Thailand: Vehicle production to achieve record high in 2013

Exports expected to increase while domestic demand weakens in the second half



Automobile production, exports, and domestic sales for Thailand Vehicle production in Thailand for the period of Jan.-Jul. 2013 increased by 20.8% year-on-year (y/y) to 1.54 million units. Production for domestic sales surged as backorders boosted by the First Car Buyer Rebate scheme have been filled. In the latter part of 2013, however, Thailand's automakers are expected to shift their focus to overseas shipments. The Federation of Thailand Industries (FTI) forecast that the country's 2013 production will reach 2.55 million units, another record high following last year's result (FTI forecast presented in February has been retained as of August 2013). Vehicle sales in Thailand for January through July grew to 840,000 units, up 13.6% y/y. Toyota Motor Thailand anticipates that 2013 sales will fall by 9.5% y/y to 1.3 million units (announced in June 2013).

 LMC Automotive's forecasts that Thai light vehicle sales for 2013 are expected to fall by 10% y/y to 1.27 million units. The decline comes after a spectacular 81% growth in 2012 as demand through 2014 had been pulled forward by the First Car Buyer Rebate scheme. As OEMs have completed backorders in the first half, sales will be lower in the second half of 2013 and in 2014. LMCA retains its long-term forecast that sales will recover from 2015 and gradually increase towards 1.5 million by 2020.

Related Reports:
 Vehicle market summary: Thailand first half 2013 (Sep. 2013)
 Japanese suppliers build new plants and enhance R&D in Thailand (Apr. 2013)

Production of compact passenger cars continues to grow for Jan.-Jul. 2013

Automobile production by vehicle type in Thailand In 2012, Thailand saw a significant increase of production of three vehicle types. Output of compact passenger cars with displacement of 1201-1500 cc climbed by 84%; that of Eco-Cars grew 2.5 times; and 1-ton pickup trucks rose by 60% y/y. These vehicles are all eligible for the First Car Buyer Rebate scheme, while Eco-Cars are fuel-efficient compact cars approved under the Thai Government's project. Production of compact passenger cars continued to increase during the period of January-July 2013. Now, Thailand has become an important production and export base of not only 1-ton pickup trucks but also small passenger cars.

 In 2012 and the first half of 2013, Thailand's automakers leveraged their production capacities for domestic demand materially boosted by the First Car Buyer Rebate scheme. As a result, around 60% of production was delivered for the Thai market. (Production in 2011 was split even between export and Thai market.) In the second half of 2013, OEMs are increasing the production of vehicles for export to the surrounding countries with a view that domestic demand is likely to shrink within Thailand.

Automobile production, exports, and domestic sales for Thailand

2009 2010 2011 2012 Jan.-Jul.
Production 999,378 1,645,304 1,457,795 2,453,717 1,276,628 1,542,440 2,550,000
Exports 535,563 895,855 735,627 1,026,671 553,216 617,076 1,100,000
Domestic sales 548,871 800,357 794,081 1,436,335 738,291 839,051 1,300,000
(Exports/production) 55.2% 54.4% 50.5% 41.6% 43.3% 40.0%
Source: The Federation of Thai Industries (FTI) for production and exports; Toyota Motor Thailand (TMT) for domestic sales (retail sales).
(Note) 1. Domestic sales include imports.
2.  2013 (Outlook) shows FTI’s forecasts for exports and production and exports announced in February and August 2013, respectively. TMT’s forecast for domestic sales was disclosed in June.
3. The First Car Buyer Rebate scheme was Thai government's tax refund measure for the period from October 2011 to the end of 2012. 21-year-old and older individuals who purchased their own first cars were refunded the excise tax up to THB 100,000. The eligible vehicle should be a domestically produced passenger car with displacement of 1500 cc and smaller or a 1-ton pickup truck priced less than THB 1 million. Approximately 1.25 million vehicles had been purchased under this scheme and 1.04 million units were delivered by early July 2013. (USD 1 = THB 31.96 (Thai Baht) as of early September 2013)



Thai government approves second phase of eco-car project

 In August 2013, several Thai newspapers reported that the Board of Investment (BOI) had approved criteria for the second phase of the eco-car project. Compared to the first phase, the second phase requires more stringent fuel efficiency and emissions for an eco-car to be eligible. BOI will also raise the minimum amount of investment while the period for corporate tax exemption will be shortened. Some automakers are concerned about market oversupply, suggesting that the launch of the second phase is too early.

Eco-car project: criteria for first phase and second phase

First phase Second phase
Requirement for application Application and production  OEMs who applied by the end of November 2007. Four OEMs have already begun producing eco-cars. Toyota is scheduled to start production by the end of 2013.  OEMs must submit applications by the end of March 2014 and start production within 2019.
Investment  No less than THB 5 billion  New OEMs: no less than THB 6.5 billion OEMs who have joined the first phase: no less than THB 5 billion (excluding land costs)
Production volume  100,000 units a year within five years of production  100,000 units a year from the fourth year onward.
Eco-car's standards Engine displacement  No more than 1300 cc for petrol engines and 1400 cc for diesel engines  No more than 1300 cc for petrol engines and 1500 cc for diesel engines
Emission standard  Must meet Euro 4  Must meet Euro 5
CO2 emissions/ fuel efficiency  CO2 emissions should be lower than 120 g/km; fuel efficiency higher than 20 km/L  CO2 emissions should be lower than 100 g/km; fuel efficiency higher than 23.3 km/L
Incentives Incentives for OEMs  Corporate income tax exemption for eight years  Corporate income tax exemption for six years
Import duties exemption for equipment and machines
Eco-car excise tax Reduced excise tax rate for eco-cars

(Note) Criteria for the second phase are based on the article of the Bangkok Post dated on 29 August, 2013.



Toyota, Honda, Nissan, SAIC Motor and UD Trucks to build new plants

 Among the production facilities in Thailand, Toyota started operations of a new plant with an annual production capacity of 80,000 units in August 2013. As a result, the automaker's capacity in the country climbed to 770,000 units per year. Honda will build facilities to produce 420,000 units per year by adding a new plant with an annual capacity of 120,000 units in 2015. Nissan plans to start running a new plant in August 2014  (with the initial capacity of 75,000 units per year, which will be eventually increased to 150,000 units per year). The automaker should have annual capacity for 370,000 units/year capacity in total when its new plant is fully operational. SAIC Motor and CP Group, Thai's major conglomerate, will jointly build a new plant and begin its operations by June 2014 initially at 50,000 units per year.

 Many OEMs have plans to increase capacities at their existing facilities. Mitsubishi Motors will add 50,000 units by the end of 2013. Suzuki will increase its capacity by 65,000 units by 2017 (Some media reported that this schedule might be pushed forward to 2014). Hino plans to add 20,000 units to its annual capacity by 2015.

 Among medium-/heavy-duty commercial vehicle manufacturers, UD Trucks built its first overseas assembly plant and will start operations at 20,000 units per year in the second half of 2013.

Major auto manufacturers' production facilities in Thailand

Ownership ratio Plant Annual production capacity
(1,000 units)
Production results
(1,000 units)
Models being produced
Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd.(TMT) Toyota 86.43% Samrong
230 881 Toyota Hilux Vigo
Ban Pho
220 Toyota Hilux Vigo, Fortuner
Gateway 1
220 Toyota Camry, Camry HV, Prius, Vios, Corolla, etc.
Gateway 2 80 - (Operations started in August 2013)
Eco-car and passenger cars are to be produced.
Thai Auto Works Co., Ltd. TMT 37%,
Toyota Auto Body 63%
Samutprakarn 20 - (Operations started at the end of 2012)
Toyota Hiace
Hino Motors Mfg. (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Hino 80% Bang Pakong
18 Hino trucks & buses
Nissan Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Nissan 75%,
Siam Motors 25%
(First plant)
220 251 Nissan Frontier Navara, Teana, Sylphy,
and Eco-cars (March, Almera/Latio)
(Second plant) 0→75
(not yet scheduled)
- (Operations will start in August 2014)
Pickup trucks and other vehicles
Honda Automobile (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Honda 75.94%,
Asian Honda Motor 13.05%
(First plant)
140→150 (2014) 222 Honda City, Jazz (Fit), Jazz HV, and Eco-cars (Brio, Brio Amaze (November 2012-))
(Second plant) 140→150 (2014) Civic, Civic HV, Accord, CR-V
New plant
0→120 (2015) - (Operations will begin in 2015)
Mitsubishi Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Motors 100% Laemchabang
(First plant)
90 276 Mitsubishi Triton (L200), Lancer EX,
Pajero Sport, Nissan Navara
(Contract production of 60,000 units per year until August 2014)
(Second plant) 220 Triton (L200), Pajero Sport
(Third plant) 150→
(Within fiscal year ending March 2014)
80 (Capacity has been expanded)
Eco-cars (Mirage, Attrage (July 2013-))
Isuzu Motors Company (Thailand) Ltd. Isuzu 71% Samrong
260 290 Isuzu D-Max, D-Max's derivatives, light-/medium-duty trucks
Gateway 1
140 Commercial vehicles
Gateway 2 (Operations started in October 2012)
Isuzu D-Max
General Motors (Thailand) Co., Ltd. GM 100% Rayong 180 122 Chevrolet Aveo, Cruze, Captiva,
Sonic, Colorado, Trailblazer, Optra
Ford Thailand Manufacturing Ford 100% Rayong 150 22 (Operations began in June 2012)
Ford Focus, EcoSport (March 2013-)
AutoAlliance (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Ford 50%
Mazda 50%
Rayong 1 140
(CKD 55)
134 Ford Ranger, Everest, Mazda BT-50
Rayong 2 100 111 Mazda2, Mazda3, Ford Fiesta
BMW Mfg. (Thailand) Co., Ltd. BMW 100% Rayong 10 6 BMW 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series,
X3, MINI Countryman (July 2013-)
Thai-Swedish Assembly Co., Ltd. AB Volvo 100% Samutprakarn Volvo: NA Volvo: 1 Volvo trucks and buses
UD: 20 - (Operations of UD Trucks' facility will start in the third quarter of 2013)
UD Quester (heavy-duty truck)
Tan Chong International Ltd. Tan Chong 100% Bangkok 20 2 Fuso truck (Contract production)
Suzuki Motor (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Suzuki 100% Rayong 35→
18 (Operations started in March 2012)
Eco-car (Swift)
Thonburi Automotive Assembly Plant Co., Ltd. Local 100% Samutprakarn 16→18-19 (not yet scheduled) 5 M-Benz A-Class, C-Class,
E-Class, S-Class, M-Class
4 Tata Xenon
Y.M.C. Assembly Co., Ltd. Yontrakit Group 100% Bangkok 12 N.A. Mitsuoka models
SAIC Motor - CP Co., Ltd. SAIC Motor 51%,
CP Group 49%
Rayong 0→50
(not yet scheduled)
- (Operations will start in June 2014)
MG3, MG5, MG6



Japanese OEMs: Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki and Mazda's activities

Toyota to raise annual production capacity to 770,000 units

Thai Auto Works resumes production  Toyota Auto Body's Thai subsidiary, Thai Auto Works (TAW), has started CKD assembly of the Hiace Commuter (14 seats) at its Samutprakarn plant in December 2012. The plant used to manufacture the Fortuner and the Hilux of the IMV Series, but ceased operations due to the transfer of production since June 2010. In April 2012, the company invested JPY 2.9 billion to prepare for resuming production. The plant has an annual capacity of 20,000 units. TAW plans to assemble 18,000 units in 2013.
Operations start at new plant  In August 2013, Toyota announced that it has started operations at the second Gateway plant in Chachoengsao province. The automaker will produce passenger cars with a lineup not yet disclosed. The total investment amounts to THB 11 billion. The new plant has an annual capacity of 80,000 units. Combining this with four existing plants (including TAW plant), Toyota's capability in Thailand will rise to 770,000 units per year
Launching new Vios  In March 2013, Toyota held the world premiere of all new Vios, a compact sedan exclusively designed for emerging countries, at the Bangkok International Motor Show. The model comes with a 1.5-liter petrol engine. At the Gateway plant in 2013, the company will produce 130,000 units of which 80,000 will be sold in Thailand and 40,000 will be exported to over 80 countries. The Vios is priced at THB 559,000-734,000.

(Note) In July 2013, Toyota adjusted its outlook of 2013 sales in Thailand downward from 500,000 units to 450,000 units. The outlook was lowered, as the sales for the first half of 2013 had dropped by 1.7% y/y to 237,000 units


Honda to increase annual capacity to 420,000 units with new plant in 2015

Building new plant  Honda began building a new vehicle assembly plant at the Rojana Industrial Park in Prachinburi province in July 2013. With an investment of THB 17.15 billion, a plant is scheduled to start operations with the annual capacity of 120,000 per year in 2015. It will employ 1,200 people at the outset to produce compact vehicles.
Production capacity in Thailand  Honda also plans to boost the annual capacity of its existing Ayutthaya plant to 300,000 units, up 20,000 units from the current level. As a result, Honda's total capacity in Thailand will grow by 50% to 420,000 units in 2015. With this capacity increase, the automaker will meet Thai domestic demand as well as increasing exports to the countries in ASEAN, Oceania, the Middle East, and Africa and the Caribbean states.

Honda releases various passenger cars in Thailand

Brio Amaze  Honda launched the Brio Amaze, a subcompact sedan and an eco-car approved under the Thai government’s project in November 2012. This model had been developed based on the Brio hatchback at Honda R & D Asia Pacific in Bangkok. The sedan comes with a 1.2-liter four-cylinder engine and a five-speed manual transmission/CVT. It has been produced at the Ayutthaya first plant and is priced at THB 454,000-521,000.
Civic HV  The Civic HV, a hybrid model of a mainstream sedan, was released in February 2013. The model is equipped with an HV system consisting of a 1.5-liter inline-four engine (91 hp) and a motor (23 hp). This is the first HV model produced in Thailand fitted with a lithium-ion battery. It has been manufactured at the Ayutthaya second plant and is priced at THB 1,035,000-1,095,000.
New Accord  The new Accord, the ninth-generation midsize sedan, was introduced in March 2013. The model comes with a 2.4-/2.0-liter engine and a 5-speed automatic transmission. Both engines can run on E85 fuel. It has been produced at the Ayutthaya second plant with an annual sales target of 20,000 units. The new Accord is priced at THB 1,299,000-1,799,000.
(Note) 1. With its aggressive product launches as mentioned above, Honda expanded its market share of the passenger-car segment (including SUVs) to 35.5% for the first half of 2013. As a result, Honda became the sales leader in the passenger-car segment for the period, beating Toyota (announced by Honda Automobile (Thailand)).
2. Honda plans to transfer development operation of the next-generation Brio (to be released around 2017) to Honda R & D Asia Pacific in Bangkok, including engineering of a base model which used to be developed in Japan.


Nissan to boost annual production capacity to 370,000 when new plant goes into full-scale operation

Constructing new plant  In November 2012, Nissan announced a plan to build a second plant in the vicinity of its existing facility on Bangna-Trad Road in Samutprakarn province with an investment of THB 11 billion. Scheduled to start production in August 2014, the new plant will initially have an annual capacity of 75,000 units and will expand it up to 150,000 units. It plans to employ 2,000 people. Once the new plant is operating at full capacity, the automaker will have a combined production capacity of 370,000 units per year in Thailand.
Expanding R&D Center  In February 2013, Nissan revealed a plan to expand Nissan Technical Center South East Asia (NTCSEA) based in Thailand. With a total investment of JPY 3.4 billion by mid-2014, NTCSEA will add a test course, several testing facilities including chassis and engines, and a new management office. By 2015, the center will be responsible for all R&D processes for models to be marketed in the region. For the period through 2016, NTCSEA's workforce will be increased to 370 (from 219 at present), including the staff at its Indonesian branch.
Introducing Pulsar  In March 2013, Nissan launched the Pulsar, a Thai version of the Tiida global car. This is a hatchback model of the new Sylphy midsize sedan released in August 2012. Featuring sportier exterior and interior, the Pulsar is equipped with a 1.6-/1.8-liter engine and a CVT. It has been sold at a price of THB 776,000-976,000 with a sales target of 7,500 units per year.
(Note) 1. Nissan Motor (Thailand) set a target of 15% market share in the country by 2016 as outlined in its mid-term business plan (Its market share was 8.6% in 2012 and is expected to reach 10% in 2013).
2. Once the new plant starts operations in 2014, Nissan will cease outsourcing of the production of 1-ton pickup Navara to Mitsubishi Motors which has been manufacturing 60,000 units of the model per year for Nissan since 2012.


Mitsubishi to expand annual capacity to 510,000 units by the end of March 2014

Enhancing production capacity  Mitsubishi Motors invested THB 1 billion to increase the annual production capacity of its Laemchabang third plant from 150,000 units to 200,000 units by the end of the fiscal year ending March 2014. Combined with the capacity of 310,000 units of the first and second plants, the company's annual capacity in Thailand is expected to climb from 460,000 units to 510,000 units by the end of March 2014.
Releasing Attrage  In July 2013, Mitsubishi Motors launched the Attrage compact sedan, its second eco-car approved by the Thai government. Sharing chassis and engines with the Mirage, its first eco-car, the second eco-car has been manufactured at its Laemchabang third plant. The Attrage comes with a 1.2-liter MIVEC three-cylinder engine and a 5-speed manual transmission/CVT with a fuel efficiency of 22 km/L. After going on sale in Thailand, the model will be exported to the ASEAN countries and other markets. It is priced at THB 443,000-582,000.

(Note) Mitsubishi Motors forecast that its 2013 sales in Thailand will amount to 120,000 units, aiming for a market share of 10% (announced in April 2013).


Suzuki launches compact MPV Ertiga produced in Indonesia

 In March 2013, Suzuki has launched the Ertiga, a three-row, seven-seater compact MPV, for the Thai market. The vehicles, which have been produced in Indonesia, are imported for sale in Thailand. This compact MPV for emerging markets had been introduced in India and Indonesia in April 2012. It is equipped with a 1.4-liter engine. With a sales target for the initial year of 6,000 units, the Ertiga has been sold with a price of THB 554,000-689,000.
(Note) 1. In 2013, Suzuki expects to sell 60,000 vehicles in Thailand: 41,000 of the Swift, 13,000 of the Carry light truck, and 6,000 of the Ertiga. The Carry and the Ertiga are imported from Indonesia.
2. Suzuki suggested that the Swift would continue to be popular despite the end of the First Car Buyer Rebate scheme. It was reported that, with this positive prospect, the automaker is likely to expand the annual production capacity of its Rayong plant to 100,000 units in 2014 ahead of the initial schedule.


Mazda to build new transmission plant for SKYACTIV vehicles

 In January 2013, Mazda announced a plan to construct a transmission plant with an annual capacity of 400,000 units in Chonburi province. With an investment of JPY 26 billion, the plant is scheduled to start operations in the first half of the fiscal year ending March 2016. It will employ about 500 people to produce SKYACTIVE-DRIVE automatic transmissions. Those transmissions will be supplied for SKYACTIV models produced at AutoAlliance joint venture plant in Rayong and Mazda's other facilities around the world.

(Note) Mazda has been reconstructing global production facilities to raise its annual worldwide sales to 1.7 million units for the fiscal year ending March 2016. Building a new transmission plant in Thailand is a part of this global project.



Ford and GM introduce EcoSport and Spin; SAIC Motor to build JV plant

Ford EcoSport compact SUV makes its debut in ASEAN at Bangkok Motor Show

 In March 2013, Ford unveiled the EcoSport compact SUV for the first time in ASEAN at the Bangkok International Motor Show. This is a five-seater urban SUV based on Ford's global B-segment platform. The model will be built at the company's new facility in Rayong which was constructed in 2012. The first EcoSport was introduced in South America in 2003. This all-new model, as a global SUV, will be available in about 100 markets around the world. Other production sites include Brazil, China and India. The EcoSport is scheduled to go on sale within 2013 in Thailand. Its price has yet to be determined.


GM launches Chevrolet Spin compact MPV built in Indonesia

 In March 2013, GM revealed the Chevrolet Spin, a seven-seat compact MPV, at the Bangkok International Motor Show and launched it in Thai market. This is an MPV in edgy and contemporary styling with passenger-car-like handling and ride comfort. Developed by GM's engineering center in Brazil, the Spin underwent extensive testing on four continents. In Thailand, the model comes with a 1.5-liter four-cylinder petrol engine and a segment-first six-speed automatic transmission with driver-shift control. Manufactured in Indonesia, the Spin is priced at THB 762,000.


SAIC Motor and CP Group to jointly build new plant with annual capacity of 50,000

 SAIC Motor and CP Group, a Thai conglomerate, agreed to form SAIC Motor-CP joint venture at the end of 2012. The Chinese automaker has a 51% stake while CP Group holds the remaining 49%. The joint venture plans to build a new assembly plant at the Hamaraj Eastern Seaboard industrial Park in Rayong province. The new plant is scheduled to start operations by June 2014 with an annual capacity of 50,000 units at the outset which could be raised to 200,000 in the future. With an investment of THB 10 billion for the first phase, the plant will start KD production of the MG models and supply them to Thailand as well as surrounding ASEAN countries and other markets for right-hand-drive vehicles.



UD Trucks to build commercial heavy-duty truck for emerging markets

UD Trucks constructs its new plant and launches Quester heavy-duty truck in August 2013

Building new plant  UD Trucks has invested THB 2 billion to construct a facility to produce its own trucks in Thailand. The company has extended the Volvo Group's plant in Samutprakarn province by 20,000 square meters. The added facility includes a modern assembly line, new cab plant and paint shop. This is the first completely built-up production plant for UD Trucks outside Japan. With an annual capacity of 20,000 units, the new plant is scheduled to start production of the Quester heavy-duty truck range in the third quarter of 2013.
Launching Quester heavy-duty truck range  In August 2013, UD Trucks unveiled the Quester heavy-duty truck range developed for growth markets in Bangkok. The Quester is a robust, reliable, fuel efficient and affordable truck range combining the Volvo Group's global technology and UD Trucks' craftsmanship. The truck range will be built at the above-mentioned new plant. The plant will not only target the Thai market but also serve as a hub for export to other markets in Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Africa. The new truck range will also be manufactured in India and China starting n 2014 or later.



Production Forecast by LMC Automotive: Thai production to surpass 3 million in 2016

(LMC Automotive、July 2013)

Thai light vehicle production forecast LMC Automotive forecasts that 2013 light vehicle production in Thailand will reach 2.54 million units. The increase should come from higher exports, which were sacrificed during the exceptionally high domestic demand last year. After 2014, when output is expected to be the same level as the previous year, production starts to increase in 2015 and will surpass three million units in 2016. Among the OEMs expected to add production, Honda plans to start operations of its new plant in 2015 and Ford is likely to shift production of the Fiesta from Mexico to Thailand in 2016.

Thai light vehicle production by make

SALES GROUP GLOBAL MAKE 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Total 2,381,666 2,537,567 2,581,719 2,895,280 3,093,467
BMW Group BMW 6,152 6,307 5,657 6,115 6,574
MINI 0 39 62 83 93
BMW Group Sub-total 6,152 6,346 5,719 6,198 6,667
Daimler Group Mercedes-Benz 5,155 4,485 4,088 4,456 4,501
Dongfeng Motor Dongfeng 2,503 2,562 2,308 2,572 2,544
Ford Group Ford 136,417 148,553 185,478 275,075 362,209
Geely Group Volvo 0 0 0 0 0
General Motors Group Chevrolet/Daewoo 125,410 123,373 134,030 158,671 172,579
Honda Group Honda 218,345 310,252 287,963 327,680 356,483
Isuzu Motors Isuzu 266,579 254,270 232,790 254,800 261,339
Mazda Motors Mazda 60,357 109,962 101,094 112,026 118,285
Mitsubishi Motors Mitsubishi 399,696 343,937 405,041 411,032 415,922
Renault-Nissan Group Nissan 250,910 307,935 265,290 270,466 287,894
SAIC Group MG Mingjue 0 0 8,567 32,223 32,953
Suzuki Group Suzuki 16,978 44,027 79,627 153,376 158,219
Tata Group Tata 4,344 6,269 7,815 9,424 10,781
Toyota Group Hino 320 1,081 1,269 1,357 1,370
Toyota 888,500 874,515 860,640 875,924 901,721
Toyota Group Sub-total 888,820 875,596 861,909 877,281 903,091
Source: LMC Automotive "Global Automotive Production Forecast (July, 2013)"
(Note) 1. Data indicate figures of only small-size vehicles, including passenger cars and light commercial vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of under 6 tons.
2. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any data will require permission of LMC Automotive.
3. For more detailed information or inquiries of forecast data, please contact LMC Automotive.
The yearly data in 2012 were revised by MarkLines in June 2014, based on the correction made by LMC Automotive.

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