China's green vehicles industry plan: developing PHV/EV/FCV as a national strategy
Popularization of HV and energy-efficient conventional vehicles/technologies is the immediate target
In July 2012, China's State Council published a medium- to long-term plan called "Energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles industry development plan (2012-2020)", referred to below as "New industry development plan", that guides China's future development of its auto industry through 2020.
Earlier, in March 2012, China's Ministry of Science and Technology had published "The 12th five-year-plan electric vehicle technology development special planning (2011-2015)", referred to below as "Electric vehicle technology development plan"), a technical version of the New industry development plan.
Summarized below are the key points in the New industry development plan including those in the Electric vehicle technology development plan. The original text of the New industry development plan is available here (PDF file in Chinese).
* Beijing Motor Show 2012: HV/PHV/EV/FCV by major OEMs
(eight emerging Chinese OEMs), (SAIC, Dongfeng Motor and China FAW),
(Changan Automobile, BAIC, GAC, and Fujian Motor), (16 international OEMs exhibit)
* China's major OEMs plan their own-brand HEVs, EVs, and FCVs:
Six state-owned OEMs: SAIC/Dongfeng Motor/China FAW/Changan Automobile/BAIC/GAC,
China's major OEMs: Chery/BYD/Brilliance Automobile/JAC/Geely/Great Wall Motor
Outline of the New industry development plan (2012-2020)
|Target||Promotion of industrialization||* EV/PHV cumulative production/sales 500K units||* EV/PHV cumulative production/saleｓ over 5M units * EV/PHV annual production capacity 2M units * FCV: Auto and auto hydrogen energy industries at a world level|
|Higher technical level||* Energy-efficient and new-energy vehicle manufacturers: Foster the competitiveness of manufacturers with a certain number * Core technologies for energy-efficient vehicles: Develop or acquire (identify) hybrid powertrains, advanced internal combustion (IC) engines, high-efficiency transmissions, automotive electronic products, and lightweight materials. * New-energy vehicles, drive batteries, and core component technologies: Reach an internationally advanced level overall.|
|* Establish energy-saving indexes and yearly targets within 2012 for automotive products for 2016-2020. * Develop energy-efficient and new-energy vehicle standardization system by 2013|
|Vehicle performance targets * New-energy vehicles Maximum speed over 100 km/h for EV/PHV EV mode cruising range over 150 km for EV, over 50 km for PHV|
|Drive battery module performance targets * Energy density: Over 150 Wh/kg * Cost: Less than RMB 2 /Wh * Cycle life: Over 2,000 or more than 10 years||Same as on the left: * Over 300 Wh/kg * Less than RMB 1.5 /Wh * Over 2,000 or more than 10 years|
|Improving fuel efficiency, performance||* Energy-efficient passenger cars (cars produced in the relevant year): Average fuel consumption 5.9 L/100km or less * All passenger cars (cars produced in the relevant year): Average fuel consumption 6.9 L/100km or less||* Same as on the left: Average fuel consumption 4.5 L/100km or less * Same as on the left: Average fuel consumption 5.0 L/100km or less (world leading level)|
|* Commercial vehicles: N.A.||* Commercial vehicles: Fuel consumption of new vehicles to be of the world level|
|Electric drive system performance targets * Energy density: Over 2.5 kW/kg * Cost: Less than RMB 200 /kW|
|Greater supply and cross-supply capacities||* Technology level and production scale of core components: High enough to meet domestic market demand * Scale of charging station construction: Meet the scale of new-energy vehicle production and sales; meet the demand for new-energy vehicle operation in and between pilot areas (*Note) According to the Electric vehicle technology development plan, a network supply system consisting of 400,000 charging posts and 2,000 charging stations is to be built in more than 20 pilot cities and surrounding areas by 2015 or so.|
|Building management system||* Build effective management systems for energy-efficient and new-energy vehicle manufacturers and their products. * Build marketing, after-sales service and drive battery recycling systems * Develop policy support measures. * Build provisional technical standards and management systems.|
|Task||Five major efforts to realize targets||* Expedite popularization and commercialization of energy-efficient vehicles and new-energy vehicle business model promotion efforts. * Carry out technology innovation projects regarding energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles. * Build rationalized and phased industrial structures about energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles. * Promote construction of charging facilities. * Strengthen life-based use and recycling of drive batteries.|
|Policy support||Six levels of security||* Develop standard systems and business entry approval management systems. * Strengthen support through taxation policies. * Strengthen financial service supports. * Develop environments ideal for industrial development. * Strengthen efforts to secure human resources. * Maximize the role of global cooperation.|
*Note 1: Taken from the "Electric vehicle technology development plan" *Note 2: Forecasts for 2015 are provided by the China Association of Automotive Manufacturers (CAAM), forecasts for 2020 are those announced by Vice President Matt Bradley of Asia and Africa region division under Ford Motor in 2011 World Auto Forum (Chengdu).
|The following abbreviations and proper nouns are used throughout the report: "EV": Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) "HV": Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (non-plug-in hybrid vehicle) "PHV": Plug-in HV (plug-in hybrid vehicle) "FCV": Fuel Cell Vehicle "New-energy vehicle": A generic term for next-generation vehicles equipped with an electric drive system including PHV, EV, and FCV "Energy-efficient vehicle": A generic term for automobiles chiefly powered by an internal combustion engine, including HV and alternate-fuel vehicles, the overall fuel consumption of which exceeds the next fuel consumption standards of China "Electric vehicle": A generic term for HV and new-energy vehicles "Alternate-fuel vehicle": A generic term for vehicles powered by internal combustion engines that run on petroleum alternate fuel such as natural gases (CNG, LNG, etc) and biofuel (biomethanol, etc). "(Old) New-energy vehicle": A generic term for HV, new-energy vehicles and alternate-fuel vehicles|
Developing new-energy vehicles as a national strategy with electrification of vehicles defined as the way for the auto industry development
In the New industry development plan, the Chinese government looks to electrification as the prevailing trend in the international automobile industry. The development of new-energy vehicles including PHV, EV and FCV is a national strategy, which shows the direction of China's automobile industry.
The New industry development plan clarifies that the electrification of vehicles and the automobile industry is a strategic measure that leads to a structural switch and upgrading of China automobile industry and superiority in international competition, such as solutions to the crude oil, environmental and other social issues having direct impact on national security.
The New industry development plan also contains policy supports for the development of projects related to energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles. For example, important R&D efforts by enterprises or industrial bodies regarding the industrialization of new-energy vehicles will be incorporated in national projects eligible for national funding and other supports. The Plan also calls for developing standardization systems for energy-efficient vehicles and new-energy vehicles by 2013.
Earlier, in September 2010, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced the Chinese government would provide financial support worth RMB 100 billion in total for seven "emerging industries" which include the new-energy vehicle industry, energy-saving and ecology-inspired industry, new-energy industry, new material industry, next-generation information technology industry, bio-based industry, and high-technology equipment manufacturing industry.
The new-energy vehicle business plan: expanding PHV, EV and FCV demonstrations with a focus on industrialization
The first step of new-energy vehicle industry development will focus on the industrialization of PHV and EV that are leading the new-energy vehicles. According to the Electric vehicle technology development plan, China is set to achieve a total sales volume of new-energy vehicles in around 2015 that accounts for approximately 1% of the total sales volume of all models of the same type, and promote large-scale industrialization and mass production of all-electric driven vehicles, such as the small PHV and EV, by 2020.
To prepare the necessary infrastructure for the industrialization of new-energy vehicles, China will continue pilot demonstration of PHV, EV, FCV and other new-energy vehicles in areas and cities designated by the government. This will reflect expansion to public service sectors and subsidies for private purchase of new-energy vehicles. The entire plan calls for forming a new social structure and enterprises providing new-energy vehicle services that will help realize the progress of new-energy vehicle technology and the development of the industry.
With regard to the FCV, China will continue the pilot demonstrations to increase the reliability and durability of fuel-cell system while also promoting the development of technologies related to the preparation, storage, transportation and filling of hydrogen. By 2015, China will develop the next-generation electric drive system platforms, represented by FCV, and start a small-scale demonstration of FCV in public service sector. By 2020, China will kick off the industrialization of the next-generation all-electric vehicles.
Background of the New industry development plan: Over 100 million vehicle ownerships, environmental and crude oil supply issues
(1) Automobiles in general: Ownership over 100 million units since 2011, production and sales over 20 million units in 2012
In 2000, the automobile industry in China topped 2 million units for the first time in both production and sales and entered the high-growth period. In 2009, the number increased to 13.6 million units and rose above the United States to win the top position in the world for three consecutive years.
|Automobile production and sales:||①Result: Over 18 million units in 2010, over 18.4 million units in 2011|
|②Forecast:||28 to 30 million units in 2015 (estimated by CAAM) 32 million units in 2020 (estimated by Vice President Matt Bradley of Asia and Africa region division under Ford Motor)|
The automobile ownership in China thus topped the 100 million mark at 104 million units in November 2011.
|Automobile ownership:||①Result: 114 million units at the end of June 2012|
|②Forecast:||150 million units at the end of 2015, over 200 million units at the end of 2020 ("China's Ministry of Transport "Intelligent transportation development strategy for transportation service (2012-2020)"|
|Passenger car ownership:||150 million units in 2020, 250 million units in 2030 ("Electric vehicle technology development plan")|
(2) Production/sales of alternate-fuel vehicles, HV, PHV, EV and FCV: About 42,000 units of (old) new-energy vehicles in 2011
The production and sales of the energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles in 2011 stood low at 42K units (approximately 0.23% of all vehicles) for the new-energy vehicles including HV and petroleum alternate fuel vehicles (formerly classified under new-energy vehicles), in other words, (old) new-energy vehicles. Among them, the alternate-fuel vehicles registered top at 34,872 units produced (34,679 units sold). This was followed by EV at 5,655 (5,579) units, and hybrid vehicles including HV/PHV at 2,713 (2,580) units. The sedans and hatchbacks accounted for 61% and the buses for 28% of all vehicles produced and sold.
The cumulative production and sales quantity from 2005 to 2011 was 35,000 units, accounting for only 0.06% of the all vehicles.
(3) The conventional automobile industry's rapid development is causing oil, environmental and other social issues today
The current automobile industry in China is characterized by the vehicles that are powered by the conventional internal combustion engines. Despite their fast growth, this type of conventional automobile industry and the market are causing serious problems affecting the Chinese society and even its national security. These problems include fuel supply and other oil issues (* Note), road, parking facility and other infrastructure construction, traffic safety, and environmental issues caused by emissions, CO2 and other global warming gases.
* Note: Crude oil consumption in China increased 82.6% from 230 million tons in 2000 to 420 million tons in 2011 with imported oil accounting for more than 55%.
An initial target is set at popularization of energy-efficient vehicles including HVs and technologies, and introducing fuel efficiency limits in 2012 affecting imported vehicles as well
The HVs (non-plug-in hybrid vehicles) conventionally classified in China as "new-energy vehicles" (* Note) are defined and classified as "energy-efficient vehicles" in the New industry development plan.
|(* Note) Prior to publishing the New industry development plan and the Electric vehicle technology development plan, the concept of "new-energy vehicles" (referred to as "(old) new-energy vehicles" in this report) as used in China including its auto industry generally referred to HV, PHV and EV (including those fitted with the range extender and capacitor), FCV and vehicles powered by natural gas, biofuel and other alternate-fuel vehicles.|
The immediate step under the national strategy aimed at the progress of new-energy vehicles, aside from the industrialization of the new-energy vehicles, is to promote wide popularization of vehicles fitted with low-fuel consumption internal combustion engines and energy-efficient vehicles including HVs whose technology has reached a more mature level compared to the new-energy vehicles.
According to the latest forecast published in July 2012 by Gasgoo Automotive Research Center, a member of a leading automotive information website (http://auto.gasgoo.com) in China, the production and sales quantity of HVs and PHVs combined will increase to 20,000 units in 2013, to 150,000 units in 2015, and to 500,000 units in 2017. According to the forecast, the cumulative production and sales quantity in five years through 2017 will be 1.02 million units rising above the million units mark.
The New industry development plan initially stated that the annual production and sales quantity of energy-efficient vehicles in China including HV would be 15 million units by 2020 which would put China in the top position in the world. However, this target was omitted from the official text in consideration of uncertainties although popularization of energy-efficient vehicles (including HVs) still remains a key target.
Introducing fuel efficiency limits for vehicles including imported vehicles in 2012 as part of the popularization of energy-efficient vehicles and technologies
The development of the auto industry in China will initially focus on the popularization of energy-efficient vehicles and technologies to achieve the world-leading level in terms of fuel efficiency. The New industry development plan calls for the further promotion of R&D of all energy-saving technologies and their commercialization. The Plan also calls for the development and acquisition of new products such as low rolling resistance tires that lead to environmentally-friendly society and higher fuel efficiencies, lightweight materials and tailored blank welding technology.
▼Main advanced energy-saving technologies and products subject to government support mentioned in the New industry development plan
|Hybrid powertrain||Dedicated engines and transmissions (EMT: Electrified Mechanical Transmission)|
|High-efficiency internal combustion engine technology||High-pressure common-rail diesel engine technology, gasoline engine direct-injection, homogeneous combustion , and turbocharge technology|
|High-performance transmissions||6-speed and higher manual transmissions (MT), dual-clutch transmissions (DCT, DSG), and automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) for commercial vehicles|
Starting in 2012, the New industry development plan calls for the introduction of fuel efficiency limits in phases, including necessary testing, measuring, rating and evaluation, for China-made vehicles and imported vehicles alike. The Plan also calls for establishing energy-saving technology indexes and yearly targets for automotive products in 2016 to 2020. It also includes plans to introduce fuel consumption indication and public notification of emissions of contaminants (nitrogen oxides, etc.) for heavy-duty commercial vehicles.
In addition, complementary measures for the progress of energy-efficient vehicles are planned that will meet local conditions and environments. In particular, vehicles running on alternate fuel will be encouraged in areas blessed with abundant resources of natural gas, biofuel and other alternate fuels. The application of other alternate fuel vehicle technology will be sought to promote the development of multiple automotive fuels.
Cumulative production and sales of PHV/ EV set at half a million units by 2015 and over five million units by 2020
The New industry development plan is targeting the cumulative production (close to actual ownership) of PHV and EV that will be the mainstream of new-energy vehicles at half a million units in 2015, and five million units, ten folds, by 2020.
The targeted figure is less by 12.9 million units (72%) compared to 17.9 million units of targeted PHV/EV ownership in China by 2020 mentioned by deputy director Zhen Zijian of "863 Project for energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles under the Ministry of Science and Technology" during the 2009 China SAE Convention held in October 2009.
Calculation using the vehicle ownership forecasts in China (150 million units in 2015, 200 million in 2020) suggests that PHV and EV will account for 0.33% of total ownership in China in 2015, and increase 7.58 folds to 2.5% in 2020.
While the New industry development plan calls for annual production capacity of PHV and EV to be 2 million units in 2020, the immediate target regarding the new-energy vehicles (PHV, EV, etc.) is only set at industrialization as a preparatory step toward mass production.
Assuming the annual production and sales of automobiles in 2020 to be 32 million units as predicted, the market share of PHV and EV would be up to 6.25%. This is a figure more than six times larger than the total sales volume of PHV and EV in 2015 or so (around 1% of the total sales volume of all new-energy vehicles of the same type) estimated in the Electric vehicle technology development plan. Incidentally, the total sales volume of new-energy vehicles in 2015 is likely to be 280,000 to 300,000 units based on the total production and sales forecast of 28 to 30 million units published by the China Association of Automotive Manufacturers (CAAM).
Energy-efficient and new-energy vehicle technologies with a new focus on the development of storage batteries and core components
The Electric vehicle technology development plan, announced by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in March 2012, declares that the new-energy vehicle industry in China that started from scratch in the 2000s has entered a crucial period of development.
The Electric vehicle technology development plan, published by the Ministry of Science and Technology having control over science and technological enterprises in China, is an official document that contains a five-year plan through 2015 and sets forth guidelines for R&D efforts of specialized technologies related to electric vehicles (including HV and new-energy vehicles) through 2020.
The Electric vehicle technology development plan contains three-phase plans for the energy-efficient and the new-energy vehicle industry in China along with targets as shown below.
Process of the Electric vehicle technology development plan (published in March 2012)
|Process||Phase 1 (2008-2010)||Phase 2 (2010-2015)||Phase 3 (2015-2020)|
|Targets of industrialization||* Demonstration of energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles in middle to large pilot cities||* Sales volume of new-energy vehicles with PHV and EV playing the leading role to account for around 1% of the total sales volume of all models of the same type by 2015.||* Promote the large-scale industrialization and production of new-energy vehicles (small PHV and EV) to initiate the industrialization of the next-generation electric vehicles.|
|Methods||* 2009: Demonstration with 5,458 energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles in 13 pilot cities * 2010: Demonstration with 6,356 energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles including mainly EVs in 25 pilot cities||* In around 2015: Build a networked power supply system consisting of 400,000 charging posts and 2,000 charging stations in more than 20 pilot cities and surrounding areas. * Develop and acquire the state-of-the-art technologies for new lithium-ion batteries, high-performance hybrid EMT and new motor drives. * Develop the next-generation electric drive system platform (FCV, etc.) toward the industrialization of next-generation new-energy vehicles, and conduct small-scale demonstration of FCV in public service sector.||* Initiate the industrialization of next-generation drive batteries and fuel cells in accordance with the technical route of the next-generation drive batteries. * Establish the business model led by electric passenger cars and develop the infrastructural network to improve the degree of auto network integration. * In around 2020: Provide technical support to realize the popularization of a variety type of electric vehicles.|
Direction of technical development remains unchanged with a focus on the development of HV, PHV, EV, FCV and their core components
The Electric vehicle technology development plan, a technical version of the New industry development plan, clearly states that the direction of the development of electric vehicles, namely HV and new-energy vehicles, remains unchanged. The Plan clarifies the policy to promote R&D efforts regarding electric vehicles with three types of electric vehicles including hybrid (HV, PHV), EV and FCV, and three component groups including drive batteries, motors and electronic control systems. Since the auto industry in China is in the transient period of development, the Plan calls for concurrent development of technologies for energy-efficient vehicles and new-energy vehicles.
The Plan also calls for the development and acquisition of core components and technologies, such as drive batteries, motors and electronic control systems, along the direction of "electrification" that switches the powertrain system to an electric drive system. It also calls for a breakthrough in core technology of completed electric vehicles, commercialization and business development.
In addition, the Chinese government has clarified its policy to set forth guiding measures in the early stage of R&D of electric vehicles, their pilot demonstrations and market introduction (details or schedules have not been announced).
Overview of the Electric vehicle technology development plan (announced in March 2012)
|Direction of technical development of electric vehicles||* With the auto industry in the transient period of development, efforts will focus on concurrent technical development of energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles.|
|* The next strategic target will be the electrification of auto industry (shift to the new-energy vehicle industry). R&D of common or joint core technologies on three types of vehicles including HV (conventional electric vehicles), EV and PHV (basic electric vehicles) including the range-extender EV, FCV (special electric vehicles, next-generation electric vehicles) in three component groups including storage batteries (drive batteries, fuel cells), motors (drive motor systems, and engine and transmission system integration, etc.), and electronic controls (electric power steering, electric compressors for air conditioners, electric brakes, vehicle system integration, etc.).|
|Past R&D plans||2001-2005||* The 863 Project for energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles started with focus on R&D on three types of vehicles including hybrids (HV, PHV), EV and FCV and three component groups including drive batteries, drive motors, and electronic control systems.|
|2006-2010||* The 863 Project for energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles started with focus on R&D on the powertrain system platform and core components.|
|Pilot demonstration (2001-2010)||* "10 Cities - 1000 Vehicles" energy-efficient and new-energy vehicle model popularization project (* Note), demonstration projects of electric vehicles during Beijing Olympic Games, Expo 2010 Shanghai, XVI Asian Games 2010 (Guangzhou), etc.|
|Present status (Results, challenges)||
Electric vehicles: * Crucial period of development started in 2012 * Development of primary electric vehicle technologies
|Results (2001-2010): * Despite the start from scratch, a significant progress was seen in the development of electric vehicle core components and vehicle and system integration technology and their technical standards, testing and measuring technology, pilot demonstration, etc. * 3,000 patents obtained, 56 national and industrial standards published for electric vehicles, and 30 technical innovation platforms built for energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles.|
|Superiority: * Abundance of key materials and resources for core components such as drive batteries and permanent magnet drive motors * Diversified, huge markets * Infrastructural construction for electric vehicles|
Challenges: * Existing core technologies for electric vehicles must be made more competitive. * Harsh competition is pressing the middle-end and high-end technologies for electric vehicles. * Advanced technologies for core components generally lack in superiority. Less competitive technologies compared with world-leading standards include drive battery modularization, fuel cell engines, onboard motor and power electronic system integration, and strong hybrid transmissions.
The other challenges: * More investments are needed in electric vehicle businesses * The government's potential is insufficient to exert cross-ministerial adjustment and coordination. * China's foundation for conventional automobiles and their related industries is less competitive and need more investments compared with foreign enterprises.
|Energy-efficient vehicles||Results: * Progress seen in the popularization and commercialization of energy-saving technologies * Implementation of passenger car fuel consumption limits Popularization of advanced internal combustion engines, high performance transmissions, lightweight materials, optimal vehicle design, hybrid and other energy-saving technologies and products * Maturation and commercialization of natural gas and other alternate fuel vehicle technologies|
|Challenges: * Further development and acquisition of energy-saving technologies * (A significant improvement is seen in average fuel consumption) but is still low compared with world standards * Low market share of low-emissions energy-efficient vehicles|
|New-energy vehicles||Results: * The base for the industrialization was prepared through about the 10 years of R&D and regional pilot demonstrations. * A major progress in storage battery, drive motor, electronic control, system integration and other core technologies * Small-scale sales of EV and PHV|
|Challenges: * Further acquisition of assembled vehicles and certain core component technologies * High product costs, lack of supply chain infrastructural facilities ⇒ Limiting the business creation, commercialization and industrialization|
|R&D targets, challenges, measures||Energy-efficient vehicles||▼Improve fuel consumption levels through concentration, innovation and introduction of energy-saving technologies.|
|* Develop hybrid power technology, especially dedicated engines and EMT (Electrified Mechanical Transmission).|
|* Develop high-efficiency internal combustion engine technologies (high-pressure common-rail diesel engines, gasoline engine direct injection, homogeneous combustion, turbochargers) and advanced electronic control technology.|
|* R&D of six- and more speed MT, DCT and AMT for commercial vehicles|
|* Develop and acquire new components, lightweight materials and tailored blank welding technologies that will lead to ecological and fuel-efficient vehicles.|
|* Studies in emissions reduction technology through downsized engine technologies|
|New-energy vehicles||▼Accelerated R&D on core technologies|
|* Drive battery: Studies in safety and reliability of battery system, accelerated R&D on cathode, anode, separator, electrolyte and other components, and materials, their production, control, inspection and measuring equipment and facilities. Develop new super-capacitor and battery combinations, promote the battery module standardization and system integration. Accelerate the development of key basic and advanced technologies for drive battery. Studies with a focus on new materials, mechanisms, structures and processes of high specific energy drive battery. Develop and acquire core and common technologies that support long-term development.|
|* Core components of new-energy vehicles: Support R&D efforts in electrification components such as drive motor systems, their core materials, electric compressors for air conditioners, electric power steering and electric brakes.|
|* Core technology and products related to FCV: Studies in fuel cell stack, hydrogen fuel engines, main materials and core technologies.|
|* Other new-energy vehicle technologies: Identify the world direction of development and promote studies in other new-energy vehicle technologies.|
*Note: (Old) New-energy vehicle demonstration project (announced in January 2009) in model cities designated by the Chinese government. The plan calls for demonstration with over 1,000 new-energy vehicles per city in over 10 pilot cities in China from 2009 to 2012. The original plan called for demonstration with 53,358 vehicles in 13 designated pilot cities.
Accelerate cross-industry joint development of common technology platforms including more R&D investments
The New industry development plan calls for establishing a cross-industry technology innovation alliance for energy-efficient and new-energy vehicles, and declares that efforts would be accelerated to develop common technology platforms. It also puts a great deal of emphasis on the R&D of core technologies related to electric passenger cars, plug-in hybrid passenger cars, non-plug-in hybrid commercial vehicles, and FCVs. The plan also calls for implementing resources sharing by constructing data bank for the industry-wide measuring and testing platforms, product development and patents.
It calls for integrating existing scientific and technological resources, constructing a number of national vehicle and components research experimental base, and developing a base platform for perfect technology innovation creation. This would lead to constructing a number of advanced world-level project platforms, and developing a number of enterprise-led industrial technology innovation alliances with R&D institutions and universities. The plan requires enterprises to implement trademark and brand strategies to strengthen intellectual property rights creation, utilization, protection and management, building a patent system of the whole supply chain, and improving industrial competitiveness.
(Reference)Production and sales of new-energy vehicles in China by vehicle type
|Result (unit)||Cumulative result (unit)|
|2005||2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011 (reference)||2005~ 2010||2005~ 2011|
|Production||Automobile total (1,000 units)||5,708||7,280||8,882||9,345||13,791||18,265||18,419||63,271||81,690|
|(Old) new-energy vehicle||1,683||4,047||2,179||2,393||5,294||20,729||43,240||36,325||79,565|
|Sedan & hatchback||279||2,248||312||856||259||13,324||Breakdown: ①EV 5,655 ②HV/PHV 2,713 ③Alternative fuel vehicle 34,872||17,278||n.a.|
|Passenger car total||279||2,248||312||856||259||13,377||17,331|
|Truck (including chassis)||0||0||0||0||41||181||222|
|Bus (including chassis)||1,404||1,799||1,867||1,537||4,881||7,101||18,589|
|Commercial vehicle total||1,404||1,799||1,867||1,537||5,035||7,352||18,994|
|(Old) new-energy vehicle's ratio||0.03%||0.06%||0.02%||0.03%||0.04%||0.11%||0.23%||0.06%||0.10%|
|Sales||Automobile total (1,000 units)||5,758||7,216||8,792||9,381||13,645||18,062||18,505||62,853||81,358|
|(Old) new-energy vehicle||1,553||3,924||2,260||2,435||5,209||19,888||42,838||35,269||78,107|
|Sedan & hatchback||160||2,152||414||899||319||12,770||Breakdown: ①EV 5,579 ②HV/PHV 2,580 ③Alternative fuel vehicle 34,679||16,714||n.a.|
|Passenger car total||160||2,152||414||899||319||12,771||16,715|
|Truck (including chassis)||0||0||0||0||35||99||134|
|Bus (including chassis)||1,393||1,772||1,846||1,536||4,771||6,919||18,237|
|Commercial vehicle total||1,393||1,772||1,846||1,536||4,890||7,117||18,554|
|(Old) new-energy vehicle's ratio||0.03%||0.05%||0.03%||0.03%||0.04%||0.11%||0.23%||0.06%||0.10%|
Source: "Energy-efficient and new-energy vehicle yearbook" (2010/2011 version). Data for new-energy vehicles in 2011 are provided by China Association of Automotive Manufacturers (CAAM).
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