honda's IMA system assists braking by storing hydraulic pressure in the accumulator. The new Fit HV has over 60% more regenerative recovery over the previous model.

ADVICS Electronically Controlled Brake System for Toyota vehicles  Advics exhibited the brake system used on Toyota HV/PHV. When the driver presses the brake pedal, the system judges the braking force the driver wants to apply, based on the speed and amount of brake pedal action. The system thus applies proper braking while maximizing the regenerative braking.
 The hydraulic pressure generated by the motor drive is stored in the accumulator. It is used to reproduce the braking feel similar to that from the brake booster on a gasoline-fueled vehicle while assisting the force with which the driver steps on the brake pedal.
Hitachi Automotive Systems Electrically-Driven Intelligent Brake for Nissan vehicles  The electrically-driven brake is used on Nissan EVs and HVs. Hydraulic pressure is generated by two inputs, from the brake pedal and the motor. This provides the driver with the natural pedal feel when applying ordinary braking and cooperative regenerative braking (cooperative regenerative braking is performed by additional mechanism that suppresses fluctuation of the pedal efforts).
 The actuator of the electrically-driven brake has a simple structure. Hydraulic pressure is generated directly in the brake master cylinder using a motor and a ball screw.


Cooperative regenerative brake systems integrated in ESC

Hitachi Automotive Systems Zero Vacuum Brake System: ESC-BOOST  ESC-BOOST is being developed for EVs and HVs that have no or only insufficient vacuum available from the engine. The brake is equipped with motor and pump for generating hydraulic pressure. Cooperative regenerative function is incorporated in the ESC. Therefore, the brake can be used in a cooperative regenerative braking system without the need for additional components.
 The company is also developing a zero vacuum brake for gasoline-powered vehicles as well. According to the company, it will save space as the vacuum booster is large and requires extra space to install. Fuel economy may also be improved by eliminating the booster activated by hydraulic pressure from the engine.
Bosch ESP hev  The ESP hev is a special type of ESC (Electric Stability Control) for use on EVs and HVs. In addition to the ordinary ESC, the ESP hev provides cooperative control over the regenerative brake and hydraulic brake. The system is used on Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybird.
Electric boosters
Bosch iBooster  Boosters operated by hydraulic pressure from the engine cannot be used on EVs. To solve this problem, Bosch has developed an electrohydraulic brake booster. It fits in the space of the conventional vacuum booster and exerts three times larger braking force. This leads to a shorter braking distance. It is mounted on the VW e-up! and will be used also on the VW e-Golf.
Continental AG Electric Vacuum Pump  The Electric Vacuum Pump is fitted on vehicles without any or sufficient vacuum. It plays the role of the brake booster by generating vacuum electrically. The pump is supplied for Tesla cars. According to Continental AG, the pump will be also used on certain vehicles powered by direct-injection gasoline engines which have relatively low levels of vacuum.


Sanden's HVAC system
Sanden's HVAC system supplied for Suzuki's ENE-CHARGE system
Mitsuba's starter motor
Mitsuba's starter motor used in the start/stop system on Honda' gasoline-fueled Fit. A helical gear is used as the pinion gear.


Start/stop and regeneration systems for gasoline-fueled vehicles

Denso Start/Stop System  Denso displayed the configuration of the start/stop system that doubles as regenerative brake system. The system is called "ENE-CHARGE" by Suzuki and is used on the Wagon R and other vehicles. Denso supplies four components for the system: high-efficiency alternator, tandem solenoid starter, lithium-ion battery pack (cells are supplied by Toshiba), and cool storage evaporator.
Sanden HVAC Unit for ENE-CHARGE  Sanden exhibited the cool storage evaporator and the case for air-conditioning of the system mentioned above (other than the restarting system or lithium-ion battery pack). Sanden and Denso are suppliers of the evaporator for different vehicles produced by Suzuki (Suzuki buys from two suppliers).
Mitsuba Starter motor for Start/stop system  Mitsuba exhibited the starter motor for start/stop systems that is quieter and 11 times more durable than conventional products. The pinion has a helical gear to achieve smoother meshing with the ring gear. This starter motor is used on the start/stop system for gasoline-fueled engine on Honda's all-new Fit launched in September 2013.
Mitsubishi Electric Starter motor for Start/Stop system  The engine on the DAYZ/eK Wagon, co-developed by Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors, stops when the speed falls below 13km/h. Mitsubishi Electric has developed a restarting system to restart the engine when the driver decides to restart in that condition (called "change of mind").
 A pinion spring is located at mid-point of the pinion mechanism. Its cushioning force is used to restart the engine before it comes to a stop. Compared with the tandem solenoid system developed by Toyota and Denso, the engine revolution must drop further before the start/stop system developed by Mitsubishi Electric is activated. According to the company, the system activating speed is a matter of development policy among the OEMs.
Schaeffler Permanently-Engaged Starter (1)  The starter's pinion gear is permanently engaged with the ring gear. While the vehicle is running, the ring gear is disconnected from the engine and remains stationary. To activate the starter motor, the ring gear is engaged directly with the torque converter by means of wrap spring. Currently under development.
Permanently-Engaged Starter (2)  This system uses a one-way clutch to transmit driving force from the pinion gear to the ring gear but not in the opposite direction (the ring gear is disconnected while the engine is running). According to Schaeffler, this starter is nearly the same as the permanently-engaged start/stop system used on the Toyota 1300cc-engined Vitz. Currently under development.
Toyota Industries Voltage Stabilizer  The DC-DC converter for energy regeneration system, dubbed Voltage Stabilizer, protects on-board electric devices from transitional voltage drop when the engine is restarted by the start/stop system. According to the company, shipment of the converter to Company H started recently.
OMRON DC-DC Converter for energy regeneration system  Omron had a reference exhibit of a DC-DC converter for energy regeneration system. It combines a DC-DC converter with a capacitor to constitute a new deceleration energy regeneration system (a system similar to the "i-ELOOP" on Mazda's Atenza/Axela).

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