Tokyo Motor Show 2011: Japanese OEMs (2)

Exhibitions by commercial vehicle and passenger car manufacturers

2012/01/20

Summary

 This is the second report that covers the exhibition by Japanese OEMs at the 42nd Tokyo Motor Show. This report outlines the exhibition by commercial vehicle manufacturers (including OEMs under the umbrella of overseas OEMs) and the exhibition related to powertrain by passenger car manufacturers.

 Like the exhibition by passenger car manufacturers, commercial vehicle manufacturers aggressively exhibited hybrid trucks (buses) and plug-in hybrid trucks. Hino and Mitsubishi Fuso also showcased EV light vans and light trucks. Concerning commercial vehicles, these manufacturers showed their intention to promote electrification, centered on small vehicles (buses) for short-distance transportation.

 In the technology exhibitions by passenger car manufacturers, Mazda displayed a diesel engine, gasoline engine, AT, and regenerative braking system that uses a capacitor, all of which are among its SKYACTIV technologies. Subaru showcased three types of horizontally-opposed engines while Toyota exhibited the hybrid system of the Aqua compact HV.

 In addition, there are exhibitions in which new technologies are applied to mini vehicles which account for more than 30% of new vehicle sales in Japan. Daihatsu displayed a next-generation technology such as 2-cylinder direct-injection turbo engine and a next-generation large-capacity capacitor. Honda also showcased the first set of next-generation innovative technology, "EARTH DREAMS TECHNOLOGY," which consists of a new engine/new CVT for mini vehicles.

Related Reports:  Tokyo Motor Show 2011: Japanese OEMs (1)  (January 2012)
Tokyo Motor Show 2011: European OEMs (December 2011)
Tokyo Motor Show 2011: Parts Suppliers (1)  (December 2011)
Tokyo Motor Show 2011: Parts Suppliers (2) (January 2012)


Commercial vehicle manufacturers: each company showcases hybrid commercial vehicles

Isuzu: exhibits a plug-in hybrid light truck and a hybrid large fixed-route bus

 Isuzu exhibited for reference the ELF Plug-in Hybrid, a light plug-in hybrid truck that can run 40km in EV mode, and the ERGA Hybrid which is a large hybrid fixed-route bus. In addition, the company showcased the T-NEXT which is its design study of a next-generation tractor.


ELF Plug-in Hybrid

the ERGA
ELF Plug-in Hybrid which is equipped with a Li-ion battery
at the rear end of the chassis.
Hybrid version of a large fixed-route bus, the ERGA

the T-NEXT
Isuzu's design study of a tractor, the T-NEXT

Isuzu's concept models

ELF Plug-in
Hybrid
 The ELF Plug-in Hybrid is a light plug-in hybrid truck (exhibited for reference). Compared to Isuzu's ELF Hybrid, the output of the motor and the capacity of the Li-ion battery are enhanced to 50kW and 19kWh, respectively (Note). The model can run 40km in EV mode (data by Isuzu) and is equipped with a switch for EV mode. To enable the model to run in EV mode, the power steering pump and the vacuum pump are electrified.
ERGA Hybrid  The ERGA Hybrid is a hybrid version of a large fixed-route bus, the ERGA (exhibited for reference). The model has a system in which the engine, clutch, motor, and transmission are arranged in series. At startup, it can run with only the motor.
T-NEXT  The T-NEXT is Isuzu's design study of a next-generation tractor. The exterior integrates aerodynamic performance and safety performance. The driver seat has a steering wheel that can be stored, thus providing the most suitable driving posture and exceptional occupant comfort during breaks from driving.

(Note) The plug-in hybrid truck with which the company started test-runs in 2010 is the ELF Hybrid with a charging function.

 

Hino: exhibits the 2nd-generation Dutro Hybrid and the eZ-CARGO EV concept van

 Hino showcased the Dutro Hybrid, which is its 2nd-generation light hybrid truck that was launched in July 2011, and also exhibited the Dutro Plug-in Hybrid, which is the Dutro Hybrid with a charging function, for reference. The company also displayed an EV concept van, the eZ-CARGO. In addition, it also demonstrated the running of its hybrid fixed-route bus with a noncontact charging function between the venue (Tokyo Big Site) and the Toyosu Station.


The 2nd-generation of the Dutro Hybrid light truck

Dutro Plug-in Hybrid
The 2nd-generation of the Dutro Hybrid light truck Dutro Plug-in Hybrid

Hino's HV/PHV/EV commercial vehicles

DutroHybrid  The Dutro Hybrid, which was launched in July 2011, is the 2nd-generation of the Dutro Hybrid light truck. The model is equipped with a diesel engine exclusive for hybrid vehicles; the engine adopts an Atkinson cycle which is the first for commercial vehicles (data by Hino). In the former model, the engine and the motor are directly connected, but in this model, the clutch is located between the engine and the motor. With this system, when the clutch is disengaged during deceleration, the motor can generate electricity more efficiently.
 In addition, the company developed a 5-speed AMT exclusive for hybrid vehicles, the "Proshift V." The Proshift V cooperates with the hybrid system and, through computerized control, automatically shifts gears to optimize fuel consumption. With this, the fuel consumption variation by the driver is minimized. The fuel efficiency is 12.2km/L (heavy vehicle mode).
Dutro Plug-in
Hybrid
 The Dutro Plug-in Hybrid is a plug-in hybrid truck concept which is the Dutro Hybrid with a charging function. The model can run about 5km in EV mode. There are two charging inlets at the front grille and the rear part of the vehicle body. Electricity can be supplied from the vehicle.
eZ-CARGO  The eZ-CARGO is Hino's compact EV van concept. The motor drives the front wheels. With this system, it made it possible for the cargo space at the rear part of the vehicle to be enlarged and the floor to be lowered.
Hybrid bus with
noncontact
charging function
 Hino demonstrated running its large hybrid fixed-route bus with a noncontact charging function between the venue (Tokyo Big Site) and the Toyosu Station (about 4km). The model comes with a 4.7L-class compact engine; combined with the motor, the model achieves the dynamic performance similar to that of a 10L bus. The capacity of the battery is more than 40kWh; the model can run about 15km in an urban area in EV mode. Hino, jointly with the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, and others has been conducting similar test-runs.


the eZ-CARGO
Hino's compact EV van concept, the eZ-CARGO

 

Mitsubishi Fuso: exhibits the new Canter Eco Hybrid and the Canter E-Cell, a development model

 Mitsubishi Fuso is mainly responsible for the development of hybrid technology in the Daimler Truck division. The company unveiled its light-duty hybrid truck that is scheduled to be launched in the spring of 2012, the new Canter Eco Hybrid, for the first time in the world. In addition, as development models, it exhibited the Canter E-Cell light-duty EV truck and the Super Great Eco Hybrid, a heavy-duty hybrid truck that is assumed to run at high speeds.


New Canter Eco Hybrid

Hybrid system to be used in the new Canter Eco Hybrid
New Canter Eco Hybrid which is scheduled to be launched
in the spring of 2012
Hybrid system to be used in the new Canter Eco Hybrid

 

New model of Mitsubishi Fuso (Daimler Group)

Canter Eco
Hybrid
 The Canter Eco Hybrid is a new light-duty hybrid truck. Global debut. The model is scheduled to be launched in the spring of 2012. The model has adopted a 6-speed Duonic dual-clutch, automated manual transmission with a motor which is the first for commercial vehicles. By combining a high-performance Li-ion battery with the 4P10 diesel engine that is equipped with a newly-developed BlueTec system (exhaust emission after treatment system), fuel efficiency is improved by more than 30% compared to a diesel-powered vehicle.
 The components of the hybrid system include multiple common parts that have been co-developed by the Daimler Group. The system complies with the safety regulations in countries around the world; the company eyes the full-scale global marketing in terms of sales planning.

Development models of Mitsubishi Fuso (Daimler Group)

Canter E-Cell  The Canter E-Cell is a development model of a light-duty EV truck. Japanese debut. The model is an EV truck that was developed based on Daimler Group's commercial vehicle division's concept of "Shaping Future Transportation." It is based on the Canter (GVW 3.5t), which is a light-duty truck designed for Europe, and comes with a Li-ion battery (40kWh) and a motor (70kW・300Nm). With a 10-hour (200V) charge, it can run about 120km.
Super Great
Eco Hybrid
 The Super Great Eco Hybrid is a development model of a heavy-duty hybrid truck, assumed to run at a high speed, which is the first for commercial vehicles in Japan. The model has adopted a parallel hybrid system that is used in the Canter Eco Hybrid. With the combination of a newly-developed motor, a 12-speed AMT INOMAT-II and a newly-developed Li-ion battery, and a 6R10 engine, fuel efficiency at high speeds is improved by more than 10% compared to a current diesel-powered vehicle.

Canter E-Cell

Super Great Eco Hybrid
Canter E-Cell which is a development model
of a light-duty EV truck
Super Great Eco Hybrid which is a development model
of a heavy-duty HV truck

 

UD Trucks: exhibits the Condor with a urea SCR system and a middle-class global engine

 UD Trucks exhibited the Condor medium-duty truck and a middle-class engine that is equipped in the Condor. This engine is developed by UD Trucks and adopted as a global market engine by each of the company in the Volvo Group.

New model and global market engine of UD Trucks (Volvo Trucks)

Condor  The Condor is a new medium-duty truck that was launched in July 2011. The model adopts a new cab design that conveys the impression of a unified family identity with the Quon heavy-duty truck. The model comes with the GH5 engine (see below) and a urea SCR system, the FLENDS. It is equipped with a start-stop system and Easy Hill Start which improves safety at hill startup.
GH5 engine/
GH7 engine
 The GH5 engine and GH7 engine are engines that UD Trucks independently developed exclusively for medium-duty trucks. Each company in the Volvo Group adopts them as its middle-class engine platforms. By adopting a newly-developed common rail with a pressure of up to 2,000 bars and installing a supercharged turbocharger, in addition to smaller displacement, friction reduction, and electronic-control, the engines have improved fuel efficiency.
 The displacement, maximum output, and maximum torque are 4.675L, 215ps, and 628Nm, respectively for the GH5 engine and 7.013L, 245ps/280ps, and 716Nm/883Nm, respectively, for the GH7 engine.

Condor medium-duty truck
GH5 global engine
Condor medium-duty truck which was launched in July 2011 GH5 global engine for medium-duty trucks

 



Powertrain by passenger car manufacturers: Mazda, Subaru, and Toyota

Mazda: exhibits SKYACTIV diesel engine and regenerative braking system which are used in its concept car, the TAKERI

 Mazda aims to improve the average fuel consumption by more than 30% (compared to the average in 2008) by 2015. To achieve this target, the company launched the "Building Block Strategy" in which it first improves the base technologies, such as engines, and then gradually adopts electric devices. The base technologies to be improved are the SKYACTIV technologies. The steps for electric device adoption are as follows: the first step is the start-stop system, the second step is the regenerative braking system, and the third step is the electric drive system.


 At the Tokyo Motor Show, among its SKYACTIV technologies, the company showcased the SKYACTIV-G gasoline engine, SKYACTIV-D diesel engine, and SKYACTIV-Drive AT, and also unveiled a regenerative braking system, the i-ELOOP.


SKYACTIV-D 2.0 diesel engine

SKYACTIV-G 2.0 gasoline engine
SKYACTIV-D 2.0 diesel engine which is to be used in
its concept car, the TAKERI, and new SUV, the CX-5
SKYACTIV-G 2.0 gasoline engine (model for exhibition)

Mazda's diesel/gasoline engine, AT, and regenerative braking system

SKYACTIV-D  The SKYACTIV-D is a diesel engine among the SKYACTIV technologies. It is equipped in the TAKERI, the concept car that was unveiled at the Tokyo Motor Show, and in the CX-5 which is scheduled to be launched in the spring of 2012. The compression ratio, which is usually from 16 to 17, is lowered to 14. With this, the strength of the parts is decreased and makes it possible to reduce the weight. From the entire engine, about 10% of weight reduction is achieved (the engine block is made of aluminum) and by reducing the weight of the piston, the response is improved.
 When the compression ratio is lowered, the temperature of the compressed air decreases which causes a problem in terms of cold startability and misfire due to low temperature during warm-up. To prevent this problem, a multi-hole piezo injector is used; fuel is injected to increase the accuracy of mixture of fuel and air, which improves cold startability. In addition, a variable valve lift system is installed at the exhaust side; during intake, the exhaust valve is slightly opened to let high-temperature exhaust gas into the cylinder. With this, the temperature of the compressed air is increased to prevent misfire.
SKYACTIV-G  The SKYACTIV-G is a gasoline engine among the SKYACTIV technologies. It is a direct-injection engine that increases the compression ratio up to 14 (usually about 10) to optimize heat efficiency. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature of the compressed air increases and abnormal combustion (knocking) occurs. To lower the temperature in the cylinder, a long 4-2-1 exhaust manifold is adopted to prevent high-temperature residual exhaust gases from returning into the cylinder. In addition, a multi-hole injector with enhanced fuel injection characteristics and a cavity piston are adopted.
 Currently, there are three types of SKYACTIV-G engines. For existing platforms, there are two engines, an engine that focuses especially on fuel efficiency (for the Demio, compression ratio is 14, and is equipped with a 4-1 exhaust manifold and water-cooled EGR) and an engine that focuses on both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency (for the Axela, compression ratio is 12 with a 4-1 exhaust manifold) (Note 1). In addition, there is the full SKYACTIV-G (compression ratio of 13 with a 4-2-1 exhaust manifold) that is equipped in the CX-5 which is scheduled to be launched in the spring of 2012.
SKYACTIV-DRIVE  The SKYACTIV-DRIVE is a 6-speed AT that integrates all the advantages of a multi-speed AT, CVT, and DCT. To enhance the direct feel, the lock-up clutch range where the engine and the transmission are directly connected has been raised from 49% of the current 5-speed AT to 82% (JC08 mode: lock-up is possible at about 10km/h or faster). For this reason, four highly-durable lock-up clutches and a larger damper are used.
 In addition, to enhance responsiveness, the hydraulic control system has been integrated with the control computer. As a result, a computer that can withstand a fuel temperature of 120 degrees was developed. There are two types of SKYACTIV-DRIVE, depending on the torque capacity, one for gasoline engines and one for diesel engines.
i-ELOOP  The i-ELOOP is a regenerative braking system. When the accelerator is released, a variable-voltage generator (12-25V) generates electricity to charge the electric double layer capacitor (Note 2). Then, a DC-DC converter lowers the voltage to 12V to supply electricity to the electric components and lead battery. By charging with a high voltage, the capacitor can be fully charged in several seconds. The electricity of the capacitor is consumed in about one minute, and the capacitor can be recharged frequently when the vehicle is running in an urban area. Therefore, there is hardly any need to generate electricity by fuel which is expected to improve fuel efficiency by about 10%.
(Note) 1. In existing platforms, a long 4-2-1 exhaust manifold can not be stored in the engine room; therefore, a 4-1 exhaust manifold is used.
2. Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation supplies capacitors. Compared to conventional capacitors, its capacitor limits the internal resistance value to one-third, thus improving the capacity of high-current charge and discharge. In addition, heat resistance is improved from 60 degrees to 70 degrees, making it possible to be stored in the engine room.

SKYACTIV-DRIVE

The i-ELOOP
SKYACTIV-DRIVE, a 6-speed AT among the
SKYACTIV technologies
The i-ELOOP, a regenerative braking system
that uses a capacitor

 

Subaru: exhibits three types of horizontally-opposed engines - high output, diesel, and downsized direct-injection turbocharged

 Subaru exhibited a high-output 2.0L horizontally-opposed engine that it developed for the Toyota 86/Subaru BRZ, a horizontally-opposed diesel engine designed for Europe, and a downsized direct-injection turbocharged horizontally-opposed engine that is used in its concept car.


Horizontally-opposed 4-cylinder 2.0L engine

World's first horizontally-opposed diesel engine
Horizontally-opposed 4-cylinder 2.0L engine which
combines Subaru's horizontally-opposed engine with
Toyota's direct-injection technology, the D-4S
World's first horizontally-opposed diesel engine
for passenger cars

Downsized direct-injection turbocharged horizontally-opposed engine
Downsized direct-injection turbocharged
horizontally-opposed engine

 

Exhibition of horizontally-opposed engine by Subaru

Horizontally-
opposed engine
for the 86/BRZ
 The engine is a 4-cylinder 2.0L horizontally-opposed engine that is developed for the Toyota 86/Subaru BRZ. It combines Subaru's horizontally-opposed engine with Toyota's direct-injection technology, the D-4S, to improve output in high rotation range and fuel efficiency. The D-4S is a system that has two injectors (direct fuel injector and port fuel injector). The direct fuel injector is basically used, and in low rotation range, the port injector is also used.
 By using a variable valve timing system to minimize knocking, the engine achieves the compression ratio of 12.5. The bore/stroke is 86.0mm/86.0mm (Note). The maximum output is 147kW/7,000rpm. The maximum torque is 205Nm/6,600rpm. To achieve low barycenter, the shape of the exhaust manifold/oil pan under the engine is revamped.
Horizontally-
opposed
diesel engine
 The engine is the world's first horizontally-opposed diesel engine for passenger cars which Subaru introduced in Europe in 2008. It is a 4-cylinder 2.0L engine with a bore/stroke of 86.0mm/86.0mm. Since the pistons move horizontally, vibration is minimized which is why no balance shaft is used. The engine block is made of aluminum. The company cites the compliance with Euro6 as an agenda in its medium-term plan until 2015. It says that it is considering introducing the engine in Japan.
1.6L direct-
injection turbo
horizontally-
opposed engine
 The engine shows the direction of Subaru's future engine strategy (equipped in its concept car that was exhibited at the motor show, the ADVANCED TOURER CONCEPT). By combining direct-injection technology and turbo technology, the current turbo engine (2.0L and 2.5L) is downsized to a 1.6L engine. With this, fuel efficiency is improved. The company says that the engine can be used in any Subaru model.

(Note) The number 86 of the bore/stroke (86mm) and Toyota's model name (Toyota 86) happen to coincide (the square of (86mm/2)×3.14×86mm×4(-cylinder) = 1,997cc).

 

Toyota: exhibits hybrid system of the Aqua compact HV

Aqua's
hybrid system
 The engine of the Aqua's hybrid system is an Atkinson cycle engine which is an upgraded 1.5L version of the 2nd-generation Prius' engine (70% of parts are newly designed). The engine newly adopts a cooled EGR and an electric water pump. Compared to the 1.8L engine of the 3rd-generation Prius, the engine is 51mm shorter and 16.5kg lighter. The transaxle system is the same as that of the Prius, but the way the motor winds is changed to minimize the size (21mm shorter and 8.0kg lighter). The nickel-hydride battery is also made smaller and lighter by 11.0kg.

Comparison of the hybrid systems of the Aqua and the Prius

Aqua 2nd-generation
Prius
3rd-generation
Prius
Engine Type 1NZ-FXE 1NZ-FXE 2ZR-FXE
Disp. (cc) 1,496 1,496 1.797
Max. output (kW[PS]/rpm) 54[74]/4,800 57[77]/5,000 73[99]/5,200
Max. torque (Nm[kgfm]/rpm) 111[11.3]/3,600-4,400 115[11.7]/4,200 142[14.5]/4,000
Motor Max. output (kW[PS]) 45[61] 50[68] 60[82]
Max. torque (Nm[kgfm]) 169[17.2] 400[40.8] 207[21.1]
The entire system * Max. output (kW[PS]) 73[100] 82[111] 100[136]
Battery Nickel-hydride
20 (6.5Ah)
Nickel-hydride
28 (6.5Ah)
Nickel-hydride
28 (6.5Ah)

* As a system, the output that can be generated by the engine and the motor. Data by Toyota.


An engine and a motor to be used in a compact HV, the Aqua

Nickel hydride battery for the Aqua
An engine and a motor to be used in a compact HV,
the Aqua. The one on the left side is a motor for the Prius.
The way the motor winds is different.
Nickel hydride battery for the Aqua

 



Powertrain for mini vehicles: Daihatsu, Honda, and Suzuki

Daihatsu:

 Daihatsu presented a roadmap of its technologies with the technology for the Mira e:S which has achieved a fuel economy of 30.0km/L (JC08 mode) as the first stage. At the second stage, the company showcased technologies, aiming for a fuel economy of 35km/L (JC08 mode): 2-cylinder direct-injection turbo engine, active ignition system, and mega storage capacitor. At the third stage, Daihatsu displayed its own technology for fuel cell vehicles, aiming for zero emission.


660cc 2-cylinder direct-injection turbo engine

Mega storage capacitor
660cc 2-cylinder direct-injection turbo engine
which is used in its concept car, the D-X
Mega storage capacitor with increased rate of charging
and discharging

 

Daihatsu's roadmap for technology

1st STAGE
To achieve fuel
economy of 30km/L
Mira e:S
(JC08 mode)
Improvement
to powertrain
 The compression ratio is increased from 10.5 to 11.3; an engine with i-EGR (EGR with ion current combustion control system) is adopted. To increase the compression ratio, as a countermeasure against knocking, the engine block is made thinner to minimize the distance between the combustion chamber and cooling water, thus enhancing cooling efficiency. The pressure to press the pulley in the CVT is optimized in coordination with the engine torque, which improves the efficiency of power transmission.
Evolution of
vehicles
 The company reduced the weight of the vehicle by 60kg so that it weighs no more than 730kg: (1) By aligning the reinforcement parts as linear as possible, the shell body framework is streamlined (-30kg)、(2) Through measures such as using thinner plastic, the weight of interior parts is reduced(-20kg), (3) Through measures such as reducing the number of brackets to keep parts in place, the layout and packaging are changed (-10kg), (4) Other measures to reduce weight (-15kg), and (5) Use items designed to improve fuel efficiency (+15kg).
Energy
management
 It has a system that turns off the engine while the vehicle is decelerating (7km/h or slower). The regenerative braking system efficiency is improved; it recovers the braking energy and uses it to charge the lead battery. The cooling efficiency is improved; it efficiently takes in the air from the outside into the engine room.
2nd STAGE
To achieve fuel
economy of 35km/L
(JC08 mode)
2-cylinder,
direct-injection,
turbo-charged
engine
 The 2-cylinder engine is a 660cc engine with high heat efficiency. The maximum output is 47kW/6,000rpm. The maximum torque is 110Nm/2,000rpm (Note). The 2-cylinder engine has a vibration problem, but the company says that it has developed a technology to minimize the vibration with a balance shaft, etc. The turbo system is mainly used to increase the EGR rate to improve fuel efficiency.
Active Ignition
System
 The Active Ignition System is a system to burn gasoline with minimum loss; when igniting with a plug, the system uses high frequency electricity and produces plasma in the combustion chamber to increase the size of the spark. This is a countermeasure for the instability of the combustion when the EGR amount is increased.
Mega storage
capacitor
 The Mega storage capacitor is a new capacitor that increases the rate of charging and discharging. By increasing the capacity to 3 to 5-fold from the current capacity, the company aims to provide power to the air conditioner, audio system, etc. Daihatsu has used an electric double layer capacitor as an auxiliary power for the start-stop system.
3rd STAGE
To achieved
zero emission
Precious
metal-free
fuel cell vehicle
The liquid-feed fuel cell vehicle is a fuel cell vehicle that uses liquid fuel (hydrazine hydrate [N2H4・H2O]) to store hydrogen, and precious metal (platinum) is not used in the fuel-cell stack. Hydrazine hydrate is made from nitrogen and oxygen and is nonflammable at room temperature. Its toxicity is similar to that of gasoline and can be filled up at gas stations. A stack generates electricity, usually in a highly acid environment; therefore, precious platinum is used for electric catalysis which is highly corrosion-resistant. For Daihatsu's stack, abundant cobalt or nickel can be used because it generates electricity in an alkaline environment, which reduces cost.

The maximum output and maximum torque of the engine that is equipped in the Mira e:S is 38kW/6,800rpm and 60Nm/5,200rpm, respectively.

 

Honda: introduces its next-generation innovative technology, "EARTH DREAMS TECHNOLOGY"

 On the first press day of the Tokyo Motor Show, Honda introduced the summary of its next-generation innovative technology, "EARTH DREAMS TECHNOLOGY." The company is advancing its internal-combustion engine, transmission, and technology for electrification, aiming to achieve the best fuel efficiency in each category within three years. The N BOX, which was unveiled at this motor show, comes with a new engine/new CVT for mini vehicles from this "EARTH DREAMS TECHNOLOGY."


A new engine/new CVT for mini vehicles
A new engine/new CVT for mini vehicles which is used
in the Honda N BOX

 

Honda: engine and CVT for mini vehicles from "EARTH DREAMS TECHNOLOGY"

3-cylinder 660cc
DOHC engine
 The 3-cylinder 660cc DOHC engine has achieved the best level (data by Honda) of maximum output/maximum torque (43kW, 65Nm) in the class through the adoption of a variable valve timing control system and by realizing a compact combustion chamber. With coordinated control of the electronically-controlled throttle and CVT, fuel efficiency is improved (22.2km/L in JC08 mode). To make the combustion chamber smaller, the engine uses systems that are employed in high-end engines such as a single-rocker arm assembly and a hydraulic lash adjuster which automatically adjusts the valve clearance. In addition, through measures, such as making the cylinder thinner, the weight of the engine is reduced by 12kg to 69kg.
 The engine room of the N BOX is made 70mm shorter; therefore, the stroke (width) for the absorption of impact at collision is shorter. For this reason, the company took measures by making it more "squashy," centering on the auxiliary devices of the engine. Specifically, it is designed so that the compressor and generator jump into the engine and the intake manifold/catalyzer crushes during a collision. As a result, the length of the engine during collision becomes 78mm shorter and secures the stroke.
CVT for
mini vehicles
 This is a CVT for light-weight and compact mini vehicles with high transmission efficiency. Since the torque input into the pulley is high and the rotation frequency is low, the transmission efficiency increases; therefore, the company set a parallel-axis system primary deceleration mechanism between the engine and the pulley (Daihatsu sets a planetary gear system deceleration mechanism). The company adopts a parallel-axis system since the number of gears is small and the transmission efficiency is high, allowing greater flexibility in setting the reduction ratio.
 In the parallel-axis system deceleration mechanism, the flexibility in setting the pulley is greater compared to the planetary gear system; the company has revamped the layout and made the length of the CVT shorter. In addition, the weight is reduced by measures such as the adoption of a simpler structure of the transmission case.

 

Suzuki: engine that is equipped in the Alto eco

Upgraded
R06A engine
 The Alto eco, which was launched in November 2011 and has achieved a fuel efficiency of 30.2km/L (JC08 mode), uses an upgraded R06A engine (Note). The upgraded points are as follows: The friction of the sliding surfaces of the camshaft/crankshaft is reduced, the lubricating performance is improved by changing the resin coating of the piston skirt to a wavelike pattern, the friction/weight is reduced by reducing the width of the crankshaft bearing by 10%, and the drive loss of the camshaft is minimized by reducing the load to the valve spring. The maximum output is lowered from 40kW/6,500rpm to 38kW/6,000rpm.

(Note) The R06A engine is Suzuki's engine for mini vehicles and was upgraded for the first time in 16 years. It is used in the MR Wagon which was launched in January 2011.

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