Toyota: Implements strategy to launch fourteen new engines in two years
Expansion of TNGA to future rear-wheel drive and commercial vehicles
Newly-developed 1.3-liter gasoline engine
(source: Toyota )
Tumble-flow (vertical swirl) for rapid combustion
This report contains Toyota Motor Corporation's development plan for internal combustion engines and the latest progress of Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA), a new product development approach that was introduced in 2012.
Toyota will introduce 14 new engine variations with high thermal and fuel efficiency between April 2014 and 2015. The engines will be used in 30 percent of the vehicles that are sold by Toyota globally in 2016. The new 1.0- and 1.3-liter engines were used in April 2014 in the Passo and the Vitz, respectively. The Passo fitted with the 1.0-liter engine achieved the highest fuel efficiency of 27.6km per liter (in JC08 test method) among the gasoline-fueled non-mini vehicles in Japan. In July 2014, the first 2.0-liter direct-injection turbo engine developed for the Lexus brand was fitted in the Lexus NX. These reflect Toyota's initiatives to improve environmental performance of its vehicles powered by internal combustion engines as well as hybrid vehicles.
The all-new Prius to be launched in 2015 will most likely be the first model built by TNGA. TNGA will be applied initially to the B, C and K platforms of front-wheel-drive (FWD) vehicles. It is said that Toyota will apply the TNGA in phases to rear-wheel driven upper-end vehicles and commercial vehicles as well. Eventually, TNGA will be applied to all platforms.
Toyota is meeting with part suppliers to discuss the co-development of parts that may be shared across several models toward full implementation of the TNGA. Among them, Denso has already developed an air-conditioning unit that may be installed in B to D segment models regardless of the model or the automaker.
Toyota Introduces TNGA: New Vehicle Development Framework Initiatives (Jan. 2014)
Launching 14 new engines with improved thermal and fuel efficiency in 2014 and 2015
Toyota's engine lineup will be significantly refreshed under the company's firm belief that its internal combustion engines, as well as hybrid vehicles, must be improved to become truly competitive in global markets. Toyota aspires to develop engines with one of the highest thermal efficiencies in the world that will deliver at least 10 percent higher fuel efficiency over the conventional ones.
In April 2014, Toyota announced that it has developed and refined a group of high thermal and fuel efficiency engines by leveraging the combustion technologies acquired in the course of developing engines for hybrid vehicles. The company adopted rapid combustion and a high compression ratio to improve the engine's combustion performance. It managed to reduce the pumping loss, cooling loss and frictions to reduce the overall loss. According to Toyota, the improved fuel efficiency owes 50 percent to the refined combustion, 20 to 30 percent to the loss reduction, and the remainder to the overall coordinated control of the engine.
Toyota will globally introduce 14 all-new engines (turbo and diesel engines included) ranging from 1.0- to 5.0-liter displacements by 2015. The company will use the refined engines in 30 percent of all Toyota vehicles that are sold globally in 2016. Firstly, Toyota has developed 1.0- and 1.3-liter engines and fitted them in the Passo and the Vitz, respectively, in April 2014.
Technologies attributable to the high thermal and fuel efficiencies of the new engines
|New engines||Maximum thermal efficiency||JC08 Fuel efficiency||Fuel efficiency gains||Better combustion||Loss reduction|
|Rapid combustion||High compression Ratio||Pumping and cooling loss reduction||Low friction|
|1.3-liter engine (1NR-FKE)||38%||25.0km/L (Vitz) 21.8km/L (Ractis)||About 15% over current vehicles||High performance high tumble port||Compression ratio (13.5) *Reduced variation in compression ratio *Large-volume cooled EGR *Water jacket spacer with EXPAD *4-2-1 exhaust pipe||*Atkinson cycle *Large-volume cooled EGR *Electric VVT||*Modified piston skirt surface *Water jacket spacer with EXPAD *Plastic-coated bearing *Low friction chain *Auxiliary belt with reduced bending loss|
|1.0-liter engine (1KR-FE)||37%||27.6km/L (Passo)||Maximum 30% over current vehicles||High performance high tumble port||Compression ratio (11.5) *Large-volume cooled EGR *Water jacket spacer||*Atkinson cycle *Large-volume cooled EGR||*Modified piston skirt surface *Water jacket spacer *Low friction chain|
|Source: Toyota's press release Apr. 10, 2014, Nihon Keizai Shimbun Apr. 11, 2014|
|(Notes) 1.||A thermal efficiency is a numeric expression of the engine's energy efficiency indicating how much of the thermal energy generated by burning the fuel is converted into effective work. The higher the thermal efficiency is, the higher the fuel efficiency becomes.|
|2.||The fuel economy and its gain are those of the FWD vehicles equipped with a start-stop system and measured in the JC08 testing method.|
|3.||The Toyota Vitz, powered by a 1.3-liter engine and remodeled in 2010, has a fuel efficiency of 21.8km per liter. It was later challenged by other models with better fuel efficiencies such as the Nissan Note equipped with 1.2-liter engine (25.2km per liter), and the Honda Fit with 1.3-liter engine (26.0km per liter).|
|4.||An Atkinson-cycle engine is unique in that the intake valve closing timing is delayed to the piston's compression stroke. This minimizes the effective compression ratio while increasing the expansion ratio, thereby increasing the engine's overall efficiency. An Atkinson-cycle engine has been used in Toyota's hybrid models. The new Passo and the Vitz represent Toyota's first attempt to use an Atkinson-cycle engine in non-hybrid gasoline engines.|
Lexus NX with direct-injection turbo engine
|The Lexus NX200t fitted with a turbocharged engine (source: Toyota)|
Toyota is to launch turbocharged models that will cost less than its hybrid models.
In July 2014, the first compact crossover sports utility vehicle (SUV) carrying the Lexus brand, the Lexus NX, was released for sale in Japan. The NX series includes the NX200t fitted with the newly-developed turbocharged engine with a starting price of JPY4.28 million and the NX300h fitted with a hybrid system with a starting price of JPY 4.92 million. The NX300h is mated with the same engine used in the Harrier and Camry hybrids.
The 2.0-liter turbocharged engine has achieved a fuel efficiency of 12.8km per liter while maintaining the driving performance on par with that of the V6 3.5-liter engine. The RX350 fitted with a V6 3.5-liter engine has a fuel efficiency of 9.1km per liter. The 2.0-liter turbocharged engine will be introduced as a downsized turbocharged engine to compete with the German automakers such as BMW and Audi. It is one of the 14 all-new engines to be introduced by Toyota from 2014 to 2015. The 2.0-liter direct-injection turbo engine will be used in other models as well. Toyota also plans to introduce a 1.2-liter turbo engine.
Newly-developed 2.0-liter turbo engine, 8AR-FTS
|The 8AR-FTS is a newly-developed 2.0-liter inline 4-cylinder turbocharged engine. Its twin scroll turbocharger is mated with the Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent Wide (Dual VVT-iW) having expanded valve opening angles. The engine also integrates the Direct-injection 4 stroke gasoline engine Superior version with Turbo (D-4ST) that delivers optimum combustion efficiency. This makes powerful torque available in the low range needed for smooth and nimble acceleration.|
|Toyota has also developed a 6-speed automatic transmission (AT) that goes with the turbocharged engine. It uses a newly-developed control logic to calculate required engine torque and control the engine and the AT accordingly. The maximized turbocharged engine torque ensures responsive and smooth acceleration.|
|Source: Toyota's press release Jul. 29, 2014|
|(Notes) 1.||Twin-scroll turbo: The passage from the exhaust manifold to the turbocharger turbine is divided into two with a valve in only one. The valve is opened and closed according to the engine revolution to optimize the exhaust gas flow rate. In the case of a four-cylinder engine, the exhaust gas from pairs of cylinders is directed to the two passages separately to keep the exhaust gas from interfering each other.|
|2.||D-4ST (Direct-injection 4 Stroke gasoline engine Superior version with Turbo): The system has two injectors for direct fuel injection and port injection, respectively, to serve specific purposes.|
Comparison of performance and fuel efficiency of a compact turbo engine and a naturally-aspirated V6 engine
|Engine type||Four-cylinder turbo||Naturally-aspirated V6|
|Mileage (JC08 mode test)||12.8km/L||9.1km/L|
|Maximum output (kW (PS)/r.p.m.)||175(238)/4,800-5,600||206 (280)/6,200|
|Maximum torque(N･m(kgf･m)/r.p.m.)||350 (35.7)/1,650-4,000||348 (35.5)/4,700|
|Fuel injection system||Direct injection and port injection||Port injection|
Source: Toyota car lineup brochure. (Note) Only the FWD variants are shown above. The start-stop system is fitted in the NX200t but not in the RX350.
Toyota's in-house production and outsourcing plans for turbochargers
|Launch timing||Turbocharger production and outsourcing||Engine production|
|AR||2000cc Direct injection||2014||Miyoshi Plant (annual capacity of 100,000 units in 2015)||Kanda Plant (Kyushu)|
|NR||1200cc Direct injection||2015||Supplied by IHI (about 100,000 units a year)||Shimoyama Plant|
|Diesel engine for emerging countries||yet-to-be announced||Supplied by Toyota Industries Corporation|
Source: Nihon Keizai Shimbun Aug. 25, 2014, Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Jun. 20, 2014 (Note) Toyota Industries Corporation is producing 2500cc to 4500cc diesel engines for the Toyota Land Cruiser and IMV, and 2000cc to 2200cc diesel engines for the Toyota Corolla and RAV4.
TNGA for "developing ever-better cars"
TNGA, a new product development approach that was introduced by Toyota in 2012, begins for "developing ever-better cars."
(1) The best automotive platforms and units are developed and "architecture" (a set of design concepts such as driving positions) is defined accordingly.
(2) Multiple models are developed concurrently (in grouped development) that share a specific platform based on the architecture to achieve 20 to 30 percent improvement of development efficiency. Unlike the conventional approach of development that focuses on model by model optimization, TNGA aims for overall optimization.
(3) Toyota initially aims for 20 to 30 percent parts sharing across models built on a common platform. The sharing percentage will eventually be increased to 70 to 80 percent. The ultimate objective of the new approach is the significant reduction of purchasing costs, which will be attained through the above-mentioned efforts. Another important aspect of TNGA is the collaboration with part suppliers.
Reported below is the latest progress in TNGA disclosed after the earlier MarkLines report "Toyota Introduces TNGA: New Vehicle Development Framework Initiatives" posted in January 2014.
TNGA applied to rear-wheel drive N-platform and commercial vehicles
TNGA will be applied initially to three FWD platforms (C, K, B platforms), as it is easier for vehicles with these platforms to share parts. These platforms are expected to account for approximately 50 percent of Toyota's production.
Toyota also plans to extend the application of TNGA in succession to rear-wheel drive N platform and commercial vehicle series. It is said that the TNGA will be applied to all platforms in the long run.
Application of TNGA
|C platform||TNGA will be applied in succession starting with the next Prius based on the C platform slated for market launch in November 2015.|
|K platform||The Camry and other D-segment models based on TNGA will be introduced in the second half of 2016. It is said that the next Camry will be the first model fitted with units developed under TNGA.|
|B platform||The Vitz and other B-segment models by TNGA will be introduced in 2018.|
|N platform||This group includes the Lexus GS and IS, Toyota Crown series and other higher-end RWD models. All-new Lexus GS and IS are likely to be introduced by grouped development in 2018.|
|Commercial vehicle projects||Toyota will commercialize a next-generation taxi by 2017 based on the prototype that was exhibited at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show. Toyota's current lineup of commercial vehicles is configured mainly around the cabover van-type Hiace. In a new attempt, Toyota is developing a "semi-bonnet type" global commercial vehicle with high collision safety. This project originated in 2007 but had been shelved due to a global economic crisis. Both the new taxi and the semi-bonnet type commercial vehicle will adopt the TNGA approach.|
|Other projects||TNGA will be applied in succession to the IMV series, the next Etios, and certain other projects as well.|
Source: Nikkan Jidosha Shimbun Nov. 20, 2013/Mar. 12, 2014/May 29, 2014/May 23, 2014, Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Jun. 5, 2014
Operations under TNGA
|Team K||Toyota has formed "Team K" with full responsibility in development, procurement and production of the Camry, Avalon and other models that are built on the K platform.|
|Emphasis on collaboration with suppliers||It is said that Volkswagen (VW) and Nissan are operating under a modular approach in which modules are developed mainly by the automaker and the most competitive global suppliers supply the necessary parts. Unlike this "top-down" approach, Toyota will work closely with part suppliers from an early stage of development. Toyota stresses four-party collaboration among Toyota's procurement, engineering and technical (research, development) divisions and suppliers.|
|Toyota will continue to work with multiple suppliers to buy each part even after the TNGA is adopted. It will also keep the current relations with Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers. Toyota will concentrate on improving efficiencies with the existing suppliers.|
|Applied to re-engineering||Multiple models are developed concurrently under the TNGA. When it is time to re-engineer them in future, model-specific interior and external features will be changed separately. However, other changes, such as improving the powertrain to increase fuel efficiency or adopting new safety systems, may be applied to all models concurrently. Toyota will apply TNGA to re-engineering activities as well to further increase overall development efficiency over the model's life span.|
|Applied to unit parts||The Unit Center that was formed in April 2013 will be responsible for applying TNGA to the development and production of engines, transmissions and other parts. The Unit Center will develop new engines under TNGA by further enhancing elemental technologies such as atkinson cycle that are used in the 14 high thermal and fuel efficiency engines. These 14 engines are introduced in 2014 to 2015.|
|There are currently two types of transverse engines for FWD vehicles; those with the exhaust manifold positioned in front of the engine, and those in back of the engine. Those engines are mounted in either forward or backward inclination. The engines developed based on the TNGA will have exhaust manifolds in back of the engine and be mounted in backward inclination. The cylinder size variations will be limited to only three patterns that will be combined as needed for use in small and medium size engines alike.|
|The first TNGA-inspired powertrain will likely be used in the Camry slated for market launch in the second half of 2016. Its engine variations for global markets will include naturally aspirated, turbocharged and hybrid engines, all deriving from the 2500cc AR engine.|
|Developing diesel engines||TNGA will be applied to diesel engines as well. A 1.5-liter or smaller diesel engine will be developed and used in vehicles to be launched chiefly in emerging markets around 2020. In 2007, Toyota and Isuzu once agreed to jointly developing small diesel engines. However, the plan was shelved due to a worsened economic situation.|
|Apart from above, Toyota received supplies of 1.6-liter diesel engines from BMW for use in the Verso that has been sold in Europe since December 2013. Toyota will also receive supplies of 2.0-liter diesel engines from BMW.|
Denso takes lead in Toyota's collaboration with suppliers with air-conditioning unit
|Air-conditioning unit developed by Denso for cross-model use (exhibited at Automotive Engineering Exposition 2014)|
Toyota is meeting with multiple part suppliers to discuss joint development of parts that may be shared by multiple models. Denso has developed an air-conditioning unit (A/C unit) that can be used in B to D segment vehicles with partial changes. It has already been used in the Toyota Harrier since December 2013 and in the Noah and Voxy since January 2014. It is said that Denso received orders for the A/C unit from multiple automakers as well as Toyota.
Denso's standardization approach originated before Toyota's TNGA or Nissan's Common module family (CMF) concepts were conceived. Denso had been developing standardized parts for use in multiple vehicles of multiple automakers to maximize the economies of scale. This means Denso had gone ahead of TNGA.
Denso's air-conditioning unit for cross-model use
|Denso has developed a world-first air-conditioning unit (A/C unit) for B to D segment vehicles that may be used across the segments or vehicle models. Until then, Denso had to develop A/C units of different sizes and structures for the specific vehicles they are fitted in. Denso developed all-new air-mix doors, servo motors, blower fans and other components that are 20 percent smaller than its existing ones. Denso succeeded in improving their performances substantially while reducing their size so that the resulting components meet requirements of respective segments.|
|Vehicles of different sizes will require different air-conditioning performances. The width of Denso's standard A/C unit can be adjusted to deliver the required performance. The motor output may also be adjusted and an optional function such as "A/C for the driver's seat only" may be added.|
|The new A/C unit can be used in eco-cars as well. For instance, the evaporator in the A/C case in vehicles with the start-stop system may be replaced with a cold storage evaporator. The heater core may be replaced with a heat pump for the electric or hybrid vehicles.|
Source: Material distributed at Automotive Engineering Exposition 2014
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