Toyota: Introduction of active safety packages on all cars in three years
V2I cooperative systems and new LED lighting systems will also be implemented
Toyota Safety Sense P and Toyota Safety Sense C packages available on Toyota models
(all photos courtesy of Toyota)
Three safety systems in Toyota Safety Sense packages
Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) has developed a new set of active safety technologies, "Toyota Safety Sense" packages, designed to prevent or mitigate collisions. The packages will be introduced in 2015 at price levels chosen to encourage widespread use, and will be rolled out across nearly all passenger models (other than jointly-developed models or models supplied by other OEMs) in Japan, North America and Europe by 2017. The safety technologies will be available in two packages depending on vehicle type: "Toyota Safety Sense C" package for Toyota-brand compact cars and "Toyota Safety Sense P" package for Toyota-brand mid-size and high-end cars. The technologies will be offered as "Lexus Safety System +" for Lexus cars.
Toyota's active safety systems have been available mainly on high-end models. To encourage broad penetration of safety technologies in the market, Toyota has decided to extend the availability to other segments including compact cars within three years.
In addition to the active safety packages above, Toyota announced availability of three new safety systems including (1) Next-generation headlamp technology dubbed "LED Array AHS," (2) new parking support system and (3) "Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative System" (the availability of the Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperative System is initially limited to the Japanese market). According to Toyota, these safety technologies are more advanced than the active safety systems that are currently available on its highest-end model, the Lexus LS.
Toyota is introducing its active safety packages as part of the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) approach. The Toyota Safety Sense C package will be made available starting with the new models being launched in the spring of 2015. The Toyota Safety Sense P package will be available starting with the new models being launched in the summer of 2015. The company is aiming for a substantial cost reduction by standard application and mass-production.
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems by Bosch, Denso and Renesas (Feb. 2015)
Toyota Safety Sense C: Laser radar and camera improve detection at high speeds
The Toyota Safety Sense C package features Pre-Crash Safety (PCS) that uses laser radar and a camera to avoid collision. The infrared laser has a detection range of approximately 30 meters. It is combined with a camera having a longer detecting range so that PCS works even at high speeds. The automatic brake functions at relative speeds of approximately 10 to 80km/h at which at least 80% of rear-end collisions occur.
A pre-crash safety system that uses laser radar alone is used in PCS for low-speed use up to 30km/h on many mini vehicles in Japan (including the Toyota Pixis Epoch which is supplied by Daihatsu). Toyota is likely to offer the Toyota Safety Sense C package at about the same price as the PCS (JPY 50,000) that only uses laser radar. The addition of the camera has enabled two more systems that are featured in the C package, the Lane Departure Alert (LDA) and Automatic High Beam (AHB).
Toyota Safety Sense C package (for compact cars)
|The Toyota Safety Sense C package combines laser radar with a camera to increase recognition performance and reliability. The package features three proprietary active safety technologies, PCS, LDA and AHB, to ensure collision avoidance and mitigation even at high speeds.|
|Pre-Crash System (PCS)||PCS uses laser radar and a camera to detect objects ahead of the vehicle. When a potential risk of collision is detected, it prompts the driver with an audio and visual alert to brake. When the driver applies brakes, PCS automatically provides additional braking force.|
|When the vehicle is travelling at a relative speed of 30km/h, for instance, and if the driver fails to brake, PCS automatically applies brakes to reduce speed by approximately 30km/h to avoid collision. The automatic brake functions at relative speeds of approximately 10 to 80km/h at which at least 80% of rear-end collisions occur.|
|Lane Departure Alert (LDA)||LDA uses the camera to detect white or yellow lane markings. If the vehicle starts to deviate from its lane, it prompts the driver with an audio and visual alert to avoid collisions.|
|Automatic High Beam (AHB)||AHB uses the camera to detect the headlights of oncoming vehicles and the taillights of leading vehicles. Then, the system automatically switches between high beams and low beams so as not to dazzle other drivers and maintain forward visibility at night.|
Source: Toyota's press release Nov. 26, 2014.
Comparison with laser systems offered by other carmakers and between C and P packages
According to Toyota, Toyota Safety Sense C package's PCS, with laser radar and single-lens camera, is at a distinct advantage over laser systems offered by other OEMs. The operational speed range of the C Package's automatic braking is between approximately 10km/h and 80km/h, and speed reduction from automatic braking is approx. 30km/h. Laser systems offered by other makers apply automatic braking with operational speed range between approximately 4km/h and 30km/h and speed reduction of 15-20 km/h from automatic braking. Toyota Safety Sense P package's PCS is equipped with millimeter-wave radar and has longer automatic braking operational range and speed reduction range from automatic braking than those of Toyota Safety Sense C.
|Toyota Safety Sense C package (laser radar and a single-lens camera)||Collision avoidance support by Toyota Safety Sense C package|
Toyota Safety Sense PCS performance by package
|Hazards detected||Automated braking operational range||Automated braking speed reduction||Sensors|
|Toyota Safety Sense C||Vehicles||Approx. 10km/h-80km/h||Approx. 30km/h||Laser radar and camera (supplied by Continental)|
|Toyota Safety Sense P Lexus Safety System +||Vehicles||Approx. 10km/h - top speed||Approx. 40km/h||Millimeter-wave radar and camera (supplied by Denso)|
|Pedestrians||Approx. 10km/h-80km/h||Approx. 30km/h|
Toyota Safety Sense P and Lexus Safety System + packages
The Toyota Safety Sense P package is an enhanced version of the Toyota safety Sense C package. It uses millimeter-wave radar and a camera to extend the operational speed range of the PCS. It also features a pedestrian protection and radar cruise control functionalities.
The Lexus Safety System + package is similar to the Toyota Safety Sense P package. Certain Lexus versions will feature the Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) that controls the electric power steering to keep the vehicle in its lane.
Toyota Safety Sense P package (for mid-size and high-end cars)
|The Toyota Safety Sense P package combines millimeter-wave radar with a camera to increase recognition performance and reliability. In addition to the three active safety technologies included in the C package, the PCS in the P package also includes a pedestrian detection function to prevent or mitigate collision with pedestrians. The P package also has a radar cruise control functionality.|
|Pre-Crash System with pedestrian detection function||The system uses millimeter-wave radar and a camera to detect pedestrians as well as vehicles. It provides alert, braking assist and automatic braking as needed to prevent or mitigate collisions. Automated braking operates at relative speeds of approximately 10 to 80km/h for potential collision with a pedestrian. When the vehicle is travelling at relative speed of 30km/h, for example, the system reduces the speed by approximately 30km/h to help prevent collision. For potential collision with a vehicle, it operates over a broad range of speeds from 10km/h to maximum speed. When the vehicle is travelling at relative speed of 40km/h with a parked vehicle, for example, it is capable of reducing the speed by approximately 40km/h.|
|Radar cruise control||The Radar Cruise Control uses millimeter-wave radar to detect the distance to another vehicle ahead. It adjusts the vehicle speed within a set range to maintain a safe distance between the vehicles. It uses millimeter-wave radar and a camera to detect preceding vehicles changing lanes and maintain smooth acceleration and deceleration accordingly.|
Lexus Safety System + package
|The Lexus Safety System + package is similar to the Toyota Safety Sense P package. The LDA has been improved as described below.|
|Lane departure alert (LDA)||Some models will be equipped with Lane keeping assist (LKA) which controls electric power steering to make it easier for the driver to stay within its lane.|
Source: Toyota's press release Nov. 26, 2014.
Comparison of availability at present
Judging from the current availability of active safety systems (as of mid-February 2015), it appears that Toyota will increase the availability substantially in the next three years. For instance, the availability of PCS is currently limited to high-end minivans such as the Alphard and Vellfire, and to the Camry and other higher grade models. Toyota plans to make it part of the Toyota Safety Sense C package for all compact cars. The LDA is available on limited models but will be made available on all vehicles including compact cars within three years.
The PCS with a pedestrian detection function is available only on the Lexus LS at present. It will be made available in the Toyota Safety Sense P package for mid-size and high-end vehicles.
Availability of Toyota's active safety systems
|Active safety technologies to be made available in three years||Toyota Safety Sense C||Toyota Safety Sense P (following technologies are added to C package)||Lexus Safety System + (following technologies are added to P package)|
|PCS||Lane Departure Alert (LDA)||Automatic High Beam (AHB)||PCS||Radar Cruise Control (Note 3)||Lane Keeping Assist (LKA)|
Availability on major Toyota-brand models (as of mid-February 2015)
|("S" standard on all grades, "A" standard on some grades, "O" optional, Blank: not available) (It seems that Toyota Safety Sense C package will be available on Vitz, Corolla Axio and Auris, while P package will be installed on Toyota models other than the three models as in the list below.)|
|Crown Athlete/Royal||O||A (AHS) (Note 1)||O|
|Crown Majesta||AO||S (AHS)||AO|
Availability on major Lexus-brand models (as of mid-February 2015)
|LS||AO||AO (AHS)||AO (Note 2)||AO||AO|
|(Notes) 1.||Automatic High Beam (AHB) automatically switches between high beams and low beams. Adaptive High Beam System (AHS) automatically shades the portion of light reaching the preceding vehicle so as to increase the frequency of high-beam driving. For example, when the camera detects a vehicle within the high-beam range, the intelligent adaptive front-lighting system (AFS) controls the axis of light and shade so that high-beam light does not blind the driver in a leading or oncoming vehicle.|
|2.||The Advanced Pre-Crash Safety System on the Lexus LS is the only PCS that is currently available on Toyota vehicles to avoid collision with a vehicle and a pedestrian. It features millimeter-wave radar, a stereo camera and a near-infrared beam projector for nighttime driving.|
|3.||Radar cruise control is offered in two types. The full speed-range adaptive control that operates at speeds from 0 to 100km/h is available on the Lexus LS/GS, Lexus NX launched in July 2014, and the new Alphard and Vellfire launched in February 2015. Another type used on other models maintains distances in proportion to vehicle speeds within the set speeds between 50 to 100km/h.|
Three new and more advanced safety technologies
Toyota announced that it would adopt three new safety technologies that are further advanced from the active safety system packages.
(1) Adaptive High Beam System (LED Array AHS) that derives from Automatic High Beam (AHB) and Adaptive High Beam System (AHS).
(2) A new and more multi-functional parking assist system.
These two systems will be adopted on new models being launched in 2015.
(3) A vehicle-infrastructure cooperative driver assist system using ITS wireless communication will be adopted in some models in Japan as an option to Toyota Safety Sense P package.
According to Toyota, the company is rolling out new active safety technologies, more advanced than those already available on the highest-end Lexus LS, at about the same price. (Automotive News dated December 1, 2014)
Next-generation LED array Adaptive High-beam System (AHS)
Next-generation lighting technology: LED array AHS
|Toyota has developed a next-generation lighting technology, Adaptive High Beam System (LED Array AHS), which enables more precise control of light distribution through independent LED control. The LED Array AHS will be made available on some models to be launched in 2015.|
|Independent control of multiple LEDs||The new system uses multiple LEDs arranged in a single row as the light source. Individual LEDs are controlled independently (as shown by "LED current" in the left-hand photo above). This enables a wider range of illumination than the earlier system (AHS: Adaptive High-beam System adopted on the Lexus LS in October 2012) without dazzling the driver of the preceding or oncoming vehicle. (Refer to Note 1 under "Availability on major Toyota-brand models" above.|
|Light distribution adapted to driving circumstances||The LED Array AHS can illuminate the gaps between the preceding and oncoming vehicles, making it easier to spotlight pedestrians crossing the road. The system also adapts the light distribution to the driving circumstances. It illuminates a wide area when driving in a residential area whereas narrow, long-distance illumination is used on highways. The system also adjusts the light distribution based on the operations of the steering wheel to improve visibility ahead of curves. The earlier system, Adaptive Front-lighting System (AFS), only adapts the low-beam light to the curve.|
Source: Toyota's press release Nov. 26, 2014.
Newly developed parking assist technologies
|See-through view (the child riding a tricycle in the right-hand photo is detected on the display)||External view of the vehicle (the child is hardly visible to the driver)|
Newly developed parking assist technologies
|Toyota has developed a new, enhanced parking assist system that will be adopted in models to be launched in 2015 (The system is already installed on the Alphard and Vellfire that was launched in January.)|
|Enhanced Intelligent Clearance Sonar||Toyota has enhanced its Intelligent Clearance Sonar (ICS) system. The new ICS has more sensors and extended range of detection and the control logic has been improved. This not only helps prevent or mitigate damages caused by pedal misapplication but also collisions with adjacent vehicles or obstacles even when pedal misapplication is not the cause such as during low-speed driving in parking lots.|
(Note) Comparison with the clearance sonar and intelligent clearance sonar
|Intelligent Parking Assist 2||The new parking assist system, Intelligent Parking Assist 2 (IPA2), has two new functions. The multi-point turn support function automatically controls steering in tight parking spaces that require repeated back and forth movements. The other is a partially-automated function designed to assist the driver when departing from parallel parking spaces with little room in front of or behind the vehicle. These new functions have drastically increased the usefulness of the parking assist system.|
|See-through View||A new function, the world-first See-through View, has been added to the Panoramic View Monitor that provides an overhead view of the vehicle on the navigation system screen. The associated switch allows the driver to flip between the conventional Moving View (overhead view of the vehicle) and the See-through View which gives the driver's perspective view of the vehicle's surroundings as if the vehicle were transparent.|
Source: Toyota's press release Nov. 20, 2014.
Cooperative driver assist system using wireless communication
Cooperative driver assist system using wireless communication (available in Japan)
|An advanced vehicle-infrastructure cooperative driver assist system using ITS wireless communication will be adopted in some models in Japan as an option to Toyota Safety Sense P package.|
|Cooperative driver assist system using wireless communication||The system uses the dedicated ITS frequency (760MHz) for road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication to gather information that cannot be obtained by onboard sensors. This complements onboard driving assist systems and will contribute to reducing accidents.|
|Road-to-Vehicle communication||At intersections of poor traffic visibility, for example, information about oncoming vehicles and pedestrians detected by road-side sensors will be transmitted via road-to-vehicle communication. Information about approaching vehicles will be transmitted via vehicle-to-vehicle communication to warn the drivers as needed.|
|Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication||Toyota has also developed Communicating Radar Cruise Control that uses vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The distance to and relative speed with the preceding vehicle is detected by the conventional millimeter-wave radar. In addition, the new system uses information obtained by vehicle-to-vehicle communication about acceleration and deceleration of the preceding vehicle. This significantly enhances tracking performance and helps increase fuel economy while reducing traffic congestions.|
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