CTI Symposium China 2019:Automotive drivetrains, Intelligent, Electrified

The latest technology trends of Audi, Dongfeng, GAC, SAIC, and Jing-Jin Electric



Panel discussion by participants including representatives of Audi, Dongfeng, and Jing-Jin Electric

 The CTI Symposium China 2019 was held at the Kelly Hotel in Pudong on September 24 and 25, 2019. At this event, a total of 67 lectures were given; general lectures were presented at two venues and thematic lectures were given at 4 venues. Besides the lectures, 50 components suppliers including BorgWarner and Continental exhibited products. MarkLines covered many of the forums and is reporting here on industry issues addressed at some of them.

 In response to the trends of electrification and intelligentization in the automobile industry, automobile manufacturers and suppliers in each country are accelerating research, development, and application of new related technologies. In China, there is a big boost at the national level and laws and regulations have been promulgated in relation to the national policies. The “Corporate Average Fuel Consumption and New Energy Vehicle Credits Joint Management Method Regulation” (also known as the double-credit CAFC and NEV Credit Regulation) is in effect. The national subsidy under the NEV subsidization policy has been halved, and local subsidies were completely eliminated. Furthermore, China-6a and China-6b exhaust gas regulations are being implemented one after another in the various regions. The auto industry claims that it cannot meet the exhaust gas regulations relying only on powertrain systems. The key technologies for future development include electrification, integration (including unification of motor, electric control system and transmission), weight, power density, and power from hydrogen fuel.

 The 8th CTI Symposium China 2019 enabled a large and lively exchange among engaged professionals gathered from organizations in China and abroad. At the event, industry representatives elucidated advanced technology development trends and by perceiving the latest trends, the direction of future development becomes clear.

 The CTI Symposiums, which began in 2003 under the auspices of the German Car Training Institute (CTI), are conducted based on detailed market research and the tightly knit cooperative relationship of industry specialists and are noted as the most renowned symposium in the field of German automotive technology. The CTI conferences, held every year in China, Germany and the U.S., are attended by industry experts (engineers and technical designers, R&D managers, as well as industry leaders, managers, and other representatives from various countries) eager to grasp the latest research and development status and trends.

The themes, presenters, and participants included in this report are as below.

Category Theme Company / Organization Speaker (honorific title omitted) Department / Position
Plenary speeches Audi’s first full electric premium SUV: e-tron Audi AG Michael SCHOFFMANN Global, Regional Management / Localization Director
Powertrain technical challenge under the electrification trend Dongfeng Motor Corporation ZHANG Sheming Dongfeng Motor Technical Center, Gasoline Engine Engineer
Jing-Jin’s dedicated multiple gear Electric Drive Unit (EDU) for EV and HEV Jin-Jing Electric Technologies Co., Ltd. YU Ping Chairman, CEO, Chief Engineer
Technical analysis of GAC’s G-MC electromechanical coupling system Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd. (GAC) QI Hongzhong Automotive Engineering Institute, Chief Technology Officer
The development & application of fuel cell technology for transportation SAIC/Shanghai Hydrogen Propulsion Technology Co., Ltd. SHI Weiyu Stack Development Department, Director


(The sources used for this report were distributed by the CTI Forum and organizers.)

Related reports:
Auto Shanghai 2019:Displays of the German Big 3 Automakers(May 2019)
Auto Shanghai 2019:Exhibitions by Chinese State-Owned Automakers(May 2019)
Electrification, Intelligence, and Drivetrains of China's NEV Market(Nov. 2018)
Transmission.tech 2018: Technologies for Future Mobility(May 2018)


Audi:The first full electric premium SUV e-tron

Company Type Speaker Department / Position
Audi German OEM Michael SCHOFFMANN Global, Regional Management / Localization Director

Introduction of e-tron by Audi’s Michael SCHOFFMANN

 In a keynote address at the forum, Audi’s Michael SCHOFFMANN introduced the overall structure of Audi’s first electric SUV, e-tron. His explanation included mainly the powertrain system such as battery, motor, power electronics, gear shaft, and cooling system but also the virtual exterior mirror.

 The Audi e-tron is equipped with a 95kWh capacity lithium-ion battery and a 400V high voltage system; the battery cell capacity is 60Ah, and the battery module adopts a soft package in a rectangular shape. The exterior of the battery module is fitted with a case which provides impact protection. Further, a water-cooled on-board recharger is installed in the vehicle, and a spare charger is available as an option. With a 150kW DC charge, 80% charge in 30 minutes is possible; driving range is 411 km in WLTP mode. In addition, dual motors provide 4-wheel drive with one motor for the front and one for the rear, achieving maximum output of 300kW. Four types of drive systems, such as the APA250 (final drive Axially Parallel Asynchronous, 250 Nm torque) were developed for the e-tron and are installed on the front and rear axles. The ATA250 (final drive Twin-coaxial Asynchronous, 250Nm torque (x2)) consists of two APA250 modules installed in parallel. The output of the ATA250 is 180kW, and the maximum torque of the system is 4,400Nm. The motor, power electronics and transmission of the drive module are integrated, and control of the chassis movement function is also directly integrated into the power electronics module. The entire structure is cooled with a water cooling system (water cooling rather than oil cooling has been verified to be more efficient).

Audi e-tron drive system:

  APA250 APA320 AKA320 ATA250
Motor output(kW) 125 140 140 180
Motor maximum torque(Nm) 309  - 309  -
System maximum torque(Nm) 2750 2800 3120 4400

 According to Mr. SCHOFFMANN, the virtual exterior mirrors installed on the e-tron replace the conventional outside mirrors with an electronic camera, and an OLED (organic light emitting diode) panel is installed inside the cabin under the driver-side door glass. By switching to the virtual exterior mirror, air resistance and wind noise are reduced, and driving safety and visibility are improved. The effects are striking, especially in bad weather.

 Production of the Audi e-tron started in Europe in 2018, the vehicle was introduced to China in 2019, and in 2020 the company plans to manufacture the vehicle domestically in China.




Dongfeng Motor Corporation:Powertrain technical challenge under the electrification trend

Company Type Speaker Department / Position
Dongfeng Motor Corporation Major Chinese motor vehicle manufacturer ZHANG Sheming Dongfeng Motor Technical Center, Gasoline Engine Engineer

 Along with introducing the status of how each country’s OEMs are coping vis a vis gasoline engines in the environment of Chinese regulations related to fuel consumption and the double credit policy, Dr. ZHANG, presenter from Dongfeng Motor Corporation, stated that the rising tide of electrification cannot be reversed. However, in the coming decades gasoline engines will still maintain a large share of the market and it is still possible to make improvements to gasoline engines in terms of fuel consumption and thermal efficiency. By combining gasoline and electric power sources, the life cycle of gasoline engines will be extended, and in the future Dongfeng will focus on gasoline engines, especially in the hybrid field.

 Dr. ZHANG introduced Dongfeng’s C10TD engine developed in-house. It is a 3-cylinder turbocharged engine, 1.0L displacement, maximum output of 106kW, maximum torque of 216Nm, and in terms of power performance it has the highest level among the world’s production engines. From the results of Dongfeng’s research and development as well as rigorous validation, the general concerns about 3-cylinder engine NVH performance and durability have been allayed and at the same time, by calling out to society to put an end to its prejudice, the 3-cylinder engine has been able to gain widespread acceptance. For this reason, he stated again that Dongfeng will continue to focus on gasoline engines, especially in the hybrid field.

中国的双积分及新能源政策 增程式发动机
Chinese double credit and new energy policy. In 2019, the national subsidy was drastically reduced and local subsidies were eliminated. At present, hybrid technology is the mainstream, but Dongfeng recognized that the power extender type engine (similar to Nissan’s e-Power) route is the most viable plan.
在发动机关键技术 发动机的轻量化和集成化
The key technologies of the engine are those that can increase thermal efficiency such as friction reduction, CVVL (continuously variable valve lift), and VCR (variable compression ratio), with the aim to improve thermal efficiency to 45 – 50% by 2030. Engine weight reduction and integration are also important development directions for Dongfeng.




Jin-Jing Electric Technologies:Multiple gear Electric Drive Unit (EDU) for EV and HEV

Company Type Speaker Department / Position
Jin-Jing Electric Technologies Co., Ltd. China’s most advanced drive motor and electric power system company YU Ping Chairman, CEO, Chief Engineer

 Jing-Jin Electric Technologies Co., Ltd. has the top share in China for passenger car drive motors and power systems for new energy buses and logistics vehicles; it has 100% of the passenger car electric drive motor export market share. Mr. YU Ping introduced the technology and products of his company’s EDU (electronic drive unit) in the HEV and EV fields.

The viewpoints and conclusions of Mr. YU’s speech are as follows: 

  • Electric drive systems with fixed reduction ratios meet the electric drive requirements of most passenger cars and many commercial vehicles. The advantages are that the torque-rotation speed characteristics of the motor can be fully exerted, there is no interruption or decrease in power due to gear change, and there is little damage, friction, wear, adhesion, or plastic deformation of gear teeth. The disadvantage is that the low speed high torque requirements and maximum motor speed requirements cannot be met simultaneously, and output during high speed running is greatly reduced. Further, with fixed fuel consumption and road surface conditions, it cannot cover diverse load patterns.   
  • For hybrid systems, Jing-Jin employs a 2-speed transmission (direct drive gear and reduction gear), and has developed vertically and horizontally operated hybrid series making it possible to eliminate the drawbacks of a fixed reduction ratio and at the same time demonstrate the superiority of 2-speed systems.
  • Regarding the required reduction ratios, small vehicles need 1-speed, mid-size and large passenger cars need 2-speeds, and high-output models such as commercial trucks need 4-speeds.
  • Jing-Jin’s horizontal dual motor system with no power interruption has excellent performance, and is used in many types of vehicles including luxury sports cars, large EVs and hybrid SUVs, and in high-end mid-size commercial vehicles.

精进电动的纵置两档混动系统 精进电动的横置两档混动系统 商用车四档变速系统
Jing-Jin’s vertical 2-speed hybrid system. Installed in BAIC Jeep B80, the vehicle has high hill-climbing capability and high vehicle speed. Jing-Jin’s horizontal 2-speed hybrid system. Widely used in mid-size and large front wheel drive passenger cars. 4-speed transmission system for commercial vehicles. For both HEV and BEV systems, it can be used in large trucks up to the 40 ton level. The motor’s 4-speed transmission can replace a transmission for internal combustion engines of 10 or more speeds, and the transmission efficiency is higher.
无动力中断横置双电机系统 无动力中断横置双电机系统中的全驱系统 无动力中断横置双电机系统中的全驱系统
Horizontal dual motor system without power interruption. Applied to rear-wheel drive axles, it can be used in vehicles such as sports sedans and large SUVs that combine speed and acceleration. Horizontal dual motor system without power interruption for all-wheel drive systems. Applicable to full-size pickup trucks, SUVs, and commercial vehicles. Torque is greater than 10kNm. Horizontal dual motor system without power interruption for all-wheel drive systems. In a 700V high-voltage platform, acceleration to 100km/h can be reached in 2.34 seconds, maximum speed 300km/h.




GAC Group:Technical analysis of GAC’s G-MC electromechanical coupling system

Company Type Speaker Department / Position
GAC Group Major Chinese motor vehicle manufacturer QI Hongzhong Automotive Engineering Institute, Chief Technology Officer

 Mr. QI Hongzhong of GAC’s Automotive Engineering Institute introduced the development and application status of Guangzhou Automobile Group Co., Ltd.’s (GAC’s) own brand DHT (dedicated hybrid transmission, GAC G-MC).

 According to Mr. QI, GAC Motor places emphasis on the development and application of automotive electrification, and is conducting research and development on the main three parts of the electrical system (battery, motor, and controller). At present, GAC is the only vehicle manufacturer in China which develops and produces its own brand of BEVs, PHVs, and HVs (excluding mild hybrids). By the end of 2018, GAC had already released eight NEV (new energy vehicles) models. In research on mechanical coupling systems, the company has already developed the first generation G-MC1.0, and is currently working on the second generation model G-MC2.0.

 The company began its research on the first generation model at the end of 2013, and the unit was in production at the end of 2016. It was applied in a combined system with the 1.5ATK engine (1.5L 4-cylinder Atkinson cycle engine). Afterwards, it was upgraded and mated to the 1.5TM engine (1.5L 3-cylinder Miller cycle engine), and the new product is greatly improved in terms of power performance, output, and torque. It will be launched onto the market at the end of 2019.

 Because the first generation product could not satisfactorily meet all the requirements of weight, cost, and stringent fuel consumption laws and regulations, the company began its research and development on the second generation G-MC system at the end of 2017. Among the 1-motor type P2 and P2.5, the split type, and the series parallel type hybrid systems, the latter was finally selected. This hybrid system is equipped with one motor drive, dual motor drive, range extender and hybrid mode; among these the dual motor electric drive and hybrid mode have 2 gears. Many A-segment GAC Trumpchi brand models adopting this system can meet the 2025 fuel consumption regulations. GAC plans to begin production of the second generation G-MC system in 2021.

广汽第1代G-MC系统 广汽第2代G-MC系统的创新点
First generation G-MC system: Already more than 20,000 units have been produced. The GAC Trumpchi GS4 PHEV, the GAC-Mitsubishi Eupheme PHEV, and the GAC-Honda Shi Rui PHEV are among the models with the system installed. This is a precedent in which technology developed for a Chinese own-brand is introduced into foreign joint venture vehicles. Innovation of the 2nd generation G-MC system: The company reformed the coupling power transmission, electrical structure integration, components integration, and product development method. The system covers all the vehicle platforms of the GAC Trumpchi brand. Scheduled for production in 2021.




SAIC/Shanghai Hydrogen Propulsion Technology :The development & application of fuel cell technology for transportation

Company Type Speaker Department / Position
Shanghai Hydrogen Propulsion Technology Co., Ltd. Hydrogen energy technology company within the SAIC Group. The company focuses on R&D and production of hydrogen fuel stacks, systems, and complete vehicle. SHI Weiyu Stack Development Department, Director

 Mr. SHI Weiyu explained the business situation and plans in the hydrogen fuel cell field of the SAIC Group and Shanghai Hydrogen Propulsion Technology Co., Ltd. (hereafter SHPT). SHPT was established in 2018 by integrating the hydrogen energy technology activities of the SAIC Group and is now a wholly owned subsidiary of SAIC. It is the most advanced in the field of hydrogen energy in China.

 Mr. SHI conveyed that according to forecasts of major international consulting firms, by around 2050 driving range of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will exceed 600 km, and mid-size and large trucks as well as public and large buses using hydrogen energy will make up a large share, but hydrogen powered passenger cars will have a relatively small share because of limitations of cost and facilities. SAIC Group places great emphasis on hydrogen energy, and since 2001 has proceeded on in-house research and development. In the fields of passenger cars and commercial vehicles, the company is simultaneously promoting policies for both core technologies as well as finished vehicles.

 In 2014, the SAIC Group released the hydrogen fuel cell passenger car Roewe 750FCV, the first such included in the Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s (MIIT) list of approved vehicles, and in 2016 the hydrogen fuel cell passenger car Roewe 950FCV was approved by MIIT, license plates were registered, and it was manufactured in small lots and sold. Sixty units of this vehicle were built, 50 units were sold. With a driving range of 430km, it is the only product in China with a hydrogen fuel tank that has a tank pressure of 70MPa. The vehicle has passed durability testing in the research and development process including the “three extremes” tests (high temperature, low temperature, high altitude) and the vehicle presently on sale is running stably. Total accumulated mileage is about 500,000 km, and the longest mileage on a single vehicle has exceeded 50,000 km.

 A representative product of SAIC Group is the SAIC Maxus FCV80 small bus released in 2017. 500 units of this vehicle have been sold, and about 400 units are operated in the market. Considering the situation of basic infrastructure such as hydrogen refueling stations, the vehicles at present are being operated only in the three cities of Fushun, Shanghai and Foshan. The driving range of this model is 490km, and the hydrogen fuel tank pressure is 35MPa. At this point, total accumulated mileage exceeds 1,900,000 km, and one vehicle has mileage exceeding 50,000 km.

 SHPT is the technology of the fuel cell stack. The 4th generation product series P390 has a system output of 91.5kW, stack power density has reached 3.1kW/L, the stack maximum operating temperature is 95°C, minimum temperature is -30°C, and the platinum content is 0.3g/kW. This product series was first used on the SAIC Maxus G20FC.

 Based on a TCO (total cost of ownership) cost analysis, SAIC believes that within a few years the share of hydrogen fueled mid-size and large trucks will increase. Compared to BEV, hydrogen fueled vehicles are superior in terms of weight and filling method, and can effectively increase loading capacity and transportation efficiency, and the company thinks that this is an important development direction in the future. As for hydrogen fueled passenger cars, TCO is inferior, but there are advantages such as refilling speed and operation in environments below -30°C, and because the costs will fall as the market expands, SAIC will continue to conduct research on passenger car applications into the future.

上汽集团燃料电池汽车发展里程碑 上海捷氢的电堆性能参数
SAIC Group fuel cell vehicle development milestones. From 2001, joint R&D started with GM. Models already launched include Roewe 750FCV, Roewe 950FCV, Maxus FCV80, Sunwin FCV public bus and Maxus G20FC. Hydrogen Propulsion’s stack performance parameters. The 4th generation series product P390 has advanced performance capabilities. It is estimated that in 2020, the sales of commercial vehicles utilizing the P390 series will reach 600 units.


CTI, Forum, DHT, EDU, HV, PHV, BEV, Hydrogen energy, Fuel cell, Stac,FCV, G-MC, e-tron, Drive system, 3-cylinder engine, Audi, Dongfeng, Jin-Jing Electric Technologies, GAC, SAIC, Shanghai Hydrogen Propulsion Technology

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