JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2012: parts suppliers (1)
EV/HV/PHV and start/stop system technologies
Reported below is an outline of exhibits of Electric vehicle (EV), Hybrid electric vehicle (HV) and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV) and start/stop system technologies displayed by automotive parts suppliers (and some material suppliers) at the 2012 Automotive Engineering Exposition held in Yokohama on May 23-25.
Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group exhibited a PHV concept car, and Toray exhibited an EV concept car, each built with their advanced resin technologies.
JFE Engineering Corporation exhibited a super-rapid charger that uses Toshiba's SCiB lithium-ion battery capable of delivering an 80% charge to an EV in eight minutes.
Denso exhibited two new technologies related to powertrains for EV and HV, namely SiC (silicon carbide) inverters and motor stators downsized by a new winding structure.
NHK Spring exhibited accumulators used as the brake booster components on the Toyota Aqua.
T.Rad exhibited heat collectors that heat the engine coolant with the exhaust heat immediately after the engine start to improve fuel efficiency and make heating available soon after the car starts off. Calsonic Kansei exhibited its exhaust heat collectors being developed with a similar purpose.
Related Reports: 2011 Automotive Engineering Exposition
EV/PHV concept cars
Mitsubishi Chemical exhibited a PHV concept car, C-Rev MC-SX, built on Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group's advanced resin technologies. All glass is replaced by polycarbonate glazing.
Toray exhibited its EV concept car, TEEWAVE AR1, having a monocoque body made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics by integral molding.
"C-Rev MC-SX" PHV concept (exhibited by Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group)
"TEEWAVE AR1" EV concept exhibited by Toray
EV/PHV concept cars
|Mitsubishi Chemical's Concept car C-Rev MC-SX||Concept||"C-Rev (Chemistry makes Revolution) MC-SX" is a PHV concept car that combines various resin technologies developed by Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings. The car has 4200mm overall length, 780kg vehicle weight, and a 78km EV range.|
|Polycarbonate Automotive Glazing||The entire glass is replaced by heat absorbing polycarbonate to achieve 30-40 percent weight reduction and a 3 to 5-fold increase in thermal insulation performance compared to inorganic glass (although safety standards in force prohibit use of such material in the windshield, according to the exhibitor).|
|(Note) Mitsubishi Engineering Plastics, one of the Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group companies, supplies the resin materials used to make the resin-made panoramic roof of the Prius α (the roof itself is supplied by Toyota Industries).|
|Trunk-Lid||A trunk-lid (outer shell) made of thermosetting CFRP sets in five minutes at 140℃ and the lid can be formed in eight minutes. It reduces weight by 40 percent compared to the aluminum-made trunk-lid.|
|Under Body Shield||SymaLITE (trade name) is a special lightweight, high-rigidity, reinforced thermoplastic material of outstanding acoustic absorbing performance made from continuous glass fiber and polypropylene having continuous voids. Used in the Chevrolet Captiva and other models.|
|Luggage box||The luggage box, located at the rear of the vehicle, is formed by thermoplastic composite materials, GMT and GMTex, reinforced with continuous glass fiber mat. It reduces the weight by approximately 20 percent compared to the conventional product.|
|Others||Other advanced technologies than those mentioned above include the chassis made of carbon fiber composite material, lightweight resin module, CMC (Ceramic Matrix Composite) brake, organic thin-film solar battery, and organic EL light.|
|TORAY||Concept EV TEEWAVE AR1||Toray's EV concept, TEEWAVE AR1, has a monocoque body made of thermosetting resin reinforced with continuous carbon fibers. Can be formed within 10 minutes. The two-occupant car weighs 846kg. See http://www.marklines.com/en/report/rep1048_201202 for more details.|
|Source: Displays and printed materials distributed at the JSAE Automotive Engineering Exhibition 2012 (for this and all other sections below)|
|(Note)||Thermosetting resins, when heated, irreversibly form insoluble polymer network. Thermoplastic resins, when heated, soften and can be formed in shapes. It is said that carbon fibers account for 50-60 volume percent in thermosetting carbon fiber reinforced resins and 20-30 volume percent in thermoplastic carbon fiber reinforced resins.|
Super-rapid chargers using a lithium-ion battery and new capacitors
Toshiba exhibited lithium-ion battery SCiB cells and battery modules used in the Mitsubishi i-MiEV M.
JFE Engineering exhibited, at the Toshiba display booth, its super-rapid charger for EVs, Super RAPIDAS, that is capable of delivering an 80 percent charge in eight minutes and 50 percent charge in three minutes. The company claims that the quick charger will change the world of EVs drastically as, when used with buses, for instance, it may be used at bus terminals between arrival and departure schedules. Therefore buses which use Super RAPIDAS will require one third the battery capacity of the existing EV buses. However, it cannot be used with the EVs in the market as of September 2011 unless they are modified to use the charger.
Meidensha and Sumitomo Electric Industries exhibited the new electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) being developed jointly. They already have EDLC with 12.4Wh/L volumetric energy density and they are continuing efforts to increase the energy density to 20Wh/L (it is said that, to use EDLC for automotive use, energy density of 7Wh/L is necessary for deceleration regenerative systems and 10-20Wh/L for power-assist systems).
Lithium-ion batteries and super-rapid chargers
|TOSHIBA||Lithium-ion Battery SCiB||Toshiba exhibited its lithium-ion battery SCiB 20Ah cells and modules that house 24 of such cells.|
|Toshiba also exhibited the lithium-ion battery system used in Mitsubishi i-MiEV M. The system contains nine 24-cell modules and one 18-cell module, 234 cells in total.|
|TOSHIBA/JFE Engineering||Super RAPIDAS (Super Rapid Access System for EV charge)||JFE Engineering exhibited the Super RAPIDAS in Toshiba's display booth, a super-rapid charger for EVs. Fitted with Toshiba's SCiB lithium-ion battery delivering up to 160kW power, the charger can recharge EV in 8 minutes (80 percent) or 3 minutes (50 percent). It helps reduce initial investment and running costs since charger installation only requires low-voltage (20kW) access contract with the local power company. It requires a special connector on the EV.|
|The charger has been approved by CHAdeMO Association, a Japanese association for DC quick charger installations. The exhibitors plan to make the chargers commercially available initially with electric buses and taxis. Buses which use Super RAPIDAS will require only a third of the battery capacity normally mounted in an EV bus. According to the exhibitors, the charger will contribute to substantially reducing the battery capacity on taxis and delivery vans as well.|
|(Notes) 1.||JFE Engineering has been selling the RAPIDAS chargers for EVs using MLiX lithium-ion battery supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Unlike the conventional quick-chargers that require a high-voltage access contract (6.6kV, 50kW or higher) with the power company, JFE Engineering's RAPIDAS takes both the power company's electricity and the energy available from its own storage batteries to recharge the electric vehicle. This means a 50kW quick-charger can be installed with a low-voltage (20kW) access contract which reduces the initial construction cost and running cost. The new Super RAPIDAS introduced above may be used as a RAPIDAS as well.|
|2.||RAPIDAS has been installed in two locations in the United States (San Diego, California and Portland, Oregon). Power installations in the United States are subject to a demand charge system in which additional charges are imposed according to the monthly peak power consumption. The RAPIDAS was chosen in the United States as it is least affected by the local charge system.|
New, high-performance capacitors
|Meidensha Corporation/ Sumitomo Electric Industries||Electric Double-Layer Capacitor using Aluminum-Celmet||Meidensha and Sumitomo Electric Industries had panels introducing the high-performance electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) from their joint development. The all-new capacitor uses Aluminum-Celmet as the collector (instead of aluminum foil as in conventional capacitors), carbon nanotubes as the polarized electrode material (instead of activated carbon), and non-combustible ionic electrolyte (instead of organic electrolyte).|
|The jointly-developed EDLC already has 12.4Wh/L volumetric energy density, 3.4 times that of Meidensha's existing product (3.6Wh/L). The two companies will continue joint efforts to further increase the energy density to 20Wh/L. Another development index is the output index (amount of output power per unit mass). EDLC generally has higher output density than the lithium-ion batteries.|
|They will continue joint development efforts especially with regard to power-assist and power regeneration systems for EV and HV, and voltage sag compensation at restarting on vehicles with start/stop systems. They expect sample shipment to start in FY2013 and commercial production in FY2015.|
Powertrain technologies for EV/HV application
Aisin Seiki exhibited the HV transmissions used on the Hino Dutro HV for North American markets. NSK exhibited the hybrid toroidal CVT that combines the toroidal CVT and motors.
Automatic transmission for Hino Dutro HV exhibited by Aisin Seiki
Hybrid toroidal CVT exhibited by NSK
Transmissions for HV use
|AISIN SEIKI||Hybrid Automatic Transmission For CVs||Six-speed AT for HV application used on the North American version of the new Dutro HV launched in Japan by Hino Motors in July 2011. The new model has an engine clutch between the engine and the motor/generator to improve the efficiency of energy regeneration during deceleration.|
|The Japanese version of the new Dutro HV has a dedicated five-speed AMT. According to the exhibitor, customers in North America prefer an automatic transmission with a torque converter even in their hybrid vehicles.|
|NSK||Hybrid Toroidal CVT||NSK introduced a HV transmission that combines the toroidal CVT with a hybrid motor which, according to the exhibitor, achieves substantial improvement of fuel efficiency and the system cost reduction at the same time. The CVT accepts engines with total displacement up to 3.5 liters and gives a 10-15 mode fuel efficiency of 39.3km/liter when simulated on a C segment vehicle (powered by a 1.8-liter engine and having a vehicle weight of 1,400kg).|
Two new technologies announced by Denso
Denso exhibited two new powertrain technologies for EV and HV use, the SiC (silicon carbide) inverter and the motor stator having a new winding structure that contributes to downsizing.
Compact SiC inverter (SiC prototype and product image) exhibited by Denso
Motor stator for Toyota Aqua exhibited by Denso (downsized by using new winding structure and coil manufacturing method)
Two new technologies announced by Denso
|Denso||SiC Small Inverter Module (under development)||Denso exhibited inverters that use SiC (silicon carbide) power devices being developed for use in motors for HV and other electric vehicles. Their volumetric energy density, 60kW/L, is one of the highest in the world (according to Denso's research). The amount of heat generation is reduced by 68 percent from that of the conventional Si (silicon) counterpart which suppresses energy losses. This allows downsizing the inverter and increasing its performance. Denso plans to start volume production in 2015. (Developed jointly with Toyota Motor and Toyota Central R&D Labs)|
|Motor Stator for Small HV||Denso's unique winding technology (using rectangular wire having a rectangular cross section) is used to form the motor stator (a coiled structure that, when energized, generates an electromagnetic field to spin the rotor). This contributes to downsizing the stator by 10 percent in width and 15 percent in height compared to the conventional products. The motor stator is used on Toyota Aqua.|
Schaeffler and NSK proposed in-wheel motors.
Dynax, an Exedy subsidiary, exhibited its small-size EV concept, being co-developed with Hokkaido University, powered by rare-earthless in-wheel motors.
"eWheel Drive" in-wheel motor at the core of the "Schaeffler Hybrid" system
Wheel hub motor (exhibited by NSK)
Small-size EV concept car fitted with rare-earthless in-wheel motors (joint development by Exedy's subsidiary company, Dynax, and Hokkaido University)
|Schaeffler||Schaeffler Hybrid and eWheel Drive||Schaeffler has developed "Schaeffler Hybrid" built upon the company's know-how in the production of bearings and drive systems. The system comprises an internal combustion engine (ICE), front-wheel drive motor fitted to the AMT, in-wheel motors for rear wheels (eWheel Drive, 70kW maximum output, 700Nm maximum torque), and 16kWh lithium-ion battery.|
|"Schaeffler Hybrid" offers several modes of driving including ICE, parallel HV, and series HV (running on motors alone using the engine as the generator). The company does not plan to supply "Schaeffler Hybrid" as such but will rather offer solutions based on such technologies.|
|NSK||Wheel Hub Motor||Synonymous with an in-wheel motor. NSK proposes a system with each wheel containing two motors, two planetary gears and a reduction gear.|
|DYNAX/ Hokkaido University||In-wheel motor with no rare- earth magnet||The small-size EV concept car, being co-developed by an Exedy subsidiary, Dynax, and Hokkai University, uses in-wheel motors that do not rely on rare earth. The in-wheel motors are used to drive the rear wheels of the Daimler Smart-based model. A 14.5kWh lithium-polymer battery is used to deliver a cruising range of 200km.|
|The exhibitors are developing motors that use easily-available ferrite magnets instead of rare earth magnets. Their motor is said to level with rare earth magnets in terms of performance (recipient of NEDO subsidies for projects aimed at developing technologies to substitute and reduce use of rare metals).|
|The motor currently delivers output of about 5kW. The exhibitors plan to continue efforts to increase the output to around 20kW in a year using rotors of larger diameters.|
EV/HV powertrain units by other manufacturers
Motors, inverters and other EV/HV powertrain units were exhibited by Toshiba, Meidensha, NSK and Toyota Industries.
Motors by Toshiba used on Hino Dutro HV
Next model inverter for EV use exhibited by Meidensha (Inverter of a volume of 4.6 liters for small-size cars from the series of motors being developed)
EV drive system being proposed by NSK
EV/HV powertrain units being proposed by other manufacturers
|TOSHIBA||Motors for EV/HV (prototype)||Toshiba has developed the unique "Permanent magnet Reluctance Motor" (PRM). More than 200,000 sets (400,000 units) have been produced without a single market defect. The PRM integrates the advantages of the reluctance motors that do not use permanent magnets and of the permanent magnet motors to cover a wide range from low to high speeds.|
|Toshiba exhibited prototypes of its EV/HV motors for 1-motor systems and 2-motor systems (a drive motor and a generator). According to Toshiba, the company will be able to offer the best motor performances for a broad range of vehicles from passenger cars to commercial vehicles.|
|Motor for Light Truck||Motors used on the Hino Dutro HV.|
|Meidensha Corporation||Motor and inverter series for EV/HV/PHV use||Meidensha is developing a series of motors and inverters for EV/HV/PHV use. The company has so far reduced the component size to two thirds (motor and inverter) or one half (inverter alone) from the conventional products. * Mini-vehicle class (motor output 30-40kW, inverter of a volume of 3.5 liters) * Small-size vehicle class (motor output 50-60kW, inverter of a volume of 4.6 liters) * Midsize vehicle class (motor output 80-90kW, inverter of a volume of 6.5 liters)|
|EV Drive Unit (under development)||The EV drive unit is being developed for mini-vehicles to 1-liter engine vehicles. The motor and the gearbox have been integrated to reduce the shaft length from 520mm (separate construction) to 350mm. The company succeeded in making compact and highly efficient drive unit by directly cooling the motor using the lubricant from the gearbox.|
|Meidensha currently supplies motors and inverters for Mitsubishi i-MiEV. The EV drive unit on display is meant for exploring new applications.|
|NSK||EV Drive System||The system contains a highly efficient super-high speed motor (40,000 rpm maximum) and traction reducer (reduction ratio 4.0). Combined with a two-speed transmission to allow for using driving ranges of best motor efficiency.|
|TOYOTA INDUSTRIES||EV Powertrain Unit (reference exhibit)||The driving inverter and the driving motor are integrated to optimize the layout while reducing the size and weight of the resulting drive unit. The motor on display delivers continuous output of 26kW (47kW maximum) and maximum torque of 125Nm.|
|According to the exhibitor, the unit on display can be used with electric vehicles of various sizes from mini to midsize vehicles.|
Other EV/HV technologies
Other EV/HV components on display included the DC-DC converters used on Toyota Aqua, and electric compressors for air conditioners on EV/HV, both exhibited by Toyota Industries.
DC-DC converters used on Toyota Aqua exhibited by Toyota Industries
Electric compressors for air conditioners on HV exhibited by Toyota Industries (ES27 for Prius α and Renault Kangoo Z.E., left, and ES34 for Lexus LS600h, right)
DC-DC converters and electric compressors
|TOYOTA INDUSTRIES||DC-DC Converter for Aqua HV||A DC-DC converter lowers the high voltage available from the battery on a hybrid vehicle to the necessary levels for using lights, wipers and other automotive electric devices. Toyota Industries exhibited the DC-DC converter used on Toyota Aqua. Slightly smaller in size than the converter used on the Prius. It has output power of 1,120W and weighs 700g (compared to 1,680W and 1,000g, respectively, of the converter for the Prius).|
|Electric Compressor for Air Conditioners on EV/HV||Electric compressors are designed for using air conditioners on HV/PHV while the engine is not running. Toyota Industries supplies three types of compressors according to the vehicle size. * ES340: Discharge rate 34cc (amount of refrigerant per compressor revolution), used on Lexus LS600h. * ES27: Discharge rate 27cc, used on Toyota Prius α, Prius PHV, Renault Kangoo Z.E., etc. * ES14: Discharge rate 14cc, used on Prius and Aqua.|
EV/HV brake systems and related technologies
NHK Spring exhibited accumulators used as a brake booster component on hybrid vehicles. ADVICS exhibited "Cooperative Regenerative Brake System."
Brake accumulators exhibited by NHK Spring (accumulator used on Toyota Aqua, right, new accumulator being developed, left)
EV/HV brake systems and related technologies
|NHK Spring||Accumulator||Hydraulic accumulators for brakes have been used in ICE-powered vehicles for some time as components of the hydraulic brake boosters. NHK Spring's accumulators are used on Toyota Land Cruiser, FJ Cruiser, etc.|
|Accumulators reduce the frequency of using pumps and motors and increase their durability. Brakes are highly responsive as they use brake fluid under stored pressure.|
|Accumulators are increasingly used in brake boosters for HV/PHV. NHK Spring's accumulators are used on Toyota Aqua and Chevrolet Volt.|
|ADVICS||Cooperative Regenerative Brake System||The brake system for EV/HV coordinates with the EV/HV system and regulates the hydraulic pressure according to the change in the regenerative braking force. The system recovers the deceleration energy as much as possible while supplying the necessary braking force.|
Systems that improve fuel efficiency by using exhaust heat
T.Rad and Sango jointly exhibited heat collector that improve fuel efficiency by recovering exhaust heat immediately after the engine start to heat the engine coolant. Calsonic Kansei exhibited its "exhaust heat recovery device" being developed to serve a similar purpose.
Sango's heat recovery system "Heat Collector" (with T.Rad's exhaust heat exchanger)
"Exhaust Heat Recovery Device" being developed by Calsonic Kansei
Systems that use exhaust heat to improve fuel efficiency
|T. RAD/ SANGO||Heat Collector||The system starts recovering heat from exhaust gas immediately after the engine start and using it to heat the engine coolant (LLC: long life coolant) and automatic transmission fluid (ATF). This increases fuel efficiency and warms the car interior faster. The product on display is manufactured by Sango and incorporates heat exchangers supplied by T.Rad.|
|The system works on gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles but is most effective on hybrid vehicles that run on the motor alone at starting and require longer time before the engine warms up due to frequent start and stop interruptions. The product on display is used on Toyota Aqua.|
|Calsonic Kansei||Exhaust Heat Recovery Device||Being developed to serve the same purpose as the heat collector exhibited by T.Rad and Sango. The device combines Calsonic Kansei's core technologies, heat exchangers and intake and exhaust systems.|
Start/stop system technologies
Denso exhibited a tandem solenoid starter that allows restarting while the engine is running by inertia. Toyota Industries presented a DC-DC converter and ADVICS exhibited a brake system that coordinates with the start/stop system.
DC-DC converter for start/stop systems exhibited by Toyota Industries (reference exhibit)
Start/stop systems and related technologies
|Denso||Tandem Solenoid Starter for Start/Stop System||A starter for start/stop systems being developed. Conventional starters start the engine by plunging the pinion gear and energizing the motor concurrently by one solenoid. This means the engine cannot restart until it is at standstill as the pinion gear will never mesh with the ring gear in other conditions.|
|With the tandem solenoid starter, the pinion gear plunging and the motor energizing are controlled separately. The pinion gear rotation is first synchronized with the ring gear before it is pushed out. This allows the pinion gear to mesh with the ring gear while it is turning by inertia. This reduces the engine restart time by up to 80 percent from the conventional starters.|
(Note) Denso has also developed a system called "Permanently Engaged Starter," currently used on Toyota vehicles sold in Europe, that shortens the engine restart time after interruption by the start/stop system. Since the ring gear is disengaged from the engine while the engine is in motion, the engine itself must be redesigned (or the vehicle must be fitted with the engine with the permanently engaged starter system pre-installed). The conventional starter currently fitted in the vehicle can be replaced with the tandem solenoid starter..
|TOYOTA INDUSTRIES||Voltage Stabilizer (DC-DC Converter)||The converter prevents a voltage drop in the auxiliary battery often associated with the engine restarts. This stabilizes voltage supply to audio, navigation, meters and other on-board electric equipments and protects them from interruptions (reference exhibit).|
|ADVICS||Brake Control cooperative with Idle Reduction||The brake system coordinates with the start/stop system to maintain the necessary braking force while the engine is deactivated. This ensures smooth vehicle behavior such as preventing the ride-down due to a loss of braking force on uphill or start-up shock when the engine restarts. The system has been developed based on the ESC system with additional software.|
|Used on the Daihatsu Mira e:S released for sale in September 2011. According to the exhibitor, the system can be fitted in a broad range of vehicles with start/stop systems.|
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