Toyota launches Mirai fuel cell vehicle in December 2014
Annual unit sales ranging in tens of thousands are expected by 2020s
|Toyota Mirai FCV
(Photos in this report are from Toyota's media releases.)
On December 15, 2014, Toyota Motor Corporation launched its hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) "Mirai" after some 20 years of technical development. The FCV has a price tag of JPY 7,236,000 (tax inclusive) or JPY 5,216,000 after application of the national subsidy of up to JPY 2.02 million. The FCV will be further eligible for subsidies by local governments (JPY 1 million in Tokyo case).
The Mirai is on display only at a limited number of Toyota dealerships and its market debut was rather a quiet one. Toyota has already received nearly a thousand pre-launch orders, so new orders are not likely to be delivered for a year or two. The FCV is built by an entirely new technology and Toyota is manufacturing it in an extra careful manner. The company plans to increase the annual production from 700 to 2,000 units by the end of 2015.
Toyota plans to sell 400 units in Japan by the end of 2015, launch the Mirai in Europe and the U.S. in the summer of 2015, and sell 50 to 100 units in Europe in 2016. Toyota regards the U.S. as the key market as a stricter Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) program is being introduced in California. The company hopes to sell about 3,000 units in the U.S. by the end of 2017.
Iwatani Corporation has announced its hydrogen price to be JPY 1,100 per kg. Assuming the price of gasoline to be JPY 160 per liter, the fuel cost of the Mirai will be equal to that of Toyota Harrier Hybrid.
Decisions have been made to construct hydrogen stations at 45 locations in Japan with the subsidies provided by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Another initiative is under way to construct stations annexed to Seven-Eleven Japan's convenience stores. Honda and Iwatani plan to construct their original compact hydrogen stations named "Smart Hydrogen Station."
Toyota's Mirai FCV will be available initially in limited quantities. Honda's FCVs will not reach markets until January to March 2016. The FCVs and hydrogen stations are expected to spread rather slowly and their full market penetration is not likely until the 2020s. Toyota is expecting to sell several tens of thousands of units in the 2020s.
Related report: FC EXPO 2014 and FCV launch plans (Mar. 2014)
Mirai FCV launched in December 2014
Toyota's production fuel cell vehicle, the Mirai, was released for sale on December 15 in Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and Kitakyushu where hydrogen infrastructure will be available ahead of other places.
The fuel cell (FC) stack and high-pressure hydrogen tanks are located under the floor at the vehicle's center. This lowers the center of gravity and improves handling and stability of the car. A five-seater FCV is technically possible but Toyota chose a four-seater to market it as a high-end vehicle. The Mirai can travel 650km in JC08 mode after hydrogen refueling.
The Mirai's FC stack features the world's first 3D fine-mesh flow channels which increase the diffusion of air (oxygen) and ensure uniform generation of electric power on cell surfaces. The result is a new compact, high-performance power generation system that does not use a humidifier which is normally required to regulate humidity.
The high-pressure hydrogen tanks are made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) supplied by Toray that increased the tank storage capacity by 20%. This has reduced the number of necessary tanks from four to only two.
|Toyota Mirai rear-side view||Side view of TFCS with FC stack and high-pressure hydrogen tanks located under the center floor to lower the center of gravity|
|Top view of Toyota Fuel Cell System (TFCS)|
Mirai Main Vehicle Specifications
Source: Toyota press release Nov. 18, 2014.
Toyota Fuel Cell System's (TFCS) key specifications
|FC stack||Name||Toyota FC Stack|
|Type||Polymer electrolyte fuel cell|
|Volume power density||3.1kW/L|
|Maximum output||114kW (155PS)|
|Humidification system||Internal circulation (humidifier-less)|
|High-pressure hydrogen tank||Number of tanks||2|
|Nominal working pressure||70MPa (approx. 700 bar)|
|Tank storage density (note)||5.7wt%|
|Tank internal volume||122.4 liters (front tank: 60.0 liters; rear tank: 62.4 liters)|
|Motor||Type||AC synchronous electric generator|
|Maximum output||113kW (154PS)|
|Maximum torque||335 N-m (34.2kgf･m)|
Source: Toyota press release Nov. 18, 2014. (Note) Hydrogen storage mass per tank weight
TFCS provides superior environmental performance and convenience
|The Toyota Mirai adopts the Toyota Fuel Cell System (TFCS) that integrates fuel cell and hybrid technologies. The system has higher energy efficiency over the internal combustion systems and emits no CO2 or substances of concern other than water when driven. In addition to these superior environmental performances, it provides the same level of convenience as offered by gasoline engine vehicles, with a hydrogen refueling time of about 3 minutes and a generous cruising range of up to 650km.|
New technologies adopted in the Mirai
|Toyota Fuel Cell System (TFCS)||Toyota FC stack||The new Toyota FC stack has achieved a maximum output of 114kW. It features the world's first 3D fine-mesh flow channels which ensure uniform generation of electric power on cell surfaces. The result is a new compact, high-performance power generation system that has world-leading power output density of 3.1kW/liter, 2.2 times higher than that of the Toyota FCHV-adv announced in 2008.|
|The amount of water (humidity) on fuel cell electrolyte membranes has a substantial influence on the efficiency of electric power generation. It is controlled by internal circulation in which the water generated from power generation is circulated within the cells. The Toyota Mirai has the world-first FC stack that does not use the humidifier which was an integral part of early FCVs.|
|FC boost converter||Toyota has developed a compact, highly efficient, large capacity converter that boosts the electricity generated by the FC stack to up to 650V. The availability of high voltages has made it possible to downsize the motor and reduce the number of cells in the Toyota FC stack. This led to the development of the compact, highly efficient TFCS and the reduction of its cost.|
|High-pressure hydrogen tanks||The tanks have a three-layer structure, made up of CFRP, to store the hydrogen fuel at 70MPs (70 megapascals, or approximately 700 bars). Compared to the high-pressure hydrogen tank used in the FCHV-adv, tank storage capacity has been increased by approximately 20% while reducing weight and size. As a result, the Mirai has a world-leading storage density of 5.7wt%.|
|Safety equipment||Unique safety considerations for FCV||The high-pressure hydrogen tanks have superior hydrogen permeation prevention performance, strength and durability.|
|The FCV system is structured to effectively disperse and absorb the impact energy across multiple parts. This protects the Toyota FC stack and high-pressure hydrogen tanks against the impact from frontal, side and rear collisions.|
|Standard safety equipment||Standard features include the pre-crash safety system (using millimeter wave radar), lane departure alert, drive-start control that prevents sudden starts or acceleration during gear-shift operation, and blind spot monitor.|
|Enhanced driving pleasure by superior handling, stability and quietness||Driving pleasure||The motor is driven by optimal control of the powerful Toyota FC stack and battery power to ensure agile responsiveness at all speed ranges. High torques are available as soon as the accelerator is depressed, followed by smooth yet powerful acceleration.|
|Handling and stability||The Toyota FC stack and the high-pressure hydrogen tanks are located under the center floor. This lowers the center of gravity of the vehicle and provides superior front-to-rear weight distribution. The Mirai FCV has a highly-rigid body especially around the rear suspension. This also contributes to superior handling stability and ride comfort.|
|Large-capacity external power supply system||The Mirai has a large power supply system with approximately 60kWh capacity, which is capable of supplying up to 9kW of electric energy. When connected to an external power feeder (sold separately), the system converts the direct current (DC) from the receptacle outlet located in the trunk to alternating current (AC). The AC may be used to power electric appliances at home in an event of power interruption after a natural disaster, etc.|
Source: Toyota press release Nov. 18, 2014.
Mirai's price: JPY 5.21 million thanks to govt. subsidy; Tokyo to add JPY 1 million subsidy
The Mirai is sold for JPY 7,236,000 including tax. However, when a national subsidy of up to JPY 2.02 million is applied, the price goes down to about JPY 5.21 million. The Tokyo metropolitan and other local governments are planning local subsidies (approximately JPY 1 million in Tokyo). Therefore, the final price is likely to be about JPY 4,210,000.
It is said that the cost of Toyota's FCVs has been reduced to one-twentieth in the last ten years, partly because the amount of the precious platinum used in a FCV was reduced to one-third from that in 2008. According to Toyota, nearly 90% of cost reduction came when the company found ways to mass-produce FCVs by establishing marketable reliability, driving conditions and durability. It is said that early FCVs were manufactured virtually one by one costing about JPY 100 million.
Actual price of the Mirai
|Manufacturer's suggested retail price (including tax)||JPY 7,236,000|
|CEV (clean energy vehicle) subsidy||Up to JPY 2,020,000|
|Subsidized price||Approx. JPY 5,216,000|
Other tax privileges
|Eco-car tax reduction||Vehicle weight tax||Approx. JPY 30,000|
|Vehicle acquisition tax||Approx. JPY 180,900|
|Automobile Green Taxation reduction||Vehicle tax in the following year||Approx. JPY 22,000|
|Total tax reduction||Approx. JPY 232,900|
|Source: Toyota press release Nov. 18, 2014|
|(Notes) 1.||The subsidized price of JPY 5.21 million is nearly the same as the retail price of the two-wheel drive Crown Athlete that ranges from JPY 3,672,000 (2.5-liter model) to JPY 5,914,285 (3.5-liter model).|
|2.||In addition to national subsidies, Tokyo metropolitan government has plans to offer a local subsidy of around JPY 1 million. Similar subsidies are being considered in other prefectures such as Aichi, Fukuoka and Osaka.|
Toyota to build 700 Mirais by end of 2015 and invest JPY 20 billion to triple quantity
Toyota plans to sell 400 units of the Mirai in Japan by the end of 2015, launch it in Europe and the U.S. in the summer of 2015, and sell 50 to 100 units in Europe in 2016. Toyota regards the U.S. as the key market where a stricter ZEV program is being introduced in California. The company aims to sell about 3,000 units in the U.S. by the end of 2017.
Toyota had received pre-orders for 1,000 units of the Mirai, placed mainly by central and local government offices, when the FCV was released for sale on December 15. The company planned to produce 700 units between December 2014 and the end of 2015. Realizing that it is far from demand, Toyota will invest JPY 20 billion in the main plant and Motomachi plant to triple the production quantity to around 2,000 units by the end of 2015. The main plant produces FC stacks while the Motomachi plant builds FCVs.
Toyota plans to increase the annual production to several tens of thousands of units in the 2020s. The company also plans to reduce the price difference between the FCV and gasoline-fueled vehicles of the same class to the level of present price difference between hybrid and gasoline-fueled vehicles by around 2025.
Iwatani's hydrogen refueling cost of FCV equivalent to refueling cost of mid-size hybrid sedan
In November 2014, Iwatani announced the hydrogen price at its hydrogen refueling stations to be JPY 1,100 per kg. Assuming that the gasoline fuel costs JPY 160 per liter, refueling the Toyota Mirai FCV would cost the same as refueling the Toyota Harrier Hybrid.
The price of hydrogen reflects Iwatani's expectation for a huge demand in the future and is utterly below the break-even point at present.Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., that opened a hydrogen station in Nerima ward in Tokyo on December 18, 2014, will set the price of hydrogen similar to the price of gasoline fuel for vehicles of the same class.
Iwatani sets the hydrogen price to JPY 1,100 per kg, about the same cost to refuel a mid-size hybrid vehicle
|The Strategic Road Map for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells was announced in June 2014 by the Japanese Resources and Energy Agency. The road map aims to reduce the price of hydrogen dispensed at a hydrogen station to a level equal to or lower than that of fuel for gasoline-fueled vehicles by the end of 2015. The price is to be reduced further to a level equal to or lower than that of fuel for hybrid vehicles by the end of 2020.|
|Iwatani has been working to meet the Agency's target. In November 2014, the company announced that it has set the hydrogen fuel price at its hydrogen stations to JPY 100 per Nm3 (Note), or JPY 1,100 per kg in weight indication (the price of liquefied hydrogen supplied to hydrogen stations in Tokyo, excluding consumption tax). It has been said that the retail price of hydrogen fuel at stations would be about JPY 150 per Nm3. Iwatani aims to reduce the price to that of fuel for hybrid vehicles of the same class by the end of 2020, fiver years ahead of the Resources and Energy Agency's goal.|
Source: Iwatani press release Nov. 14, 2014. (Note) Nm3 is the volumetric flow rate of a gas in standardized conditions (at 0 degree Celsius at 1.0 bar).
JX Nippon Oil & Energy and Iwatani to build 60 hydrogen stations by March 2016
There were only two hydrogen stations (in the cities of Amagasaki, Hyogo prefecture and Kitakyushu), that operated on December 15, 2014, when the Mirai FCV was launched. The two stations are operated by Iwatani.Two more stations were built by the end of December; one by Tokyo Gas in Nerima Ward of Tokyo and another by JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation in Ebina City in Kanagawa Prefecture. Decisions have been made to open hydrogen stations at 41 more locations under the subsidies offered by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Sixty hydrogen stations will be operating in total by the end of March 2016, including those opened by JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation and Iwatani.
Another plan has been announced to open hydrogen stations annexed to Seven-Eleven convenience stores. Honda has also commenced a proving test of its own compact hydrogen stations. The Japanese government is easing the construction and safety standards for hydrogen stations to lower the station construction cost. This is expected to lead to opening of 100 hydrogen stations before the end of March 2016.
The energy manufacturers plan to build hydrogen stations before the market penetration of fuel cell vehicles. However, the number of FCVs and hydrogen stations is likely to increase rather slowly. According to Toyota, "the FCVs have a long way to go and it will take 10 to 20 years before their general market penetration."
Hydrogen station plans in Japan
|By Mar. 2015||By Mar. 2016||From Apr. 2016 onward|
|JX Nippon Oil & Energy||Ebina City and 10 other stations||40 stations in total||100 stations by Mar. 2019 2,000 stations by Mar. 2021|
|Iwatani||Amagasaki City and 2 other sations||20 stations in total in 4 large cities|
|Toyota Tsusho||Stationary type at 2 locations with 2 mobile type stations|
|Tokyo Gas||Opened on December 18 in Nerima Ward in Tokyo|
|Source: Iwatani's press release Oct. 22, 2014, JX's press release Nov. 12, 2014.|
|(Notes) 1.||Figures include mobile stations but do not include those annexed to Seven-Eleven stores and the compact stations developed by Honda (see references below).|
|2.||Similar plans are under way by Osaka Gas, Toho Gas, Seibu Gas, etc.|
|3.||The Metropolis of Tokyo expects to see 6,000 FCVs and 35 hydrogen stations in 2020, the year of Tokyo Olympic Games. Tokyo aims to achieve approximately 100,000 FCVs and 80 hydrogen stations in 2025 when a launch of third-generation FCVs is expected.|
|4.||According to the hydrogen station development scenario published by Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan (FCCJ) in 2010, there will be 2 million FCVs and 1,000 hydrogen stations in Japan in 2025. There will be 2,000 FCV drivers per hydrogen station which will justify the hydrogen station business on a commercial basis.|
JX Nippon Oil & Energy: Building independent and mobile hydrogen stations in addition to hydrogen stations annexed to gasoline stations
|Developing hydrogen stations annexed to gasoline stations||JX Nippon Oil & Energy is developing primarily the hydrogen stations annexed to ENEOS gasoline service stations. The first annexed hydrogen station opened in December 2014 in Ebina. The company plans to increase the number of such installations to 11 before the end of March 2015, to 40 by March 2016, and to 100 by March 2019.|
|It has been reported that the company will develop low-cost hydrogen manufacturing technology and start production by 2020. It will install hydrogen stands annexed to up to approximately 2000 existing gasoline refueling stations that are capable of storing hydrogen.|
|Independent and mobile stations||The 11 hydrogen stations, planned to be opened by JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation by March 2016, include eight annexed hydrogen stations and three independent ones. The company plans to install independent and mobile stations as a means of hydrogen fuel supply in highly populated areas without open spaces. In October, the company established a new wholly owned company, ENEOS Hydrogen Supply & Service, to proceed the plan.|
Source: JX's press release Jul. 16, 2014, Nihon Keizai Newspaper Nov. 16, 2014/ Dec. 22, 2014.
Iwatani: Building 20 hydrogen stations by March 2016
|Off-site supply business||Iwatani is a leading manufacturer of industrial hydrogen gas. It has nearly full control over the liquefied hydrogen supply in Japan. The company is developing stations around their hydrogen supply network. The first hydrogen station opened in July 2014 in Amagasaki, followed by another in Kitakyushu in October. These are the off-site stations that receive hydrogen manufactured elsewhere. The company plans to operate commercial hydrogen stations at 20 locations by the end of March 2016.|
|Stations annexed to Seven-Eleven stores||In December 2014, Iwatani and Seven-Eleven Japan agreed to open hydrogen stations annexed to Seven-Eleven stores. They will open annexed hydrogen stations initially in Tokyo and Aichi by March 2016, and increase the number to 20 in total by March 2018. They will also conduct proving tests of a system to supply electricity to Seven-Eleven stores using fuel cells.|
|Smart Hydrogen Station||In September 2014, Iwatani, Honda and the City of Saitama installed a compact hydrogen station in Saitama that manufactures hydrogen from water and refuel FCVs. A proving test of the hydrogen supply system started at the station. The "Smart Hydrogen Station" (SHS) is Honda's original pressurized water electrolysis system without the compressor. It is a world-first packaged system with all components such as the high-pressure hydrogen tanks and the filling nozzle pre-assembled at its plant. The package measures 3200(W)mm by 2438(D)mm by 2438(H)mm and occupies 7.8 square meters of space. Its construction cost is about JPY 50 million, only 1/10 of the existing hydrogen stations. It can be installed in a day.|
|In December 2014, Iwatani, Honda and the City of Kitakyushu installed an SHS in Kitakyushu. A proving test started at the station using a Honda FCX Clarity, owned by the City of Kitakyushu, toward the commercialization of the packaged system.|
Source: Honda press release Sep. 18, 2014., Iwatani's press release Dec. 15, 2014, Iwatani-Seven-Eleven joint press release Dec. 10, 2014
Toyota Tsusho: Starting hydrogen station and mobile station business
|Hydrogen stations||In October 2013, Toyota Tsusho Corporation and Air Liquide Japan established a joint venture company, Toyotsu Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Co., Ltd. The new company will build and operate commercial stationary hydrogen stations. Their first hydrogen stations will be constructed in the cities of Nagoya and Toyota in January 2015.|
|Mobile stations||Toyota Tsusho will establish a new company before the end of 2014 jointly with Iwatani, Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation and Sumitomo Mitsui Finance & Leasing Co., Ltd. The new company will operate mobile hydrogen stations starting with three mobile stations by March 2015. A mobile station costs JPY 200 to 300 million, just a half of the cost of a stationary station.|
Source: Toyota Tsusho press release Sep.1, 2014.
Tokyo Gas: Hydrogen stations opened in Nerima Ward, Tokyo, and City of Saitama
|Nerima Hydrogen Station||In December 2014, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.opened a hydrogen station in Nerima Ward, Tokyo. It is annexed to the company's natural gas station called "Nerima Eco Station." The new station, which is the first hydrogen station in the Kanto area, is an offsite station that receives hydrogen manufactured elsewhere.|
|Urawa Hydrogen Station (Tentative name)||Tokyo Gas is constructing another hydrogen station annexed to a natural gas station in Urawa, Saitama. It manufactures hydrogen on site. When completed, the station in Urawa will supply hydrogen to the station in Nerima as well.|
Source: Tokyo Gas press release Jun. 21, 2013./Dec. 18, 2014.
Toyota and Honda are supporting the growth of hydrogen supply network in the United States. The two companies are financially supporting FirstElement Fuel, Inc., in developing a network of hydrogen stations in California.
Toyota and Honda: Financially supporting a hydrogen station developer in California
|The state of California||There were only nine hydrogen stations in operation in the State of California in the spring of 2014. The California state government will provide USD 200 million in financial assistance in the next few years to help open 100 hydrogen stations in California.|
|Toyota||In the spring of 2014, Toyota provided USD 7.2 million in financial assistance to FirstElement Fuel. Toyota believes that the next several years are the critical years to the widespread of FCVs in California and plans to support the hydrogen station networking by FirstElement Fuel. The Californian company is building 19 hydrogen stations with state grants and Toyota's funding.|
|Honda||Honda, too, announced at the Los Angeles Auto Show in November 2014 that it would provide USD 13.8 million in financial assistance to FirstElement Fuel. With the state grants and Honda's funding, the Californian company will expand its hydrogen station networking plan by 12 locations and build 31 stations in total.|
Source: Honda press release Nov. 19, 2014, Bloomberg news May 2, 2014.
Tokyo to operate 50 fuel cell buses by 2020
In May 2014, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government set up "the Tokyo strategy council toward the realization of a hydrogen society." In the intermediate report that was published in November, Tokyo announced plans to operate 50 fuel cell buses by 2020. It also plans to introduce the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system before the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. Daimler has global expertise with BRT and plans to introduce its BRT system in Japan.
Tokyo Metropolitan Government: Planning to operate 50 FC buses in 2020
|Hino Motors, Ltd. will release FC buses for sale by March 2017 if all goes as planned. The buses will have a seating capacity for around 80 passengers as in conventional route buses, along with a cruising range of 200 to 300km per refill. According to Hino Motors, FC buses will be an ideal replacement for large route buses in an early stage of infrastructure development considering the large number of such buses in operation in and in the outskirts of large cities. Tokyo will also work on location hunting for installing hydrogen stations along the bus routes.|
|Tokyo will commence proving tests by March 2016 with the FC bus being developed by Hino Motors. Tokyo plans to start commercial operations of FC buses by March 2017. The local government hopes to see 50 or more FC buses by 2020 including those operated by Tokyo and by private bus companies.|
Daimler: Planning to engage in Bus Rapid Transit business in Japan
|Tokyo is studying the feasibility of introducing BRT before the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. Daimler has years of expertise with BRT and has consulting teams of experts on traffic congestion analysis, urban planning and even funding. Daimler plans to enter the Japanese market by 2020 with its BRT system using FC buses. Sales and maintenance of the FC buses will be handled by Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation, one of Daimler's subsidiaries.|
|A BRT system aims to combine the capacity of railway system with the simplicity of a bus system. For example, the BRT system in Curitiba, Brazil, has dedicated lanes in main roads where articulated or bi-articulated buses run every minute or two. Daimler has introduced more than 180 BRT lines in more than 30 cities around the globe. Since a BRT uses an existing road infrastructure, BRT will cost only about one-tenth that of developing a railway network.|
Source: Hino Motors' press release Mar. 26, 2014, Daimler press release Oct. 30, 2014, Nikkei Sangyo Newspaper Nov. 19, 2014/Nov. 26, 2014/Dec. 8, 2014. (Note) In addition to FCV sedans and buses, Toyota Industries Corporation will develop FC forklifts by 2018. A battery-operated forklift requires 6 to 8 hours of daily charging. An FC forklift can be refueled in just 3 minutes and will remain operative for the rest of the day. The company aims to make its FC forklifts available for several million yen.
Honda to launch fuel cell sedan in January to March 2016
In November 2014, Honda unveiled its latest prototype of a five-seater fuel cell vehicle that will reportedly be sold for JPY 7 to 8 million, close to the price of the Toyota Mirai. The FC stack, motor and other powertrain components are located under the hood to provide a more spacious cabin than the Toyota Mirai. Honda will release the FCV for sale in Japan between January and March 2016. The FCV will be launched subsequently in the U.S. and Europe.
Honda and Iwatani Corporation have jointly developed a compact Smart Hydrogen Station (SHS) that occupies only 7.8 square meters of space. The proving test of the SHS commenced in Saitama in September, and in Kitakyushu in December 2014. Large commercial hydrogen stations will remain scarce in the early stage of FCV market growth and the compact SHS is regarded as an effective supplement (see Iwatani under hydrogen stations above.)
|Honda FCV Concept slated for launch by March 2016 (Photos are taken at Honda Welcome Plaza Aoyama)||FC stack currently used in FCX Clarity (right) and the new 33% smaller FC stack (left)|
Honda FCV Concept and external power supply concept unveiled
|Honda FCV Concept||The newly-developed FC stack is 33% smaller than the one used in the present FCX Clarity. Yet, it delivers more than 100kW of power achieving approximately 60% improvement in specific power at 3.1kW per liter. The powertrain including the compact FC stack is reduced in size to that of the V6 gasoline engine. This has resulted in a world-first FC powertrain contained under the hood of a sedan type vehicle. This powertrain layout enables a full cabin package that comfortably seats five adults. The layout can also be evolved into different vehicle types in the future when FCVs become popular among customers with various tastes.|
|Honda FCV Concept is fitted with a 70MPa high-pressure hydrogen storage tank that provides a cruising range of over 700km per filling.|
|External power supply concept||Honda unveiled an external power supply concept with an AC power supply of up to 9kW. When combined with the external power supply (Honda Power Exporter), the FCV will function as a compact "mobile power source" that will supply electricity to the local community in times of disasters.|
Source: Honda press release Sep. 18, 2014./ Nov. 17, 2014.
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