IAA Hannover Commercial Vehicle Show 2014 Report (Part 1)
Daimler's autonomous truck and MAN's new engines on display
The IAA Slogan: "Driving the Future"
Intention of the organizer, the German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA) for holding the Hannover Show this year -To prepare for promoting industry-wide technical innovation suited to both developed and emerging countries and for achieving targets.
- The IAA poster represents environmental friendliness with blue color and data highway as a symbol of the link to sustainable and efficient distribution.
The IAA is the world's largest commercial vehicle show and the 65th IAA gathered 2,066 exhibitors from 45 countries worldwide, with 322 world premieres.
Among them, exhibitors from countries outside Germany accounted for 59%, or more than 1200 companies. By country, Chinese companies ranked top, followed by those in Italy and Turkey (mainly small- to large-sized parts suppliers).
The IAA is held in every even-numbered year and this year's venue was the Hannover Messe as usual. The site has an exhibition space 3.5 times larger than that of the Tokyo International Exhibition Center.
Unlike the Tokyo Motor Show, the IAA is a complete Business-to-Business show with its focus on freight companies as well as their drivers, families, and owners of trucks. Each automaker intends to provide opportunities for visitors to increase familiarity with and understanding of trucks, as symbolized by children freely operating steering wheels and switches on truck driver's seats.
Market data (from VDA)
- In the European Union's internal market: Transportation by truck accounts for 73%. - In 2013, on-road freight transportation in Germany amounted to 453.4 billion ton kilometers. In the German market, sales of trucks over 6 tons increased by 3%. In particular, the sales totaled in 34,000 units between January and May 2014, and increased by 12% year-over-year by the end of May. - In 2013, there was the last-minute demand for trucks before the Euro VI emission standard was introduced. - Daimler sold 516,000 units of light- to heavy-duty commercial vehicles worldwide between January and August 2014. Notably, the company sold 47,000 units of heavy-duty vehicles thanks to the rush demand before the introduction of Euro VI standard in January 2014. - These figures reveal the convenience of trucks for door-to-door transportation.
Keywords (typical promotions by leading participating manufacturers)
- TCO: 'Total Cost Ownership' TCO evaluates balance between life cycle cost and profitability. Each company publicized the advantages of their products and the overall outcome arising from their technologies and services to improve their customers' profitability. An example of such improvement is the maximized vehicle operating time (Each company tries to achieve less non-operating time through timely provision of services).
Euro VI, Efficient: Environmental friendliness, low fuel consumption, exhaust gas reduction, efficiency, and customers' profitability in relation to the new Euro VI exhaust emission standards introduced in January 2014.
IT Connect, Telematics: Transition from transportation by only drivers operating on their seats to transportation using external IT communication. The transition will improve transportation conditions and quality as a whole. Telematics and other IT tools help reduce operation costs and enhance economy of transportation ("online transportation environment" and "connected trucks" are the popular key words.).
GPS Cruise Control: This system controls the vehicle speed according to predicted topographical data obtained by GPS to improve fuel efficiency and driving safety.
- Autonomous: Autonomous driving assistance systems for vehicles to detect and analyze traffic conditions for prediction and judgment on their own. Such systems are effective to optimize driving conditions and reduce fuel consumption as well as to improve safety, comfort, and economy of transportation. Some systems even enables a driver to control steering remotely via tablets and smartphones.
- Extended vehicle sizes and improved aerodynamic characteristics: Longer truck sizes mean increased payload and ecological efficiency. Moreover, higher aerodynamic characteristics and energy efficiency lead to sustainable reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emission.
- Compressed natural gas (CNG): Higher gasoline fuel costs prompt automakers to use CNG to reduce truck operation costs and CO2 emissions. CNG products were exhibited by Daimler, MAN, Scania, and Iveco.
The following report is organized on manufacturer basis. Part 1 outlines exhibitions by Daimler and MAN, while Part 2 summarizes those by Volvo, Scania, Renault, and other companies.
Daimler: World's first fully autonomous truck, Future Truck 2025 Concept
|Entrance of Daimler's section accompanied by logos of its affiliates, Fuso and Setra||Introduction of logos for exhibited vehicles|
Daimler is the world's top company in terms of the volumes of truck production and sales, with affiliated truck manufacturers like Mitsubishi Fuso of Japan and Freightliner of the U.S. In 2013, its market share of trucks over 6 tons was 24.1% in Western Europe, which is much higher than those of MAN, DAF, and Volvo.
Since the release of the fully redesigned Actros heavy-duty flagship truck in 2011, the company launched a series of new trucks by 2013, including the facelifted Atego medium-duty truck, all-new Antos low-priced heavy-duty truck, and the new Arocs heavy-duty construction truck. Daimler aims to dominate the global market with an increasing number of its affiliates such as German prestigious bus manufacturer Setra, Freightliner and Western Star of the U.S., and Daimler India Commercial Vehicle (DICV), as well as Mitsubishi Fuso.
|Daimler booth extending over two large halls||Entrance with DICV's BharatBenz and Fuso-FJ on the left and U.S. Western Star truck on the right|
For German manufacturers, the IAA is held in their home country and Daimler occupied the largest area at the IAA to demonstrate its commitment to this show. The company exhibited all current vehicle series, including the Actros, Antos, Arocs, Atego, Econic, Zetros, and Unimog, for various applications such as long-distance travel, construction, and heavy towing. The Sprinter and other light vans were also showcased at the booth.
Trucks from the group's light-duty truck division, Fuso Canter, and Setra and other buses were put together at the same section. At the entrance, the BharatBenz (8 × 6) and Fuso-FJ (6 × 4) from DICV and a Western Star truck were displayed for reference.
As the group's highlight of this show, Daimler uncovered the Future Truck 2025 Concept, the world's first truck with a fully autonomous driving system. On September 22, this future truck was introduced to 500 reporters from home and abroad in a hangar at the Hannover airport, after test cruising at 80km/h.
The descriptions of major models are summarized by model as follows.
1)[BENZ Future Truck 2025 Concept]
- Highway pilot system under the concept of "Intelligent and Emotional"
This truck is equipped with an autonomous driving assistance system that achieves high fuel efficiency, driving performance, safety, and comfort to revolutionize traffic infrastructures and transportation. The truck was developed to save distribution-related energy and reduce CO2 emissions. By developing the fully autonomous truck, Daimler also aims to ensure the highest safety on the road and to become the leader in establishing an efficient transportation environment.
Only the Future Truck was demonstrated on the center table in the booth. The back screen continuously showed a video of actual driving on the roads.
|Blue LED point lights turn on during autonomous driving (photo by Daimler)||The concept towing a trailer that was made in consideration of aerodynamics (photo by Daimler)|
- Traffic conditions are detected and analyzed by various types of numerous on-board sensors so that the vehicle can make its own prediction and judgment. This realizes optimal driving conditions (run, turn, and stop) without disturbing traffic flow. The truck achieves high fuel efficiency, safety, and comfort as well as economical transportation. Furthermore, the truck is a "connected vehicles" that enables vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication.
This grand truck project will help drivers become "transportation managers," who not only drive vehicles but also can manage transportation, leading to positive effect on overall transportation economy.
- The sensors integrated with radar and camera systematically control steering, engine, and braking.
- The entirely smooth vehicle surface without protrusions improves aerodynamic characteristics and fuel efficiency.
Flexible designs are also ensured (the Future Truck was derived from the current Actros).
- The front grille and head lamps are embedded with the body and LED point lights are used for external lighting.
LEDs are lit blue during autonomous driving and white when a drive is driving in order to clearly distinguish the two modes and make it visible from the outside..
|Relaxing space with consideration for the time during autonomous driving||Driver's seat can be slid and rotated|
- The instrument panel in front of the driver's seat is fitted with an interface display for the driver to check driving conditions interactively. Part of it can even be detached as a tablet.
- The cabin design is simple but looks like a luxurious cruiser with natural wooden flooring. Both driver's and assistant driver's seats are captain seats that can be rotated and slid back and forth.
- Truck drivers can be transformed from mere "drivers" into "transportation managers" with extended professional capacity and enhanced status.
|ACTROS 2545(GVW25t,450ps) Swap body truck, a common truck type in Germany (exhibited outside)|
Among Daimler's recent European model, the Actros was fully remodeled the earliest in 2011. In a short period of the last two years, the model has sold quite well, mainly in Europe, and enjoyed great popularity. The cab was used as the base for its sibling series released in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the basic version, payload-optimized variant (the Actros Loader) and volume-optimized variant (the Actros Volumer) are also available. Gross combination weights (GCWs) with tractors range from 18 tons to 41 tons, with engine displacements from 7.7 liters (240ps) to 15.6 liters (625ps).
FuelDuel (fuel consumption evaluation): The Actros is enjoying the best TCO (balance between life cycle cost and profitability) evaluation, as proven by the fact that 300 users in Europe have acknowledged its leadership in efficiency, economy, and reliability. In addition to the Euro VI-compliant engine, Daimler developed fuel saving technologies such as the new OM473 engine, the Power Shift 3 transmission with low fuel consumption mode, and predictive powertrain control supported by a fuel consumption reduction forecast system. Fuel consumption is reduced by 9% or more as an entire vehicle, leading to reduced TCO and improved customers' profitability.
＊ SoloStarConcept: The highest grade of the Actros flagship truck was proposed to compete with the Scania R730. This concept car features a high-grade cab and an engine with a maximum output of 625ps to attract owner-operator truck drivers. Daimler focused on interior improvement to enhance operability and comfort. To take advantages of the Megaspace cab, various features are provided, such as flat floor, in-vehicle lighting, movable sofa, table, and refrigerator. Seats and other components can be selected from multiple options.
|Interior and exterior of the high grade SoloStar cab Actros 1863LS GCW18t 625ps|
Among the cab series debuted at this show, the SoloStar aimed at the highest level of operability during driving and resting as well as comfortable environment. The instrument panel was improved in a way for every driver to concentrate on all of their operations.
- New power shift S/W on the steering wheel, 10.4cm multi-display
- Multi-functional steering wheel with eight function switches (to display information on fuel consumption, traffic information, etc.)
- Remote controller to allow operations such as starting the engine and monitoring the tire pressure within a range of 100m
- Separation between driving space and comfortable living space, variable lounge seat & bed
Top range (OM473) BlueEfficiency Power engine
This new Euro VI-compliant, high-horsepower engine rolled off the production line in September 2013 as the top-of-the-range engine among Daimler's large-sized engine series. Sixteen variations are included in the series, starting from a 7.7-liter displacement. This engine is fitted on the Actros, Arocs, and Antos. Based on the OM471 platform, it replaces the former V8 engine and generates high horsepower and torque (510ps to 625ps with a displacement of 15.6 liters).
The maximum torque is available at 1,100rpm and the full power to pull a trailer is available between 900rpm and 1,400rpm. The weight is 1284kg. The engine can reduce fuel consumption by 2% on its own and by 5% to 7% as an entire vehicle.
Steel pistons, gray cast iron crank case, and compacted graphite cast iron cylinder heads ensure robustness, durability, and stability.
On the other hand, turbo compound, wet cylinder liners, and pulse injection system improve efficiency and strength. Although OM type engine brakes have already been well reputed, the response is improved further with activation by a steering column switch.
The B10 life expectancy is increased up to 1.2 million kilometers to ensure safety. As with engines from other companies, SCR and BlueTEC technologies are used to treat exhaust gas efficiently. The AdBlue consumption is 2% to 3% of fuel consumption.
|AROCS 8 × 8 Grounder GVW41t 450ps||6 × 4 timber transport truck with crane (26t GVW, 510ps)|
The Arocs was launched in 2013 as a special-purpose construction vehicle. Its truck and tractor versions made their first show debuts this time. Unlike their predecessors, they adopted their original front design, with a 2.3m- to 2.5m-wide cab. The frame is 8mm to 9mm in thickness to ensure robustness and durability.
The gross vehicle weights (GVWs) range from 18 tons to 41 tons, with four basic types of engines from 7.7 liters and 240ps to 15.6 liters and 510ps. Wheel arrangements can be selected from 4 x 4 to 8 x 8. An all-wheel-drive vehicle is also available with a hydraulic auxiliary drive (HAD) system for the front wheels. Turbo retarder clutch, predictive powertrain control, and HAD enable systematic judgment of topography by the system to improve driving performance.
A more robust variant, the Grounder, is also available. The all variants were exhibited, including three- and four-axle mixers, dump, and timber transport truck.
|＊ ANTOS: 6 × 2 GVW25t 350ps Wing Van Body variant (Almost the same as Japanese 13t trucks with dragged tires, except a short overall length. In Japan, however, rearmost axle swing to save tires is not permitted.*) The Antos truck and tractor were launched in 2012 as a low-priced version of the Actros for short- to medium-haul transportation. With a 2.3m-wide cab, the Antos features the same wide range of engines and weights as with its higher version, the Actros. Daimler is promoting driver-friendliness of the Antos, which has a large variety like cargo and carrier car. GVW18~26t, 7.7L(240ps)~15.6L(510ps) * Trucks with dragged tires: Refers to trucks with non-driving wheels such as rearmost wheels. Rearmost axle swing: Refers to a function that raises the axle to float the tires from the ground when the truck has no load in order to prevent wear of the tires.|
|＊ ATEGO: 4 × 2 GVW15t 300ps Curtain-wall variant Since its launch in 1998, the Atego has evolved as the best-selling delivery truck in Europe. The exhibited truck was the latest variant fitted with renewed front parts, the Power Shift 3, and a new lighter rear axle. The GVWs range from 6.5 tons to 16 tons, with engines from 5.1 liters (230ps) to 7.7 liters (300ps).|
This new Actros heavy-duty tractor was unveiled for the first time at this year's IAA. Daimler is offering this four-axle tractor with wheel arrangements of 8 x 4 to 8 x 8 in order to strengthen its rather weak position in the heavy-duty tractor sector. The 15.6-liter engine produces 625ps and the maximum GCW is 250 tons, with an axle weight of 16 tons. The standard specifications include air suspensions for all four axles, turbo retarder clutch, and the 16th Power Shift 3. As with tractors from other companies, the Actros SLT carries supplementary components on the backward of the cab, including high-volume air tank, 900-liter fuel tank, and cooling system. This section is wrapped by the side cover designed uniformly with the cab.
|The front parts were renewed in line with other heavy-duty series. The 7.7-liter, 301ps M936G natural gas engine was derived from the new-generation OM936 diesel engine.The exhibited vehicle was installed with 600-liter + 100-liter CNG tanks on the both sides of the frame. This model has succeeded in reducing engine noise and the CO2 emission is less by 22% than that of a diesel model. Main applications include garbage collection, street cleaning, and other multi-purpose tractors. The GVW is 26 tons and the rearmost axle is a swing type (6 x 2 wheel arrangement).|
|This year's IAA was one of the largest exhibitions after the Fuso brand had been added to Daimler's truck lineup. As Canter vehicles, seven types of trucks completed with rear equipment were exhibited, including electric vehicle, hybrid curtain-wall van, reinforced body van, special-purpose crew cab, and 4 x 4 dump. Fuso also exhibited vehicles with Duonic automatic transmissions. This reflected Daimler's strong commitment to sales of light-duty trucks in a GVW range from 3.5 tons (130ps) to 8.5 tons (175ps).|
|CANTER ECO HYBRID|
The Eco Hybrid was introduced as the first mass-market model in Europe in 2012, which incorporates a dual clutch transmission with a built-in hybrid motor as in Japan. The vehicle shown above is a curtain-wall variant with a GVW of 7.5 tons (150ps + 50ps). Parallel hybrid and Duonic technologies realize fuel consumption reduction of 23%, plus CO2 reduction.
CANTER E-CELLAfter being exhibited in 2010, the prototype has been under trials by customers in Portugal. This year's IAA showcased its full-fledged version produced in a Portuguese plant as the E-Cell.
|The GVW is 6 tons and a high torque is achieved at 110kw (150ps). Encapsulated four lithium ion batteries are mounted on the both sides of the frame. It can be combined with a rear body of up to 4.4m and can run over 100km.|
DICM (Daimler India Commercial Vehicle) Reference Exhibits
Daimler also showcased the BharatBenz (8 x 8) and Fuso FJ (6 x 4) produced by DICM. The cabs are shared with the Benz Atego medium-duty truck. The engines are also shared, but components such as frames are locally produced.
|BharatBenz 31t 430ps||FUSO FJ 25t 230ps|
MAN: New top range, Euro VI-compliant engine for heavy-duty trucks
MAN is a subsidiary of a local German company, Volkswagen (VW), and covered the second largest area for its exhibitions, following Daimler. With main focus on its heavy- to medium-duty trucks, the company also showcased vehicles from VW's light-duty commercial vehicle division, MAN Latin America (VW), and those from its bus manufacturing subsidiary, Neoplan.
In 2013, MAN had the second largest market share of 16.3% in Europe after Daimler. As MAN has advanced modularization and standardization of cabs and frames as with Scania, there was an expectation that the company would fully redesign its heavy-duty cab. At this year's IAA, however, MAN concentrated on exhibiting its new top-of-the-range, Euro VI-compliant engine for heavy-duty vehicles and exhibited the TGX-D38 flagship fitted with that engine as a "world premiere." The company's booth was crowded with drivers, families, and users just like, or more than those of Daimler and Scania.
|The new D38 engine was presented at the center of the booth, followed by soccer ball hand out by a soccer player to visitors.||MAN TGX-D38- Towing a Schmitz trailer (exhibited outside at the north entrance)|
Fuel costs account for about one third of the TCO. Along with other companies, MAN is also enhancing Euro VI compliance through new combination of its proven engine technologies and technical innovation to reduce fuel consumption effectively.
The overview of MAN's exhibitions is as follows: Engines: New D38's world premiere as a main exhibition, plus two other basic types D38=15.2L 520~640ps, D26=12.4L 440~480ps D20=10.5L 360~400ps,
Vehicles: Fourteen vehicles from almost all of its series As D38-fitted vehicles, MAN exhibited 4 x 2 tractor, 6 x 2 timber transport tractor, 8 x 4 heavy-duty tractor, and 6 x 4 tractor in the TGX flagship series, in addition to 8 x 8 and 8 x 4 heavy-duty dumps and 6 x 6 tractors in the TGS construction series. On the other hand, D26 engines were installed on 6 x 2 swap body vehicle and 4 x 2 low-floor tractor in the TGS series while a D20 engine was mounted on a 6 x 2 lorry.
The company also showcased medium-duty and hybrid trucks in the TGM and TGL series as well as CNG vehicles as shown by other companies.
MAN developed this model with emphasis on improving the TCO. - The company aimed to achieve better transportation performance and cost efficiency as a powerful total package including new D38 engine, GPS cruise control, new fuel-saving gear, continuous turbo brake, and safety system.
The interior and exterior of the TGX D38 flagship have not been changed since the partially redesigned model shown at the last IAA (in 2012). This may reflect the company's top priority on TCO, not on appearance.
Top range D38 engine
The company is promoting low fuel consumption, large payload, and low service costs, leading to added value in cost effectiveness.
Driving pleasure, high performance
15.2-liter engine to output 520, 560, or 640ps
- The engine features better environmental performance and lower fuel consumption thanks to its reliability, long life, optimized fuel consumption, and exhaust gas recirculation, in addition to existing common rail injection technologies.
- The coolant pumps running above and below the engine forcibly cool the cylinder section.
- The turbo pressure is adjusted flexibly in the slow to high speed range using effective charge cooling of combustion air by a two-step turbo, two-step charge cooling, dual cylinder air compressor, two-stage exhaust gas recirculation, and new dome-type valves. This leads to powerful torque, NOx reduction, and better response over a wide rotation speed area.
- With the lightest-in-class weight of 1345Kg, the engine is fitted with a plastic spiderweb-shaped oil sump and steel pistons as well as cylinder blocks and heads made of vermicular graphite cast iron (GJV450).
New electronics (including refinement from previous model)
|GPSEfficient Cruise & TipMatic 2|
- GPS Efficient Cruise (GPS-based cruise control): Detects topographical conditions automatically to adjust speed and power. In order to adapt to the actual conditions more efficiently, the system utilizes dynamic change in kinetic energy to reduce fuel consumption.
- MAN TipMatic2: New fuel-saving gear function A new gearbox combined with three new gearboxes designed to improve efficiency ensures low fuel consumption and high efficiency (shifting time among the top 3 gears is minimized to reduce fuel consumption). Moreover, the Speed Shifting and Efficient Roll stabilize driving on a downhill without engine braking while the Idle Speed Driving increases torque and fuel efficiency in the slow to very slow speed region.
- High performance continuous brake system: MAN exhaust valve brake (EVB) and turbo EVB help maximize braking capacity.
|TGX D38 GVW18t 560ps||X-bar mounting arm for the rear axle|
- Frame:As with those from other companies, the frame has high torsional strength and flexural rigidity. It enables any type of equipment to be mounted easily and quickly on it. Many holes are also provided in a short pitch for easy addition and modification. Three types of heights are available: Ultra-low, low, and standard. Electronic air suspension control maintains the vehicle at a constant height irrespective of load variations.
- X-bar mounting arm: Unifies double wishbone and stabilizer for driving, directional, and rolling stability as well as weight reduction.
The TGX-D38 long-haul model is equipped with the following safety systems (may be optional):
- Active cruise control (to keep a safe vehicle-to-vehicle distance), lane guard system (for lane deviation prevention), emergency brake assistance (for collision prediction and braking)
* "Future Ideas": In order to demonstrate safety, a cutaway cab was used to present further advanced driver assistance systems, such as dead angle view using camera and sensor, lane deviation prevention, and doze prevention.
|Next-generation safety technologies were displayed on a cutaway cab (some functions have already been installed on the Hino Profia sold in Japan).|
|MAN exhibited its original parallel diesel hybrid long-haul variant, the TGX18.440 (18t GVW). - Diesel + electricity (assistance & power generation) (already used on Hino and other vehicles) - 8% less fuel consumption- 440ps engine + 180ps -equivalent motor - 3.8KW lithium ion battery - 400Kg hybrid module made by ZF - Planned mass-market variant (production yet to be determined)|
1) TGX41.640 heavy-duty tractor (Premiere as a tractor fitted with a D38 engine) 41t GVW, 640ps. This four-axle, 8 x 4 heavy-duty tractor is a must item in the product lineup of each leading European tractor manufacturer (250t GCW).
|* General-purpose variants|
|2) TGX26.560 6×4 TGX-D38 timber transport variant||3) TGX26.480 6×2 TGX swap body variant|
|A rare variant for MAN, which was introduced as a new version fitted with a D38 engine||Equipped with a D26 engine. The stroke speed is adjusted to the variant through enhancement using a new twin cylinder air compressor.|
|- All of the above are standard variants that were exhibited also by three other leading manufacturers, Daimler, Scania, and Volvo.|
|* Variants for construction and export purposes (partial redesigning on engines, suspensions, etc.)|
|4) TGS26.480 6×6 TGS tractor variant||5) TGS44.480v8×8 TGS dump chassis variant|
|A parabolic suspension in front of the engine and an electronically controlled 8-bag rear air suspension26t GCW, D26 type, 480ps, 2300mm cab width||A leaf suspension composed of a robust frame including a dedicated bumper, which is also used on arm roll type and other dumps44t GVW, D26 type, 480ps|
|* Medium-duty variant 6) TGL7.180 4×2(with around monitor)||*MAN Latin America (produced in Brazil) 7) VW-CONSTELLATION25.420|
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