European OEMs prepare aggressive EV/HV launches

VW and Daimler product plans reflect the need for more PHVs

2013/05/13

Summary

 This report contains the development and launch plans of electrically driven vehicles, namely electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid vehicles (HVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) among European automakers.

 Automakers have aggressive launch plans from 2013 to 2015 despite the recent slow sales of electrically driven vehicles. The following factors are said to be supporting the aggressiveness:

  * Models that are currently in the market were planned several years ago when a faster market penetration of electrically driven vehicles was anticipated.

  * The introduction of electrically driven vehicles, regardless of specific type, is necessary to meet the increasingly strict regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions applied in Japan, US and Europe.

  * The State of California, US, has plans to introduce the zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV) program starting with the 2018 model year. The program requires that EVs, PHVs and FCVs (fuel cell vehicles) to account for at least 15.4% of all vehicle sales in 2025 model year. Nine other states have expressed plans to follow California.

  * EVs and PHVs having notably high impact on fuel economy are experiencing sluggish sales due to the high battery cost, short cruising range and inadequate availability of charging infrastructure. But mass production of batteries is expected to lead to cost reduction and the market may see a breakthrough in the near future.

 Daimler already has a broad lineup of electrically driven vehicles and is reportedly making PHVs available with mid- to large-sized cars starting with the next models of the S-class and C-class. BMW will launch the "i3" EV in 2013 and the "i8" PHV in 2014. The company will also introduce the PHV version with the next models of the 7 Series being released in 2015 to 2016. Volkswagen (VW) has adopted the eDSG system to make HV and PHV versions easily available with all models based on the MQB platform. VW also has plans to significantly increase the availability of PHVs.

 PSA Peugeot Citroen (PSA) is developing a compressed air type hybrid system dubbed "Hybrid Air" in addition to the Hybrid 4 which is a diesel-fueled HV already on sale. In early 2013, Renault launched "Renault Zoe" which the company expects will be the best-selling model among its EV lineup. The company plans to start a full-scale mass advertisement for the new model.

The "i8" PHV Concept The CrossBlue Coupe PHV Concept
The "i8" PHV Concept to be introduced by BMW in 2014
(Source: brochure of  2013 Shanghai Motor Show in April)
The CrossBlue Coupe PHV Concept exhibited
by VW in 2013 Shanghai Motor Show in April


Related report:
"North American International Auto Show 2013 (1): US and European OEMs"



Daimler: PHV versions planned with the next S-class and C-class models

 Daimler already has a broad range of electrified driven vehicles, HV, PHV and PHV, from the Smart to S-Class vehicles, and plans to increase their availability further.

 Daimler is introducing HV/PHV efficiently using a modular hybrid system. A hybrid module contains motors and other core components that may be combined with batteries, transmissions (7G-TRONIC) and various types of internal combustion engines to build a broad range of electrically driven cars of all sizes, from mild HVs to full HVs and PHVs.

 Daimler plans to make plug-in hybrid versions available with the next S-Class and C-Class models being released from 2014 to 2015. The market is calling for downsizing, from V8 or V6 engines to four- to three-cylinder engines, in the mid- to small-sized families, but there exists a high demand for high-end models and the similar call for downsizing is unlikely with the S-Class, for instance. It has been reported that Daimler is to focus on PHV versions of its mid- to large-sized models to meet the market demand for high driving performance and comply with the environmental regulations in Europe and the US. As a result, the PHVs are likely to account for up to 25% of the automaker's model lineup in the future.

Daimler: Developing a broad range of electrically driven vehicles from the Smart to S-Class

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV S400 BlueHybrid ((1) in table below) Limited sales in 2009 New model
ML450 BlueHybrid (2) Sale ended in 2011
E300 BlueTec Hybrid (3) Launch
E 400 Hybrid (4) Launch
EV Second-generation Smart EV (5) 2009
Third-generation Smart EV (6) Launch
A-Class E-Cell (7) Limited sales in 2009
B-Class E-Cell (8) Launch
M-Benz Vito E-Cell (9) Released for sale/lease
M-Benz SLS AMG (10) Concept car exhibited Limited sales in Europe
PHV M-Benz S-Class (11) Launch
M-Benz C-class (12) Launch

(Note) The year under "~2012" is the year of launch. Models launched in 2012 are identified by "Launch" (in this and all other tables).

 

(1)
S-class
 The current Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid is equipped with the mild HV system co-developed with BMW, along with the seven-speed automatic transmission and a 15kW motor. It was released for sale in 2009 as the first volume production hybrid vehicle by a European automaker. An all-new HV will be launched at the time of S-Class renewal scheduled for 2013.
(2)
ML 450
 The Mercedes-Benz ML450 BlueHybrid is equipped with the Two Mode HEV system for rear-wheel drive cars which was co-developed with GM/BMW/Chrysler. However, hybrid models were not included when the third-generation M-Class was released in early 2011 because of the poor sales due to the high cost (approximately US$10,000) and the low fuel economy (24 mpg city/21 mpg highway) that was lower than that of its competitor, Toyota RX450h (30/28 mpg).
(3)
E300
 Daimler's first diesel-fueled HV, E300 BlueTec Hybrid, is equipped with a 2100cc turbo diesel engine in combination with the seven-speed automatic transmission and a 20kW motor. It has 67.2mpg mileage and CO2 emissions of 109g/km. The car is powered by a 0.8kWh lithium-ion battery pack manufactured by Deutsche Accumotive, a joint-venture company formed with a German company, Evonik.
(4)
E400
 The E-Class gasoline-fueled HV is equipped with a 3.5-liter V6 gasoline engine in combination with a seven-speed automatic transmission along with the same lithium-ion battery and motor as the E300 BlueTec hybrid.
(5)
2nd-generation
Smart EV
 Starting in November 2009, Daimler produced a limited quantity (2000 units) of the second-generation Smart fortwo Electric Drive at the Hambach plant in France. They were sold for leasing, chiefly in Europe and US to collect actual market data. The car is equipped with a 16.5kWh lithium-ion battery consisting of an array of 18650-type commercial cells supplied by Tesla Motors.
(6)
3rd-generation
Smart EV
 Production of the third-generation Smart EV began in the fall of 2012. The car is equipped with a 55kW motor co-developed with Bosch, and a 17.6kWh lithium-ion battery pack developed by Deutche Accumotive established jointly with a German chemical company, Evonik. The car travels 90 miles per charge and the company plans to produce 6,000 units in 2013.
(7)
A-class
 In September 2010, Daimler produced 500 units of the A-Class (earlier model) E-Cell and sold for limited lease in Europe and Japan. The car is equipped with a 36kWh lithium-ion battery pack supplied by Tesla Motors and has a cruising range of 200km.
(8)
B-class
 Daimler exhibited the B-Class E-Cell at the 2013 New York International Auto Show in March. The car, based on Daimler's new front-wheel drive platform, is scheduled for market release in early 2014 starting in the US. The battery pack, motors and other EV system components are supplied by Tesla Motors. The car has a cruising range of 100 miles and the limiter cuts in at the maximum speed of 100mph.
(9)
Vito E-cell
 The Vito E-cell is a seven-seater passenger van powered by a 36kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The van has a cruising range of 80 miles with the top speed of 50mph, which makes the car ideal for short-distance mobility in cities. The van was rented to customers in Hamburg, Germany, and Paris, France, in 2011 for the purpose of market tests. It was exhibited at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2012 and released for sale in Europe.
(10)
SLS AMG
 The SLS AMG E-Cell, a Mercedes-Benz super-car, was exhibited at the Paris Motor Show in September 2012. The car is equipped with a 60kWh lithium-ion battery pack and four compact motors each located near the wheels, has a cruising range of 120 miles per charge, accelerates from standstill to 60mph in 3.8 seconds, and has the top speed of 155mph. The four motors deliver the maximum power of 740hp with the maximum torque of 738 lb-ft. The car has gull-wing doors and will be released for limited sale in 2013 in Europe (for 416,550 euros). Market launch in the US has not been scheduled.
(11)
S-class
PHV
 A plug-in hybrid will be made available with the all-new Mercedes-Benz S-class to be released for sale in 2013. The Vision S 500 Plug-in Hybrid, said to be an image of the future S-Class and exhibited at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show, is equipped with a 3.5-liter V6 gasoline engine, a motor and a 10kWh or more powerful lithium-ion battery pack. The car has 3.2-liter/100km (31.25km/liter) mileage with the EV mode cruising range of 30km.
(12)
C-class
 A plug-in hybrid will be made available with the all-new M-Benz C-class scheduled for market release in 2014. The car reportedly has an EV mode cruising range of 18 miles (other specs are yet to be announced).

 

 



BMW: Launching the "i3" EV in 2013, the "i8" PHV in 2014

 In 2007, BMW kicked off the "Project i" initiative aimed at the research and development of electrically driven vehicles. In 2011, BMW developed a sub-brand "i" after the MINI E and Active E trials. BMW is pursuing concurrent development of the "i3" EV and the "i8" PHV sports car, and plans to launch the "i3"EV in the fall of 2013 and the "i8" PHV in 2014.

 The starting price of the "i3" in US is said to be US$52,200 which is "lower than the volume production model of the 5 Series and justifiable for BMW's loyal customers in terms of the product value."

 BMW exhibited the BMW Active Tourer Concept (PHV), based on the UKL platform, at the Paris Motor Show in the fall of 2012. The UKL is a front-wheel drive platform which will be used with ten to twelve models of the Mini and 1 Series in the future. BMW anticipates a rapid expansion of the "premium small car" market and predicts that the UKL-based cars will be a great contribution to achieve the global sale of 2 million units targeted for the year 2020.

BMW: Launching the "i3" EV in the fall of 2013, the "i8" PHV in early 2014

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV 7 Series ActiveHybrid (1) Modified model launch
X6 ActiveHybrid (2) Sale ended in 2011
5 Series ActiveHybrid (3) 2011
3 Series ActiveHybrid (4) Launch
EV i3 (5) Launch
PHV i8 (6) Launch
BMW Active Tourer (7) Concept car exhibited
Next 7 Series (1) Launch

 

(1)
7 Series
 The BMW 7 Series ActiveHybrid is equipped with the mild HV system (powered by lithium-ion battery) co-developed with Daimler. The 4.4-liter V8 engine was replaced by the 3.0-liter inline six-cylinder engine when the 7 Series models were partially redesigned in the fall of 2012.
 The 7 Series models are scheduled for remodeling from 2015 to 2016 characterized by generous use of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) and aluminum. The PHV version reportedly will be available with the next models.
(2)
X6
 The BMW X6 ActiveHybrid is equipped with the Two Mode HV system (powered by nickel metal-hydride battery) for rear-wheel drive models co-developed with GM/Daimler/Chrysler. Sales in the US ended in 2011.
(3)
ActiveHybrid5
 The 5 Series ActiveHybrid has the enforced version of the HV system, based on the 7 Series mild HV with the motor output increased from 15kW to 40kW to permit EV mode cruising (up to 4km at the speed of 35km/h). The system is combined with a 3000cc inline six-cylinder gasoline engine and the 8-speed automatic transmission. Launched in 2011. The 1.35kWh lithium-ion battery pack is supplied by A123 Systems LLC in the US as is the battery pack for the ActiveHybrid3.
(4)
ActiveHybrid3
 The ActiveHybrid3 is equipped with the same HV system as on the ActiveHybrid5 in combination with a 3000cc inline six-cylinder engine, 8-speed automatic transmission and a 55hp motor. The system delivers a total output of 335-hp.
(5)
"i3"
 The "i3" is a four-seater EV designed for urban mobility. The rear axle is driven by a motor with the maximum output of 125kW/170hp and maximum torque of 250Nm. The car is built on an aluminum-made chassis and a lightweight body made of CFRP. The "i3" is slated for market launch in the fall of 2013. The price has not been announced officially other than the rumored price of around 40,000 euros in Europe and US$52,200 in US.
 The market tests with the Mini E and the Active E resulted with 90% of the lease users being satisfied with the EV's practical cruising range of 100 miles per charge. However, to remove the concern among some users, the "i3" will have an optional 650cc two-cylinder gasoline engine used on BMW motorcycles which will be used to charge the battery. The addition of the engine will extend the range to around 250 miles.
(6)
"i8"
 Unlike the "i3" EV designed for urban convenience, the "i8" is a plug-in hybrid sports car characterized by high fuel economy. The "i8" is a four-seater two-door coupe deriving from the BMW Vision Efficient Dynamics Concept. Its price is said to be around 100,000 euros.
 The front wheels of the "i8" are driven by the same motor used in the "i3" and the rear wheels driven by a 1500cc three-cylinder turbo gasoline engine (having maximum output of 164kW/220hp and maximum torque 300Nm). The car has the maximum speed of 250km/h and accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in less than 5 seconds. The car has an EV mode range of 35km along with the even front to rear wheel load distribution (50:50) and mileage of 3 liters or less over 100km travel (approximately 94mpg).
(7)
Active Tourer
 The Concept Active Tourer exhibited at the 2012 Paris Motor Show is based on the front-wheel drive UKL platform on which the future BMW and Mini models will be built. The UKL was disclosed to the public for the first time at the show. The concept car is a PHV with a 1500cc three-cylinder direct-injection turbo gasoline engine that drives the front wheels and a motor that drives the rear wheels. It will turn to a front-wheel drive car with the motor removed. The concept car has an EV mode range of 30km along with 2.5-liter/100km (40km/liter) mileage and CO2 emissions of 60g/km.

 

 



VW: Adopting the eDSG to standardize HV/PHV development and increasing availability of PHV fleet

 VW exhibited, at the Detroit Auto Show in January 2013, a system dubbed "eDSG," the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) with a built-in motor for hybrid vehicle operation, mounted in the VW CrossBlue Concept. According to VW, the eDSG will easily turn almost any car in its lineup, built on the MQB platform for transverse engines, into a hybrid or plug-in hybrid car.

 In 2013, VW will produce a limited number (250 units) of the company's first plug-in hybrid, VW XL1, that runs 111km per liter of fuel. This will mark the first of a series of plug-in hybrids from VW. Plug-in versions reportedly will be available with the Audi A3/VW Golf, followed by the VW Passat, Audi Q7/Q3/A6/A8, Porsche Cayenne, etc. These PHVs will compete with the Chevrolet Volt, Toyota Prius PHV, and Ford C-Max Energi.

 VW reportedly aspires to sell 300,000 units of plug-in vehicles (EV and PHV combined, mainly PHVs as the EVs have the bottleneck of time-consuming battery charge) to mark the global sale of 10 million vehicles in 2018.

 According to VW, the VW Golf being released for sale in North America in 2014 will allow mixed production of six types of powertrains (gasoline, diesel, CNG, EV, PHV and ethanol) in the same production line in any quantities as needed by the market trends or government regulations.

 The company also plans to add an electrically driven car each year under the Audi brand. Audi uses the "quattro" badge as part of the model name of four-wheel-drive cars, and will use the "e-tron" badge for the electrically driven vehicles.

VW Group: Launching a series of PHVs and EVs

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV VW Touareg 2010
Porsche Cayenne S 2010
Porsche Panamera S 2011 Replaced by PHV
Audi Q5 2011
Audi A6 Launch
Audi A8 Launch
VW Jetta (1) Launch
PHV XL 1 (2) Limited production
Porsche 918 Spyder (3) Limited production
Porsche Panamera SE-Hybrid
(4)
Concept car exhibited Launch
Audi crosslane coupe (5) Concept car exhibited
Audi A3 e-tron (6) Concept car exhibited Launch
VW Golf (7) Launch
VW CrossBlue Concept (8) Concept car exhibited Concept car exhibited
Other PHVs (9) Launch schedules to be announced
EV Audi R8 e-tron (10) Last-minute touchup
VW e-up! (11) Launch
e-Golf (12) Launch
VW Caddy Blue-e Motion (13) 2011-
Road test
Launch
VW E-Bugster (14) Concept car exhibited

 

(1)
Jetta HV
 Launched in the US in November 2012. Equipped with a 1.4-liter turbo gasoline engine, a 27hp motor, seven-speed DSG (Dual Shift Gearbox) and Sanyo Electric's 1.1kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The first HV version by VW Group with a transverse engine has the starting price of US$26,000.
(2)
XL 1
 VW exhibited the production version of the two-seater XL1 PHV at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2013. The PHV is 3888mm in length, 1665mm in width and 1153mm in height, equipped with an 800cc two-cylinder 35kW diesel engine, a 20kW motor, 5.5kWh lithium-ion battery pack, and a seven-speed DSG. The car travels 100km on 0.9 liters of diesel fuel to deliver 111km/liter mileage. The CFRP-made body has reduced the body weight to 795kg. The car has an EV range of 50km with the top speed of 74.6mph. VW will produce 250 units in 2013 for limited sales initially in Germany and Austria.
(3)
918 Spyder
 The Porsche 918 Spyder PHV is a CFRP-made two-seater car equipped with a 580hp V8 engine, two motors (for front and rear axles) with the total output of 241hp and 6.8kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The higher-mileage car travels 100km on 3 liters of fuel (approximately 78mpg) per NEDC test cycle. The car has an EV range of 25km with the top speed of 325km/h and accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in 3 seconds. The car is planned for limited production of 918 units in 2013 for US$845,000 (684,800 euros).
(4)
Panamera
 The first PHV by Porsche, the Panamera S E-Hybrid, is slated for market launch in July 2013. The car is equipped with a 3000cc V6 supercharged engine, a 95hp motor and a 9.4kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The car has an EV range of 20 miles with the mileage of 3.1liters/100km and is sold for a starting price of US$99,975. Porsche had exhibited the Panamera Sport Turismo Concept, suggesting the arrival of the E-Hybrid, at the Paris Motor Show in the fall of 2012.
(5)
Audi
crosslane coupe
 The PHV concept car, exhibited at the Paris Motor Show in September 2012, is a compact car with 4250mm in length, 1900mm in width, and 1500mm in height. It is smaller than the Q3 and is said to be referred to as a "Q2" (not in the present lineup category). The car is equipped with 17.4kWh lithium-ion battery and has an EV range of 84km.
(6)
A3 e-tron
 Audi exhibited the A3 e-tron, a five-door hatchback PHV, at the Geneva Motor Show (March 2013) and the New York International Auto Show (from March to April 2013). The PHV system of the exhibited car has the maximum output of 204hp and maximum torque of 258 lb-ft. The all-new A3 Series internal combustion engine models are slated for market launch in the US in early 2014 and the e-tron will likely to be launched in 2014 as well.
(7)
Golf PHV
 The VW Golf PHV shares the powertrain with the Audi A3 e-tron. The car is equipped with a 1400cc, 148hp gasoline engine, a 100hp motor, and reportedly has an EV driving range of 31 miles.
(8)
CrossBlue
 VW exhibited the CrossBlue SUV Concept PHV at the Detroit Auto Show in January 2013. The car is equipped with a 2000cc diesel engine, two motors, a seven-speed DSG transmission and 9.8kWh lithium-ion battery. It has an EV driving range of 14 miles.
 VW used the title "eDSG" for the first time when introducing the CrossBlue Concept. The "eDSG" is a new HV/PHV system utilizing the DSG, a transmission that has a built-in electric motor. According to VW, the eDSG will easily turn almost any car in its lineup, built on the MQB platform, into a hybrid or plug-in hybrid car.
 VW exhibited two other PHV concept cars based on the mid-sized SUV. The VW Cross Coupe Concept, equipped with a 2.0-liter engine, was exhibited at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2012, and the VW CrossBlue Coupe Concept, equipped with a V6 engine, at the Shanghai Motor Show in April 2013.
(9)
Other PHVs
 VW Group reportedly is operating under a medium-term business strategy to make available a series of PHV models for the VW Passat, Audi Q7/Q3/A6/A8, and Porsche Cayenne following the Audi A3/VW Golf PHV planned for launch in 2014.
(10)
Audi R8
 The Audi R8 e-tron Concept is a R8-based two-seater car with the overall length of 4.43m and width of 1.90m. The electric super sports car has two electric motors in the front and rear axles each (four motors in total with the combined output of 230kW). Equipped with 53kWh lithium-ion battery (weighing 550kg), the EV has a 250km range and accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in 4.8 seconds. It was originally planned for limited production of 1000 units from the end of 2012. But the plan has not started yet  because of the probable last-minute touchup.
(11)
e-up!
 The commercial version of the Up! blue-e-motion four-seater car will debut at the Frankfurt Motor Show in the fall of 2013, and be released for sale at the same time. Equipped with 18.7kWh lithium-ion battery, the car has the maximum motor output of 60kW, cruising range of 150km (NEDC test cycle) and the maximum speed of 135km/h.
(12)
e-Golf
 VW plans to launch the seventh-generation Golf-based EV in 2014. Equipped with 26.5kWh lithium-ion battery, the car has the maximum motor output of 85kW, cruising range of 93 miles and the maximum speed of 135km/h.
(13)
Caddy
 In 2011, the German postal service (Deutsche Post DHL) and VW conducted a three-month fleet trial with VW's Caddy blue-e-motion cars (dubbed e-Post cars) for delivering mail in the city of Potsdam, Germany. The Caddy has an EV driving range of 110km.
(14)
E-Bugster
 VW exhibited the E-Bugster EV Concept at the Detroit Auto Show 2012. The New Beetle-based EV is said to be equipped with the same system as the e-Golf, including the 26.5kWh lithium-ion battery.

 

 



PSA: Developing a compressed air type "Hybrid Air" system for commercial application in 2016

 PSA plans to reduce the average CO2 emissions to 116g/km in 2015 without spoiling the fun of driving.

 PSA has launched electric passenger cars and electric light commercial vehicles both co-developed with Mitsubishi Motors. The company has also released four hybrid diesel models.

 In addition, PSA is developing a compressed air type hybrid system called the Hybrid Air with the plan of commercialization in 2016.

PSA: Developing a compressed air type "Hybrid Air" system for commercial application in 2016

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
EV Peugeot iOn/Citroen C-ZERO (1) 2010
Peugeot Partner (2) Launch
Citroen Berlingo (2) Launch
HV Peugeot 3008 (3) 2011
Peugeot 508 RXH (3) Launch
Citroen DS5 (3) Launch
Peugeot 508 Saloon (3) Launch
Onyx (4) Concept car exhibited
2008 Hybrid Air (5)
Peugeot 2008/Citroen C3
Concept car exhibited Plan to commercialize
PHV Plug-in Hybrid(6) Under development

 

(1)
iOn/C-ZERO
 The Peugeot iOn/Citroen C-ZERO is a twin model of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV and co-developed with Mitsubishi Motors. The car was released for sale in Europe at the end of 2010.
(2)
Partner/
Berlingo
 PSA and Mitsubishi Motors have also co-developed an EV based on the Peugeot Partner/Citroen Berlingo. The car will be produced at the PSA's plant in Spain and released for sale in the second quarter of 2013. Equipped with a 22.5kWh lithium-ion battery, the car has a cruising range of 105 miles.
(3)
Hybrid4
 PSA's Hybrid 4 System that drives the front wheels with a 2000cc diesel engine and the rear wheels with a motor was mounted in the Peugeot 3008 in 2011, and in the Peugeot 508 RXH, Citroen DS5 and 508 Saloon in 2012. The system is equipped with Sanyo Electric's nickel metal-hydride battery and a six-speed AMT.
(4)
Onyx
 PSA exhibited the Onyx, a hybrid sports concept car, at the Paris Motor Show in September 2012. The car's front wheels are driven by a motor and the rear wheels by a 3700cc V8 turbo diesel mid-ship engine. Based on a racing car, the Onyx has a CFRP-made body.
(5)
Hybrid Air
 PSA exhibited the 2008 Hybrid Air, driven by a compressed air type hybrid system, at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. The system collects the braking energy with a hydraulic motor-pump and uses it to compress the air in the energy tank to up to 25MPa. The system uses the compressed air to drive the hydraulic motor and assist acceleration. The trial car is combined with a 1200cc three-cylinder gasoline engine and has achieved CO2 emissions of 69g/km. The company has set a new goal of 2.0-liters/100km mileage. The new system is being developed jointly with Robert Bosch.
 The operating principle is already used in heavy duty construction and other machinery. Its application in full-size pickup trucks is being studied by Ford and in minivans by Chrysler.
(6)
PHV
 PSA has plans to develop a plug-in hybrid as the next step. The PHV will secure an EV range of around 20km and will be an ideal solution to the environmental issue even for long-distance driving.

 

 



Renault: Launch of the Supermini Zoe expected to increase its EV sales

 In early 2013, Renault launched its fourth electric vehicle, the Renault Zoe, which is a B platform-based "supermini" commuter. Renault plans to advertise its electric vehicles on mass media for the first time in the hope that the Zoe will lead to sales expansion of its electric vehicles.

Renault: Launching the supermini Zoe EV in early 2013

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
EV Fluence 2011
Kangoo Express 2011
Twizy 2011
ZOE (1) Launch
Twin'Z (2) Concept car exhibited

 

(1)
ZOE
 The Zoe is a four-seater compact five-door hatchback with 4,084mm in length and 1,730mm in width. Powered by 22kWh lithium-ion battery and a 65kW motor, the Zoe has the cruising range of 210km. Customer deliveries in a limited number began in France from the end of 2012 and volume sales started in early 2013.
 The starting price in France is 13,700 euros after applying the 7,000 euro government incentive, plus a monthly lease fee of 79 euro for the battery. A charger for home use costs 600 to 1000 euros to install. According to Renault, the Zoe is ideal for commuting and the company hopes it will turn out to be the best-selling electric car because of the affordable price, saving on fuel, nearly 20% cheaper maintenance cost than the internal combustion engine counterparts, and the 150km range.
(2)
Twin'Z
 The Twin'Z is an electric "citycar" born out of collaboration with a British furniture designer Ross Lovegrove, unveiled at the Milan Triennale in April 2013. The compact car is with 3627mm in length, 1705mm in width, and 1506mm in height, and is designed for easy handling in cities. Its rear axle is driven by a motor mounted at the back of the car.

 

Fiat: Launching the Fiat 500 EV

 

Fiat: The Fiat 500 EV launched in California, the US, in April 2013

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
EV 500 EV Launch
(Notes) 1. Fiat released the Fiat 500 EV in April 2013 for sale in the State of California, the US. The electric vehicle travels 87 miles per charge. It has a price tag of US$32,500 but is being offered in an unconventional sales promotion including the US$199 monthly lease plan for three years, the same plan that applies to the Fiat 500-based cars being sold for US$16,000.
2. According to Fiat, the company launched the Fiat EV to show off its technology and to meet the Zero-Emission regulations applicable in the State of California, US.

 

 



Hybrid and plug-in hybrid supercars by Ferrari and McLaren

Hybrid and plug-in hybrid supercars by Ferrari and McLaren

Model Announced Description
Ferrari LaFerrari
(HV)
March 2013  The two-seater with a performance-worshipping HV system called HY-KERS, equipped with a 6300cc V12 direct-injection engine with the maximum speed of 350km/h, combined with a 100hp motor, and accelerates from 0 to 124mph in about 3 seconds. Fuel consumption has been reduced by 40% and the car has a CFRP-made body of the same class as the F1 racing cars. The lithium-ion battery is supplied by Samsung Electronics.
 A limited production of 499 units is planned from April 2013 to 2014. The approximately 1 million euro cars are already sold out before its start of production.
McLaren P1
(PHV)
March 2013  The two-seater plug-in hybrid equipped with a V8 twin-turbo engine with the top output of 542kW and a 132kW motor. The limiter cuts in when the car reaches the maximum speed of 350km/h. The car accelerates from 0 to 100km/h in less than 3 seconds.
 The price is set at US$1.3 million and the car reportedly will be produced in the UK in the latter half of 2013.
(Notes) 1. Both models were exhibited at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show in March.
2. Jaguar Cars exhibited its hybrid super sports car C-X75, said to carry a price tag of US$1.2 to 1.5 million, at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, and was to produce 250 units in 2013. But the plan was cancelled due to the recent economic conditions. The development stage has been completed and production of several prototypes is expected. The company will use the developed technologies in its future product plans.

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