Autonomous Driving Regulations Status and Trends

UN Regulations, Overview of Laws and Regulations in Major Countries and Recent Trends



  This report summarizes information on the laws and regulations for Level 3 and above autonomous driving in major countries and regions as of January 2023. Regulations for driver assistance systems below Level 2 are not addressed.

  As of January 2023, UN regulations (UN-R157-01 series), in Japan and the EU, allow for the approval of Level 3 autonomous driving devices with a maximum speed limit of 130 km/h on highways and the ability to change vehicle lanes.
  Future work on developing regulations will focus on regulations for Level 4 and 5 unmanned (driverless) vehicles.

  The U.S. and China have not adopted UN-R157, and each is working on its own legislation.


  Autonomous driving is classified into three levels: Level 3 (conditional driving automation), Level 4 (high driving automation; full automation under specific conditions), and Level 5 (full driving automation).

  The definition of autonomous driving levels is based on the American Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) definitions of Level 0 to Level 5, which is used as the basis for the classification. Note that the expression "Level 2.5" can also be found for hands-off functions that are within the scope of Level 2 (partial driving automation) but closer to Level 3 (conditional driving automation).

Autonomous driving level definitions Autonomous driving level definitions
Autonomous driving level definitions (SAEJ3016)
(Source: SAE J3016 automated-driving graphic)
Autonomous driving level definitions (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
(Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism press release; November 11, 2020)


UN Regulations >>> Please see here

FMVSS >>> Please see here


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