Analysis Report: Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) (Japan, Europe, and U.S. markets)

Activities of major suppliers

2020/11/26



I. Introduction

  The transmission is a core component of any vehicle, controlling rotational speed, torque, and direction to best match the power output of the engine to the driving conditions. It greatly contributes, along with the engine, to driving performance, fuel economy, and ride feel, and is often a market differentiator between models. Because of its important role in determining the characteristics of a vehicle, many OEMs prefer to manufacture transmission units in-house in the same vein as their engines and motors. Thus, companies that can function as suppliers of transmission systems are limited to only the biggest players. Therefore, as much as possible, we will distinguish between in-house products made by automobile manufacturers and those made by suppliers, and describe the transmission based on its relationship with the engine and equipped model.

 

  Transmissions are broadly classified into automatic transmissions (AT) and manual transmissions (MT), and automatic transmissions are further subdivided as follows.

This report details the sub-category of automatic transmissions, as shown in the above figure, known as continuously variable transmissions (CVT).

  • Friction-type step-less transmissions using a belt or chain to transfer power (hereinafter referred to as mechanical CVT, including some step systems).
  • Transmissions for hybrid vehicles, such as Toyota hybrid vehicles, that perform stepless speed change by a built-in electric motor / generator via a power split mechanism. (Hereinafter referred to as an electric CVT or a hybrid transmission.) The electric CVT has a completely different structure than the mechanical CVT using a belt and a pulley, but it is functionally classified and included in the continuously variable transmission category.

The following automatic transmission types are excluded from this report:

  • Step-type automatic transmissions with a torque converter and epicyclic gearing (including ATs with MT modes).Refer to AT Analysis Report
  • Step-type hybrid transmissions with built-in motor and clutch (e.g. Nissan FWD hybrid cars, European models equipped with ZF Friedrichshafen AG (ZF) systems, Toyota’s multi-stage hybrid system).Refer to AT Analysis Report
  • Although types of automatic transmissions, DCTs (dual clutch transmission) and AMTs (automated manual transmission or semi-automatic transmission), which are based on MT and have automated gear changes and clutch operation, are so-called 2-pedal MT.  

  The CVT is a mechanism that shifts gears steplessly, instead of switching gears stepwise as in a step AT. Since it is stepless, the great advantage of a CVT is that it can run at the optimum gear ratio. Since the gear ratio can be adjusted to the engine speed range where the engine efficiency is good, it is a transmission that is compatible with mini-vehicles and compact cars which have small displacement engines and limited power. Therefore, most of the automatic transmissions installed on mini-vehicles and A-D segment class front-wheel drive vehicles in the Japanese market in recent years are CVTs. As will be described in detail later, although this report targets the Japanese and Western markets, the current CVT business is actually a product unique to the Japanese market and Japanese OEMs.

  For the remainder of this report the term AT will be used to refer to automatic transmissions, CVT to refer to mechanical continuously variable transmissions, and electric CVT to refer to hybrid transmissions.



Ⅱ. Overview

  Most recently, due to the impact of COVID-19 which became a global pandemic in 2020, no major activities have been seen since the last update (March 2020). On the other hand, in recent years, ATs including CVTs, have become increasingly common. However, manual transmissions (MT) still account for nearly half of the global market. This report covers a number of trends among AT systems as described below.  

  • In Japan and the U.S., AT systems hold an overwhelming majority, with a near 90% equip rate in both markets. In Europe, MTs comprise nearly 50% of the market for RWD cars and 75% for FWD cars, with the proportion of dual clutch transmissions (DCT) growing.
  • With regards to mechanical CVTs, almost all Japanese OEMs adopt these, primarily for the Japanese market. Japanese supplier JATCO has the largest share of the global CVT market with 49%. Excluding in-house production by the OEMs, the 3 Japanese suppliers JATCO Ltd. (JATCO), Aisin AW Co., Ltd. (Aisin AW), and Akashi-Kikai Industry Co., Ltd. (Akashi-Kikai Industry) (owned 89.7% by Daihatsu) dominate the entire CVT market. In other words, although this report addresses the Japan, European, and U.S. markets, the global CVT market is characterized by the role played by Japanese automakers and the Japanese market.
  • Various electric CVT systems have been released: The THS-II from Toyota (Toyota Hybrid System), the i-MMD from Honda (Intelligent Multi-Mode Drive), and since the release of the Pacifica Hybrid by Chrysler in 2017, all of the Detroit 3 are now releasing vehicles equipped with electric CVT.

  Taking these factors into account, the following trends can be seen by market.

[Japanese OEMs and the Japanese market]

  • AT systems comprise about 90% of the Japanese market. Until the mid-1980’s MTs and ATs enjoyed roughly a 50:50 share of the market, but subsequently the ratio shifted towards ATs and reached the current levels in the early 2000’s.
  • As mentioned above, the popularization of CVTs as a subcategory of ATs is a feature particular to the Japanese market. The reasons for this can be roughly divided into two areas:
  • The first reason is that automakers want to improve fuel economy and reduce the shock of gear changes from the incessant stop and start type driving that people encounter in urban areas in Japan.
  • The second reason is due to the proliferation of electric CVTs that make the drive motor function as a CVT, as can be seen in some of Toyota and Honda’s hybrid vehicle models.

  The Toyota Prius (NHW10/11) was released in 1997 as the world’s first volume production hybrid vehicle. Since then Toyota has upgraded its powertrain to the THS-II system with reduction gear and has expanded its adoption to many more hybrid vehicles. Toyota’s nickname “Hybrid Kingdom” has come to be synonymous with the proliferation of electric CVTs in Japan.

  • In addition to CVT systems manufactured in-house by OEMs, CVTs are also manufactured by the three major Japanese AT suppliers JATCO, Aisin AW and Daihatsu’s Akashi-Kikai Industry. JATCO and Aisin AW are the dominant suppliers of CVTs globally.
  • Among CVTs, the friction type is used for most FWD vehicles and 4WD (based on FWD) vehicles, including mini-vehicles, equipped with engines with a displacement of 2.5L or less by all automakers except Mazda. JATCO, which supplies all the CVT units for Nissan, also produces units capable of handling up to 3.5L displacement engines, which are equipped on Nissan’s V6 3.5L FWD and 4WD models. JATCO is the world’s largest supplier of CVT units.
  • Electric CVT and hybrid transmission units are increasing in number every year in the Japanese market. In particular, the global hybrid vehicle leader Toyota is installing the systems on many of its FWD, RWD, and 4WD models. Some of the units are manufactured in-house, while others are procured from Aisin AW, which is the largest global supplier of electric CVT units.

[U.S. OEMs and the North American market]

  • As in Japan, vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions account for more than 90% of the market.
  • One key difference with the Japan market is that the U.S. has a higher quantity of large vehicles, making torque converter step-type ATs more popular than CVTs.
  • GM had not produced a mechanical CVT for a long time, but the 2019 model year Chevrolet Malibu announced in the summer of 2018 was changed to a new mechanical CVT manufactured in-house at the Ramos Arizpe plant in Mexico. The Chevrolet Spark by GM was also equipped with a CVT, but it was manufactured by JATCO of Japan.
  • As for electric CVTs, GM, Ford, and Chrysler have HV (hybrid vehicle) and PHV (plug-in hybrid vehicle) models equipped with in-house manufactured hybrid transmissions, but GM ended their production and sales in 2019.

  In 2017, FCA US (Chrysler) launched the Pacifica PHEV equipped with electric CVT.
Ford equipped compact SUVs and sedans with electric CVTs, but the company plans to gradually eliminate electric CVT-equipped sedan models by 2021 following the withdrawal of sedan models from Ford's North American market.

[European OEMs and the European market]

  • The sales ratio of MT vehicles in the market is high at 80-90%; in other words, automatic transmissions comprise 10% to 20% of the market. The European market is nearly the opposite of Japan and the U.S. in terms of transmission makeup.
  • Among D- and E-Segment vehicles, including those models with longitudinal transmissions, the ratio of ATs has been increasing. Daimler and Audi have been manufacturing CVT systems in-house, but recently at the timing of model redesigns, they have been sequentially swapping out the CVT systems for step-type ATs, relegating CVTs to a niche in the market.
  • In the summer of 2019, the European OEM Opel, a subsidiary of PSA, started production of the Astra, a model that has for quite some time been equipped with a CVT.
  • DCT AT systems are popular among automakers such as VW as they prefer to equip 8- and 9-speed ATs instead of 7-speed or lower systems.
  • While AT and CVT systems are the norm in the U.S., ASEAN and India, DCTs along with ATs are mainstream in the markets of Europe and China. One reason for this is that DCTs are built based on MT architectures, so if a company has an existing production plant for MT units, it can easily be upgraded to manufacture DCTs. Furthermore, DCT units can easily be mated to engines designed for MT systems. As a result, it seems natural that DCTs would be the next stage of progression in markets such as Europe and China, where MTs have dominated.
  • DCTs come in two major types: wet and dry. Wet systems are typically used in high-powered vehicles that generate much torque, as they require oil cooling to remove the heat generated. Dry systems are mostly used in subcompacts, where the design can be simplified due to the lack of necessity to cool components.


III. Major CVT suppliers and their customers

  The global CVT (including electric CVTs) market is dominated by three major Japanese suppliers: JATCO, Aisin AW and Daihatsu’s Akashi-Kikai Industry. ZF makes hybrid transmissions, but does not produce CVTs for passenger vehicles, so are excluded from this report.

  Among the Japanese OEMs manufacturing CVTs in-house, Honda and Subaru manufacture their CVT systems in-house, excluding some models supplied on an OEM basis. Conversely, Nissan, Mitsubishi Motors, and Suzuki do not conduct in-house production. One contributing factor for this is that JATCO was formerly the AT manufacturing department at Nissan’s Yoshiwara Plant, and in 2003 the company absorbed all of the AT and CVT manufacturing operations from Mitsubishi Motors’ Kyoto, Mizushima, and Yagi Plants. The Detroit 3 produce in-house in the U.S., and the German Opel/PSA does the same in Europe, while other OEMs source systems from JATCO and Aisin AW.
  The following table shows the CVT share of suppliers and OEMs in the Japanese market. (Source: MarkLines 2018 data, 2017 Japan domestic production vehicle basis, excluding commercial vehicles.)

  1. JATCO: 30%
  2. Toyota in-house: 18%
  3. Honda in-house: 15%
  4. Akashi-Kikai Industry: 12%
  5. Subaru in-house: 12%
  6. Aisin AW: 12%
  7. Daihatsu in-house: 1%

JATCO

  JATCO Ltd. is a global automatic transmission supplier, manufacturing AT, CVT, and hybrid transmission systems. As of March 2017, JATCO has manufactured a cumulative global production volume of 100 million units, comprised of 65 million AT units and 35 million CVT units. The company has the largest global share of the mechanical CVT market and, excluding in-house production by OEMs, the second largest global share of the AT market (AT and CVT combined), with Aisin AW in first place.

[Business overview]

  • JATCO is a transmission system supplier headquartered in Fuji City, Shizuoka Prefecture, and the world’s largest supplier of mechanical CVTs.
  • The company is owned 75% by Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (Nissan), 15% by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Mitsubishi Motors), and 10% by Suzuki Motor Corporation (Suzuki). The company supplies CVTs to these three companies in the Japanese market.
  • In 1970, "Japan Automatic Transmission Co., Ltd." was established as a joint venture of Nissan, Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. (currently Mazda Motor Corporation (Mazda)), and Ford Motor Company (Ford) of the U.S., and the company name was changed to "JATCO Ltd." in October 1989.
    In 1999, the company merged with Trans Technology Co., Ltd., which was formerly Nissan’s AT / CVT manufacturing division at its Yoshiwara Plant, and in 2003, it merged with Diamondmatic Co., Ltd., which was Mitsubishi Motors’ Corporation’s AT / CVT division.
    Based on these circumstances, JATCO has delivered all of the CVTs for Nissan and Mitsubishi, and most of the CVTs for Suzuki, which is located nearby in the region.
    It also supplies Nissan’s partner, Renault, with CVTs, as well as ATs for a number of models to Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd., Renault Samsung Motors Co., Ltd. (Renault-Samsung), and OAO AvtoVAZ. However, it does not supply product to Mazda directly since it was established as a separate entity, with the exception of some models supplied to Mazda indirectly by Nissan and Suzuki on an OEM basis.

[CVT overview and products]

  • JATCO currently offers a full lineup of five types of CVTs, covering vehicles from kei(mini) cars to 3.5L FWD models. In 2009, the company introduced the world’s first belt CVT sub-transmission system (JF015E) to its portfolio, which is being supplied to Nissan, Mitsubishi Motors, Suzuki, Chrysler, Renault and Renault-Samsung, and GM/GM Korea.
  • JATCO began production of a one motor/two clutch FWD hybrid CVT (JF018E) in 2012. It was equipped on the Nissan Pathfinder and Infiniti QX60 hybrid models first, followed by the X-Trail hybrid model.
  • JATCO’s main CVT7 series units were adopted for both compact and mini-vehicles. However, in March 2019, the company announced a new product, the JCVT-S JF021E CVT, specifically designed for mini-vehicles that has approximately 8% less friction and weighs about 4.2kg less that the CVT7. The new CVT has been equipped on the Nissan Dayz (B40W series), Mitsubishi ek Wagon (B33 and 36W types) and ek X (B34, 35, 37, and 38W types), which are mini-vehicles (sibling models) that were launched in the market at the end of the same month the new CVT was announced.
  • JATCO’s CVT lineup currently consists of 7 models: 5 main models and 2 heritage models.
    1. CVT7 for subcompact FWD vehicles with sub-transmission (JF015E): Nissan models such as the Note, Juke, and March, and Suzuki models such as the Swift, Solio and Hustler.
    2. CVT7 W/R for subcompact FWD vehicles (JF020E): The newly developed CVT with sub-transmission for Nissan models such as the Note, Juke, and March, and Suzuki models such as the Swift, Solio, and Hustler.
    3. CVT8 for mid- and large-sized FWD (2.0-3.5L) passenger vehicles (JF016E/JF017E): Nissan models such as the Serena, X-Trail, NY Taxi, and Teana, and Nissan models such as the RVR and Outlander.
    4. CVT8 Hybrid (JF018E /JF019E): For mid- and large-sized hybrid vehicles, i.e. Nissan X-Trail Hybrid.
    5. CVT-S (JF021E) For mini-vehicles such as the Nissan Dayz, and Mitsubishi ek Wagon and ek X.
    6. CVT for large-sized (3.5L) FWD vehicles (JF010E): Nissan Elgrande, Murano.
    7. CVT for mid-sized FWD vehicles (JF011E): e.g. Renault Megane, Mitsubishi Outlander, Delica D:5, and RVR.

[Development related]

  • JATCO announced that it built a new quality check test track, its first test-driving facility in the Fuji area. JATCO built a 313-meter long and 4.50-meter wide straight course with turnaround areas through renovations to half of the road surface in Area 4, Fuji. The new track has a three-layered asphalt structure to minimize road vibration and enhance sensitivity to small movements. Road surface conditions for high-speed driving is realized. The quality check test track will be utilized to evaluate and analyze a variety of phenomenon found when units are equipped on a vehicle with the aim of improving product quality.

[Manufacturing related]

  • Four of the company’s six manufacturing sites in Japan are producing CVTs. Overseas, the company’s four overseas operations are JATCO Mexico, S.A. de C.V. in Mexico, JATCO (Guangzhou) Automatic Transmission Ltd. and JATCO (Suzhou) Automatic Transmission Ltd. in China, and JATCO (Thailand) Co., Ltd. in Thailand which produce CVTs, for a total of 8 CVT manufacturing sites.
    The company intends to increase investment in its global CVT supply operations to reach a sales goal of JPY 1 trillion by 2018. Below are some of the activities of its operations abroad.
  • China: In November 2019, JATCO (Suzhou) Automatic Transmission Co., Ltd. (JATCO Suzhou) began operations in the Zhangjiagang Economic and Technological Development Zone in Jiangsu Province, the company’s second CVT manufacturing site in China following Guangzhou. Established in July 2018 with approximately 700 employees, the subsidiary will manufacture 480,000 CVT8s for mid- and large-sized FWD vehicles annually. Both sites give JATCO an annual production capacity of 1.6 million CVTs in China.
    The company’s first local production subsidiary in China, JATCO Guangzhou, was established in 2007 and began manufacturing CVTs for mid-sized passenger cars in 2009, and CVT7 units for small passenger cars in 2011. It then started manufacturing CVT8 systems in March 2013, which were supplied to Dongfeng Nissan for the Teana. The total cumulative production volume of CVT units in China reached 1 million in April 2013.
  • Mexico: JATCO announced that a second plant had come on stream in Mexico in September 2014. The plant, located in Aguascalientes, cost around USD 220 million (JPY 20.5 billion) to construct. With the start of operations of the second plant, the combined annual output of the company’s Mexican operations increased to 1.7 million units. The new plant can manufacture 400,000 units annually, namely the mid-and large-sized passenger vehicle CVT8, and CVT8 Hybrid transmission systems. The CVT8 is supplied to Nissan for their U.S. Altima and Rogue models, while the CVT8 Hybrid is equipped on the Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid.
  • Thailand: JATCO (Thailand) Co., Ltd. was established in September 2013. As the third overseas manufacturing operations of the company following China and Mexico, the plant manufactures CVT7 systems in Thailand for Nissan’s Micra and Sylphy models. In FY 2016, the company was planning to increase the annual production capacity of the site to 700,000 units, but annual production capacity remains at 500,000 units due to sluggish market demand.

 

Aisin AW

  Aisin AW Co., Ltd. (Aisin AW) is the world’s top supplier of AT systems and an unlisted subsidiary of Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd., a major Toyota group member. The company’s businesses are organized by AT systems and car navigation systems, but for the past 3 years (FY ending March 2018 to FY ending March 2020) most of the company’s revenue, around 90%, has come from the automatic transmission business.

[Business overview]

  • Headquartered in Anjo City, Aichi Prefecture, Aishin AW is a supplier of transmissions and in-vehicle information devices, and has the top market share globally in automatic transmissions. As of March 2020, the number of employees of Aisin AW alone is approximately 22,000, and that of the Aisin AW Group is approximately 38,500.
  • As of March 2020, the company was owned 60.3% by Aisin Seiki and 39.7% by Toyota Motor Corporation. Aisin AW manufactures ATs primarily for Toyota and Suzuki, and CVTs, including electric CVTs, only for Toyota.
  • As mentioned above, Aisin AW is the world's largest supplier of automatic transmissions, but when it comes to CVTs, the subject of this report, it is chasing its rival JATCO.
  • In November 2018, the company announced that it would absorb Aisin AI Co., Ltd., a manual transmission supplier, and concluded a merger agreement in December 2018 before merging in April 2019. The former company Aisin AI is now referred to as the Aisin AW Shiroyama Plant. The slowdown in the demand for MTs, which had been high in emerging markets, has been striking, and the aim is to stabilize the MT business by integrating its management team with that of the financially healthy Aisin AW.
  • In October 2019, it was announced that management integration with parent company Aisin Seiki will be implemented in April 2021 with a view to strengthening competitiveness in the area of CASE technologies. After the agreement, which includes Toyota, is finalized, the surviving company after the merger will be Aisin Seiki, but the company will have the new name Aisin Corporation.
    Although it is a car navigation business, it was decided to establish "Aisin Korea Corporation" in South Korea in January 2021 prior to the integration of the main unit by merging Aisin AW’s subsidiary "AW Korea" and Aisin Seiki’s subsidiary "Aisin Korea".

[CVT overview and products]

  • Aisin AW first produced CVT units in 2002 for the 1.3L Toyota Vitz.
  • The company’s share of mechanical CVT business is about the same as that manufactured by Toyota in-house, but its share of electric CVT for hybrid vehicles is 65%, higher than Toyota in-house. (Source: MarkLines 2018 data, 2017 Japan domestic production vehicle basis, excluding commercial vehicles.)
  • As discussed above, currently the production volume of CVTs is low compared to step ATs. Unlike rival company JATCO, Aisin AW produces ATs and hybrid transmissions rather than friction type CVTs. This difference is perhaps because the company does not manufacture large CVT units for 3.5L class vehicles. Aisin AW has indicated that it will likely strengthen its CVT business for emerging countries going forward.
  • Aisin AW has integrated production of electric CVT systems with Toyota’s in-house THS-II platform. Toyota’s hybrid vehicles (excluding the Crown mild hybrid model) use pure electric CVTs with no mechanical transmission elements. However, the Lexus LC500h (GWZ100) high-end sports coupe released in March 2017 uses a mechanical 4-step transmission combined with two drive motors, known as the Toyota Multi-Stage Hybrid System (MSTH). Equipping a vehicle with MSTH results in increased torque in low gears and an overdrive effect in high gears by combining the power generated from the motors and the engine.
  • The company used to supply mechanical and electric CVTs to Mazda, but as of December 2019 Aisin AW does not supply CVTs to Mazda. Mazda has completed the shift of all its automatic transmissions to step ATs. Aisin AW's business with Mazda has disappeared due to the absence of a hybrid variant for the Mazda 3 model (BP series, successor model to the Axela), which underwent a full model change in May 2019 with the release of the Axela Hybrid (Type BYEFP) installed with THS-II.
  • The company produces two types of hybrid transmissions for both FWD and RWD vehicles. Aisin AW previously manufactured these for Ford, but Ford gradually switched to in-house production. These hybrid transmissions are still produced for all of Toyota’s RWD and some FWD models, as well as for the abovementioned single model for Mazda.

[Development related]

  • New business plans: Aisin AW announced its intention to enter into the EV powertrain segment in December 2016. The company plans to independently develop a variety of components such as drive motors, reduction drives, and inverters, which it will package in product proposals to OEMs. It hopes to achieve commercialization of units destined for European OEMs in China.
  • In November 2019, AW Suzhou Technical Center Co., Ltd. (AWTC-C), a transmission development company in China, and AW Hangzhou Software Co., Ltd. (Hangzhou, Zhejiang; AWH), an automotive software development company, concluded a contract to integrate their operations. The companies are targeting to integrate operations by October 2020 to speed up development and improve customer satisfaction by integrating transmission technology development and in-vehicle software design.
  • Restructuring of development and production systems: Aisin AW established a new Electronics Business Division on October 1, 2016. Previously, the AT and car navigation divisions had each used their own computer and software systems. With the establishment of the new division, the electronic technology development departments of the AT division and vehicle information technology (VIT) divisions were integrated with the manufacturing department, bringing together their respective technologies and know-how to improve development efficiency.

[Manufacturing related]

  • The domestic manufacturing sites for CVTs in Japan are the Tahara and Okazaki plants. THS-II hybrid transmissions for hybrid vehicles are manufactured at the Okazaki and Okazaki East plants.
  • The CVTs manufactured by Aisin AW are produced in small and medium volume lots. Among the CVTs manufactured in small lots, the XB-20LN model uses the same design as the K310 manufactured by Toyota Hokkaido (the torque converter capacity is the only difference), with Aisin AW responsible for manufacturing CVTs for 1.5L class vehicles and the Toyota responsible for 1.8L class vehicles.
  • CVT belts are manufactured by its subsidiary CVTEC. CVTEC was established in July 2002 as a joint venture (50:50) with Robert Bosch GmbH (Bosch), but in December 2006 the JV was terminated, Aisin AW made it a subsidiary, and Toyota took a stake in the company. (Share ratio: 66.6% Aisin AW, 33.4% Toyota.)
  • In September 2019, the company decided to open a new production facility in Cibolo, Texas, to increase the production of electric CVTs for SUV hybrids in the U.S. The newly established company, AW Texas, Inc. will have a combined production capacity of 200,000 electric CVTs and ATs per year. Start of production is planned in September 2021 with approximately 900 employees.
    AW North America, Inc. was newly established as the controlling company of the existing AT production company in North Carolina, AW North Carolina, Inc., and the new production company in Texas.

 

Akashi-Kikai Industry

  Akashi-Kikai Co., Ltd. is a CVT supplier for Daihatsu, boasting a higher production volume of CVTs than CVTs manufactured by Daihatsu in-house.

[Business overview]

  • Akashi-Kikai is a Daihatsu family mechanical parts supplier, 89.7% owned by Daihatsu, with its headquarters located in Inami-cho, Kako-gun, Hyogo prefecture. The number of employees (March 2019) is about 1,700 for the company itself and about 2,200 on a consolidated basis. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has a 10.1% stake.)
  • The company was established in 1946, started receiving investment funding in 1952 from Daihatsu, and has been a consolidated subsidiary of Toyota and Daihatsu since 2000. Akashi-Kikai started to manufacture CVTs in 2009.
  • Below are the products manufactured by the company:
    1. Automotive components
       - Drivetrain components: CVTs, ATs, MTs
       - Chassis system parts: Steering gears
       - Engine parts: camshafts, water pumps
    2. Hydraulic components for the construction industry
    3. Gears for machine tools for industrial robots
  • The drivetrain (CVT, MT) and engine parts (camshafts, water pumps) are shipped to Daihatsu only (including those OEM models supplied by Daihatsu to Toyota and Subaru).

[CVT overview and products]

  • The company’s CVTs, manufactured for Daihatsu, are for mini-vehicles and compact vehicles.
  • The company provides end-to-end manufacturing of CVTs, from casting, fabrication, gear cutting, and heat treatment to final assembly.

[Manufacturing related]

  • The company has 6 manufacturing sites in Japan and 2 overseas (Indonesia and Malaysia), but only one sited is dedicated to the manufacturing of CVTs: the Kyushu Plant in Japan (Asakura City, Fukuoka Prefecture). The Kyushu Plant went into CVT production in 2009 and is the company’s newest manufacturing site in Japan.

 

Toyota in-house

[Business overview]

  • Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) first equipped CVTs on its vehicles, starting with Opa model, in August 2000.
  • The company manufactures CVTs in-house for 1.5L and above class models (Kinuura Plant, Toyota Motor Hokkaido). For compact (1.0-1.5L) models, it procures the CVTs from Aisin AW.
  • Toyota also manufactures electric CVTs in-house for FWD hybrid vehicles (Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc.). Electric CVTs for RWD and some FWD vehicles are sourced from Aisin AW.

[CVT overview and products]

  • The ratios of Toyota in-house CVT production are about 50% for mechanical CVTs and about 65% for electric CVTs for hybrid vehicles. (Source: MarkLines 2018 data, 2017 Japan domestic production vehicle basis, excluding commercial vehicles.)
  • In May 2018, Toyota started production of the Direct Shift-CVT (model: K120), which significantly improves transmission efficiency in the low-speed range by adopting a launch gear. Direct Shift-CVT is a TNGA (Toyota New Global Architecture) new generation mechanical CVT system that improves both driving performance and high environmental performance utilizing a newly developed integrated powertrain unit (engine, transmission, HV unit) and platform (chassis). It is installed on the C-HR (NGX50), the RAV4 (MXAA52 and 54), and the Corolla (E210 series).

[Manufacturing related]

  • Mechanical CVTs for 1.5-1.8L: Manufactured by Toyota Hokkaido (Tomakomai City, about 1.03 million units per year)
  • Mechanical CVTs for 2.0 to 2.4L: Kinuura Plant
  • Electric CVTs for hybrid vehicles (FWD): Toyota Motor Kyushu Kokura Plant
  • FWD transaxle with incorporated electric CVT for hybrid vehicles: Toyota Motor Hokkaido, Inc.
  • Chinese market 1.6-1.8L: Toyota Motor (Changshu) Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (Planning to increase annual production capacity from 240,000 units to 360,000 units)
  • U.S. market: Toyota Motor Manufacturing, West Virginia, Inc. (TMMWV) Buffalo plant will manufacture in-line 4 cylinder and V6 gasoline engines along with 6-speed AT powertrains, and from June 2020, production of hybrid transaxles (electric CVTs) to be installed in the Sienna minivan and the Highlander SUV will begin.
  • Poland: In July 2019, the Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland Sp.zo.o. (TMMP) Walbrzych Plant announced plans to start production of electric CVTs for hybrid vehicles in 2021.

 

Honda in-house

[Business overview]

  • Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Honda) first released CVT systems under the name Honda Multimatic for the Civic and Civic Ferio in September 1995.
  • Since then the company has manufactured all of its CVT units in-house. It also started in-house production of some CVT belts in October of 2001.
  • In addition to CVT transmissions, most ATs and SPORT HYBRID i-DCD are also produced in-house.

[CVT overview and products]

  • Honda began selling the Accord Hybrid equipped with its sports hybrid i-MMD transmission in Japan in 2013, and then after 2020 it will be called e:HEV, in sequence. The design of this new system was different from that of Toyota’s THS, which used planetary gearing for the series-parallel structure in its drivetrain. In the Accord Hybrid system, the clutch is located between the engine shaft and wheel driveshaft. Basically, the clutch is turned off when used for series hybrid driving, and in the region where engine operation efficiency is high (such as high speed cruising), the clutch engages to directly connect to the engine, making it an engine-linked series-parallel hybrid system.

  [Manufacturing related]

  • Honda’s manufacturing sites for CVT are listed below.
    • Japan: Transmission Manufacturing Department, Hamamatsu Plant (CVT, e:HEV, AT), formerly called the Honda Hamamatsu Transmission Factory
    • Indonesia: P.T. Honda Precision Parts Manufacturing; with an annual production capacity of 350,000 units, the site manufactures CVT-related items such as CVT assemblies, pulleys and belts.
    • Mexico: Honda de Mexico S.A. de C.V.
    • U.S.A.: Russells Point, Ohio, Honda Transmission Mfg. of America, Inc., Russells Point Plant
      Items manufactured: CVT, AT, HV motor units, etc.
      The units are installed on North American production models such as the Civic Coupe (FK and FC series), the VR-V (RW series), and the Accord (CV series, 1.5L vehicles).

 

Subaru in-house

[Business overview]

  • Subaru Corporation (Subaru) developed the world’s first belt-type CVT in 1987 for production vehicles, which was equipped on the Justy.
  • The company has selected CVTs as its mainstream type of automatic transmission.
  • Subaru has traditionally used AT systems, and has recently been transitioning from step AT to CVT in its models. Up through 2019, apart from some BRZ models, many of the company’s vehicles have shifted to using CVT units, which are being manufactured at the Oizumi Plant.

[CVT overview and products]

  • Called Lineartronic, the characteristic of Subaru’s CVT is that it uses a chain for power transfer rather than a belt.
  • The main advantages of using a chain are the wide range coverage and the higher power transfer efficiency ratio.
  • The hybrid model (PHV) of the 2019 model year GT series Crosstrek for the U.S. market was equipped with the Toyota THS-II-based TH2A electric CVT with two incorporated motors.
    This TH2A electric CVT has the same overall unit length, front axle position, and engine mounting location as the conventional mechanical Lineartronic CVT installed on gasoline-powered models, making it easy to install in the gasoline-based engine compartment layout.

[Manufacturing related]

  • CVTs are produced at Subaru’s Gunma Oizumi Plant complex.

 

Daihatsu in-house

[Business overview]

  • Starting withkei (mini) cars, Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. (Daihatsu) produces almost all of its CVT units in-house.
  • In June 2006 the company produced the world’s first input-speed reduction type three-shaft gear train design CVT forkei cars, which was equipped on the Sonica.

[CVT overview and products]

  • In February 2010, the company manufactured a CVT for 1.0L subcompacts that was based on itskei car system architecture and equipped on the Boon. The Boon was developed jointly with Toyota, which released it as the Passo, which is also equipped with the new CVT system (the CVT for the 1.3L Boon was procured from Aisin AW, but in April 2014 the 1.3L Boon was discontinued).
  • In April 2016 Daihatsu announced the all-new Boon. This new model incorporates the company’s e:S Technology that is being used on the Mira e:S that was developed by Daihatsu and other vehicles. It has a 1.0L direct injection 3-cylinder 1KR-FE engine mated to a CVT.

[Manufacturing related]

  • All CVT production occurs at the Ryuo Plant in Shiga.
  • In October 2009, a subsidiary, Akashi-Kikai Industry, began production in Kyushu to supply Daihatsu Kyushu.

 

GM in-house

[Business overview]

  • In the summer of 2018, the 2019 model year Chevrolet Malibu was released with a new in-house mechanical CVT, as described below. It is an automatic transmission that replaces the previous six-speed automatic transmission and is available on 1.5-liter turbocharged gasoline engine models.
  • The year 2019 was an inflection point for GM as it stopped production of HV and PHV models to focus on EVs, and the production and sales of hybrid and PHV models with electric CVT (5ET50) such as the Chevrolet Volt and Buick LaCrosse HEV were discontinued in 2019.
  • General Motors Company (GM) used to manufacture mechanical CVTs in Europe (when Opel was owned by GM).

[Manufacturing related]

  • Production of the mechanical CVT (VT40) for FWD vehicles at the Ramos Arizpe plant in Mexico began in 2018, and it is installed in the 1.5-liter turbocharged gasoline engine version of the 2019 model year Chevrolet Malibu.
  • In August 2019, GM closed the Warren Transmission Plant in Michigan, which had been manufacturing electric CVTs for the Chevrolet PHV Volt and Malibu Hybrid vehicles assembled in North America and the Buick LaCrosse and Chevrolet PHV Volt vehicles assembled in China.
  • Opel's plant in Aspern, Austria, which was previously owned by GM, was transferred to PSA in August 2017.
    The company was developing a CVT for small cars with 3- or 4-cylinder gasoline engines, but instead adopted a newly developed CVT for 1.4L gasoline vehicles for the 2020 model year facelifted Astra (B16) models released in the summer of 2019.

 

Ford in-house

[Business overview]

  • Ford Motor Company (Ford) does not currently produce mechanical CVTs. (Discontinued from 2007 model year.)
  • Instead the company is focusing on hybrid transmission units for HVs and PHVs.
  • The electric CVT model called HF35 was Ford's first in-house developed transmission for front-wheel drive HVs in 2012 and was installed in the 2013 model year Fusion and the newly introduced C-Max hybrid models.
    As of November 2020, the Escape Hybrid and Escape/Kuga PHEV, which have undergone full model changes since 2019, as well as existing models such as the Fusion Hybrid, Fusion Energi (PHEV) and Lincoln MKZ Hybrid also have been equipped with electric CVTs. However, the latter three models will be discontinued by 2021 with the elimination of sedan models from the North American market by Ford.

[Manufacturing related]

  • Production takes place at the Van Dyke Transmission Plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan, where the units are made on the same line as the 6F 6-speed AT systems.

 

Opel / PSA in-house

[Business overview]

  • As a result of internal development of CVTs for 3/4 cylinder gasoline engines for small cars, the newly developed CVT was adopted in the 1.4L gasoline engine equipped version of the facelifted 2020 model year Astra (B16) released in the summer of 2019.
  • The production plant is the Aspern plant in Vienna, Austria, which was transferred from GM to Groupe PSA (PSA) in August 2017.

 

FCA US (Chrysler) in-house

[Business overview]

  • The Chrysler Pacifica PHV version, which went on sale in 2017, is equipped with an electric CVT called SI-EVT.
  • The SI-EVT was developed by FCA US LLC (FCA) in cooperation with Ricardo PLC of the U.K., which has a patent on the product.
  • SI-EVT assemblies are manufactured at the Tipton transmission plant in Indiana.
  • SI-EVT components, such as gears and cases, are manufactured at the Kokomo transmission plant in the same state of Indiana.

 

Audi in-house

[Business overview and background]

  • Currently, Audi AG (Audi) does no in-house manufacturing or installation of CVTs.
  • In 1999, the CVT called Multitronic was first introduced in the Audi A6, and since then it has been the mainstream of Audi's automatic transmissions, but recent automatic transmissions have been replaced by DCT and step AT transmissions, which the company calls the S-Tronic.
  • The Multitronic was co-developed with LuK (Schaeffler Group), a leading supplier of clutches, and was characterized by the use of a chain for the transmission of drive power to accommodate 3.0L-class engines. The chain, pulley, and hydraulic pump were procured from LuK and assembled at the Volkswagen Kassel Plant. However, vane type hydraulic pumps were produced by ixetic GmbH of Germany.

 

Daimler in-house

[Business overview and background]

  • Currently, Daimler AG (Daimler) does no in-house manufacturing or installation of CVTs.
  • Daimler started manufacturing CVT units in 2012 under the AUTOTRONIC brand name. The units were equipped on A and B-Class models, but were removed when the models were fully redesigned in favor of step DCTs.
  • The A-Class launched in autumn 2004 was equipped with the company’s first CVT, which was replaced with a DCT during the full redesign in 2012 (W169 to W176 model).
  • The B-Class launched in summer 2005 was equipped with a CVT, which was later replaced with a DCT during the full redesign in 2011 (W245 to W246 model). The Japanese B180 model is still equipped with a CVT, but this will also be replaced with a DCT in the future.
  • The units are manufactured at the company’s Hedelfingen Plant near Stuttgart and the two stage hydraulic pumps are procured from ixetic GmbH.

List of automakers and CVT suppliers (including OEM in-house production, excluding models supplied on an OEM basis)

  As discussed above, even from a global perspective, regarding the adoption of CVTs, it can be seen that Japanese OEMs, excluding Mazda, are the main CVT powers, for both mechanical and electric CVTs.
  The American OEMs (Detroit 3) manufacture in-house electric CVTs installed in some hybrid and plug-in hybrid models, but except for GM have already withdrawn from mechanical CVTs.
  Among European OEMs, except for Ford equipping some models with the same electric CVT as in the U.S., and except for PSA's Opel installation of in-house mechanical CVTs from 2020 model year, Renault S.A. (Renault) is using JATCO's mechanical CVT for models produced in Asia by Renault-Samsung and sold in Europe.

Supplier OEM In-house
JATCO Aisin AW Akashi-Kikai Industry Toyota Honda SUBARU Daihatsu GM Ford FCA US
(Chrysler)
Opel
Toyota
Nissan
Honda
SUBARU
Mitsubishi
Suzuki
Daihatsu
GM
Ford
FCA US
(Chrysler)
Renault
Opel


IV. List of CVTs and suppliers by vehicle model

Toyota: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
Toyota Allion / Premio T26# 2016 Aisin AW
In-house production
--- ---
Toyota Alphard / Vellfire
(Hybrid)
#GH3#W
(AYH30W)
2020 In-house production --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota Aqua NHP10 2016 --- --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota C-HR
(Hybrid)
NGX50
(ZYX10)
2020 Aisin AW --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota Camry
Daihatsu Altis
XV70
XV70N
2020 --- --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota Century UWG60 2020 --- --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota Corolla Axio/Fielder
(Hybrid)
E16#/G
(NKE165/G)
2016 Aisin AW
In-house production
--- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota Corolla [USA] E210 2019 Aisin Seiki --- Electric CVT
Toyota Corolla Sports
Corolla / Corolla Touring
(Hybrid)
NRE210H/4H
E21#/W
(ZWE21#/W/H)
2020 Aisin AW (Direct Shift-CVT) --- Electric CVT
Toyota Harrier
(Hybrid)
MXUA80/85
(AXUH80/85)
2021 In-house production (Direct Shift-CVT) --- Electric CVT
Toyota Highlander [USA] XU70 2020 AT --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota JPN TAXI NTP10 2018 --- --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota Porte / Spade NP14# 2018 Aisin AW
In-house production
--- ---
Toyota Prius ZVW51/55 2020 --- --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota Prius PHV ZVW52 2020 --- --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota Prius α
Daihatsu Mebius
ZVW40W/41W
ZVW41N
2016 --- --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota RAV4
(Hybrid)
MXAA52/54
(AXAH52/54)
2020 In-house production (Direct Shift-CVT) --- Electric CVT
Toyota Sienna [USA]
(Hybrid)
XL40 2021 --- --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota Sienta
(Hybrid)
P17#G
(NHP170G)
2016 Aisin AW --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota Voxy / Noah / Esquire
(Hybrid)
ZRR8#G/W
(ZWR80G/W)
2016 Aisin AW
In-house production
--- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
CT ZWA10 2018 --- --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
IS ASE30/GSE31
(AVE30/35)
2020 AT --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
LM300h GGH31/AYH36 2020 --- --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
NX300
(NX300h)
AGZ10/15
(AYZ10/15)
2020 AT --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
RC300/350/RCF (RC350h) ASC/AVC10 (GSC10) 2016 AT --- Aisin AW (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
RX200t/350 (RX450h/450hL) AGL20W/25W (GYL20W/25W/26W) 2016 CVT --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
Toyota
/Lexus
UX MZAA10 (MZAH10/15) 2020 Aisin AW (Direct Shift-CVT) --- Electric CVT

 

Nissan: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
Nissan Dayz B4#W 2020 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Elgrand E52 2020 JATCO --- ---
Nissan KICKS [Mexico] P15 2021 JATCO --- ---
Nissan March [Mexico] K13 2017 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Maxima [USA] A36 2016 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Murano [USA] Z52 2015 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Note [Japan]
(Note e-Power)
E12
(HE12)
2020 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Note [Mexico] E12 2017 JATCO --- ---
Nissan NV150AD Y12 2014 JATCO --- ---
Nissan NV200 Vanette / Vanette Wagon [Japan / Mexico]
NV200 New York Taxi [Mexico]
Mitubishi DELICA D:3
M20/VM20 2020 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Pathfinder [USA] R52 2015 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Qashqai [UK] J11 2016 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Roox B4#A 2020 JATCO --- ---
Nissan Serena
(Serena e-Power)
Suzuki Landy
C27
(HC27)
2020 --- JATCO ---
Nissan Sylphy B17 2020 JATCO --- ---
Nissan X-Trail [Japan] / Rogue T32
(HT32)
2020 JATCO --- JATCO (CVT with Power motor)
Nissan X-Trail [Russia] T32
(HT32)
2016 JATCO --- ---
Infiniti QX50 [Mexico] J55 2019 JATCO --- ---
Infiniti QX60 [USA] L50 2019 JATCO --- ---

 

Honda: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
Honda Accord (Hybrid) CV3 2020 --- --- In-house production (e:HEV / Electric CVT)
Honda Civic FK7 2019 In-house production --- ---
Honda Clarity PHEV ZC5 2019 --- --- In-house production (i-MMD / Electric CVT)
Honda CR-V RW1/2
(RT5/6)
2018 In-house production --- In-house production (e:HEV / Electric CVT)
Honda Fit
(e:HEV - Hybrid)
GR1/2/5/7
(GR3/4/6/8)
2020 In-house production --- In-house production (e:HEV / Electric CVT)
Honda Freed / Freed+
(Hybrid)
GB5/6
(GB7/8)
2016 In-house production --- In-house production (DCT / i-DCD)
Honda Insight ZE4 2019 --- --- In-house production (e:HEV / Electric CVT)
Honda N-BOX JF3/4 2018 In-house production --- ---
Honda N-ONE JG1/2 2018 In-house production --- ---
Honda N-VAN JJ1/2 2019 In-house production --- ---
Honda N-WGN
N-WGN Custom
JH3/4 2020 In-house production --- ---
Honda Odyssey
(Hybrid)
RC1/2
(RC4)
2016 In-house production --- In-house production (e:HEV / Electric CVT)
Honda S660 JW5 2016 In-house production --- ---
Honda SHUTTLE
(Hybrid)
GK8/9
(GP7/8)
2016 In-house production --- In-house production (DCT / i-DCD)
Honda Step Wgn
(Hybrid)
RP1/2/3/4
(RP5)
2016 In-house production --- In-house production (e:HEV / Electric CVT)
Honda Vezel (HR-V)
(Hybrid)
RU1/2
(RU3/4)
2016 In-house production --- In-house production (DCT / i-DCD)

 

Subaru: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
SUBARU Crosstrek
(Hybrid - PHEV)
GT 2019 In-house production --- In-house production (Electric CVT)
SUBARU Forester SK 2020 In-house production In-house production ---
SUBARU Impreza GT/GK 2016 In-house production --- ---
SUBARU Legacy Outback BS 2016 In-house production --- ---
SUBARU Levorg VM 2016 In-house production --- ---
SUBARU WRX S4 VAG 2016 In-house production --- ---
SUBARU XV
(XV Hybrid)
GT3
(GTE)
2020 In-house production In-house production ---

 

Mitsubishi Motors: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
Mitsubishi Eclipse Cross GK1W 2018 JATCO --- ---
Mitsubishi eK X B34W/35W/37W/38W 2020 JATCO --- ---
Mitsubishi eK Space B34A/B35A/B37A/B38A 2020 JATCO --- ---
Mitsubishi eK Wagon B33W/36W 2020 JATCO --- ---
Mitsubishi Mirage (Thailand) A05A/A03A 2016 JATCO --- ---
Mitsubishi Outlander GF7W/8W 2020 JATCO --- ---
Mitsubishi RVR (ASX) GA3W/GA4W 2020 JATCO --- ---

 

Suzuki: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
Suzuki Alto
Alto Van
Mazda Carol
HA36S/36V
HB36S
2020 JATCO --- ---
Suzuki Alto Lapin HE33S 2020 JATCO --- ---
Suzuki Hustler
Mazda Flair Crossover
MR52S/92S
MS52S/92S
2019 --- JATCO ---
Suzuki Ignis (Hybrid) FF21S 2020 --- JATCO ---
Suzuki Solio
[Mild Hybrid]
(Full Hybrid)
Mitsubishi Delica D:2 Mild Hybrid
(Hybrid)
MA26S
[MA36S]
(MA46S)
MB36S
(MB46S)
2020 JATCO JATCO AMT
Suzuki Spacia
Spacia Custom
Spacia Gear
Mazda Flair Wagon
MK53S
MM53S
2018 --- JATCO ---
Suzuki Swift
[Mild Hybrid]
(Full Hybrid)
ZC/ZD83S
[ZC/ZD53S]
(ZC43S)
2020 JATCO JATCO AMT
Suzuki Wagon R
[Mild Hybrid]
(Wagon R Stingray)
Mazda Flair
MH85S
[MH95S]
(MH95S / MH55S)
MJ95S
2020 JATCO JATCO ---

 

Daihatsu: Japan, Europe, and Americas markets

OEM Model Name Model Code
Generation
MY ICE
Gasoline Engine
Diesel Engine
MHV
Mild Hybrid Vehicle
Engine
HV / PHV
Engine
Daihatsu Boon
Toyota Passo
M7#0A
M700A
2016 Daihatsu
Akashi-Kikai Industry
--- ---
Daihatsu Cast
Toyota Pixis Joy
LA250S/260S
LA250A/260A
2018 Daihatsu
Akashi-Kikai Industry
--- ---
Daihatsu Copen
Copen Robe
LA400K 2016 Daihatsu --- ---
Daihatsu Hijet Caddie LA700V/710V 2018 Daihatsu
Akashi-Kikai Industry
--- ---
Daihatsu Mira e:S
Toyota Pixis Epoch
Subaru Pleo+
LA350S/360S
LA350A/360A
LA350F/360F
2018 Akashi-Kikai Industry --- ---
Daihatsu Move
Move Custom
Subaru Stella
LA150S/160S
LA150/160
2018 Daihatsu
Akashi-Kikai Industry
--- ---
Daihatsu Move Canbus LA800S/LA810S 2018 Daihatsu
Akashi-Kikai Industry
--- ---
Daihatsu Thor
Toyota Roomy
Subaru Justy
M9#0S
M900A/910A
M900F/M910F
2017 Aisin AW --- ---
Daihatsu Wake
Toyota Pixis Mega
LA700S/710S
LA700A/710A
2020 Daihatsu
Akashi-Kikai Industry
--- ---

 

European and American OEMs: Europe and Americas markets

Region OEM Model name Model type / Model code
(discontinued, former)
Model year ICE
Gasoline engine
Diesel engine
MHV
Mild hybrid engine
HV / PHV
Hybrid engine
Plug-in hybrid
Americas FCA US (Chrysler) Pacifica Hybrid (PHEV) [USA] Gen-1 2018 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Americas Ford Escape Hybrid / PHEC [USA] Gen-4 2020 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Americas Ford Fusion Energi Gen-2 2013 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Americas Ford Fusion Hybrid Gen-2 2013 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Europe Ford Kuga Hybrid / PHEV [Spain] CX482 2021 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Americas Ford Lincoln MKZ Hybrid Gen-2 2014 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Americas Ford Mondeo Hybrid CD391 2015 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT)
Americas GM Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid Gen-2 2017 --- --- In-house (Electric CVT, Voltec 5ET50)
Americas GM Chevrolet Malibu RS [USA] Gen-2 2019 In-house (Mechanical CVT) --- ---
Americas GM Chevrolet Spark [USA] M400 2015 JATCO --- ---
Europe Opel / PSA Astra [Europe] B16 2020 In-house (Mechanical CVT) --- ---
Europe Renault Koleos [Europe] HC 2017 JATCO --- ---


V. Sales of major CVT suppliers

Sales Turnover (100million) March 2020 March 2019 March 2018
JATCO (consolidated) 6,492 7,556 7,749
Aisin AW (consolidated) 16,221 16,758 16,212
Akashi-Kikai (Industry unconsolidated) 702 727 686


VI. CVT manufacturing sites (suppliers and OEM in-house)

CVT maker Country Plant Location
JATCO Japan Fuji Area Plant Fuji (Shizuoka)
Japan Kakegawa Area Plant Kakegawa (Shizuoka)
Japan Kyoto Area Plant Kyoto (Kyoto)
Japan Yagi Area Plant Nantan (Kyoto)
Mexico JATCO Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Aguascalientes
China JATCO (Guangzhou) Automatic Transmission Ltd. Guangzhou (Guangdong)
China JATCO (Suzhou) Automatic Transmission Ltd. Suzhou (Jiangsu)
Thailand JATCO (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Chonburi
Aisin AW Japan Tahara Plant Tahara (Aichi)
Japan Okazaki East Plant Okazaki (Aichi)
Japan Okazaki Plant Okazaki (Aichi)
Japan CVTEC Co., Ltd. (see note) Tahara (Aichi)
USA AW TEXAS, INC.
(Scheduled to start in early 2021)
Cibolo, Texas
Akashi-Kikai Industry Japan Kyushu Plant Asakura (Asakura)
Toyota In-house Japan Kinuura Plant Hekinan (Aichi)
Japan Toyota Motor Hokkaido Co., Ltd. Tomakomai (Hokkaido)
Japan Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc. Kitakyushu (Fukuoka)
China Toyota Motor (Changshu) Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TMCAP) Changshu (Jiangsu)
USA Toyota Motor Manufacturing, West Virginia, Inc. (TMMWV), Buffalo Plant Buffalo, West Virginia
Poland Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland Sp. zo.o. (TMMP) Walbrzych Plant
Walbrzych
Honda In-house Japan Transmission Factory, Hamamatsu Plant Hamamatsu (Shizuoka)
Indonesia P.T. Honda Precision Parts Manufacturing Karawang
Mexico Honda De Mexico, S.A. De C.V. El Salto, Jalisco
USA Honda Transmission Mfg. of America, Inc., Russells Point Plant Russells Point, Ohio
SUBARU In-house Japan Oizumi Plant (Gunma) Oizumi (Gunma)
Daihatsu In-house Japan Shiga(Ryuo)Plant Ryuo (Shiga)
GM In-house USA Warren Transmission Plant
(Production ended August 2019)
Warren (Michigan)
Mexico Ramos Arizpe Plant Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila
Ford In-house USA Van Dyke Transmission Plant Sterling Heights  (Michigan)
Opel, PSA In-house Austria Opel Wien GmbH, Aspern Plant Vienna

Note: CVTEC was established in July 2002 by Robert Bosch GmbH (Bosch) and Aisin AW as a joint venture (50:50 investment) for CVT belt production. In December 2006, the joint venture with Bosch was dissolved, CVTEC became an Aisin AW subsidiary, and Toyota Motor Corporation took an equity stake. (Aisin AW: 66.6%, Toyota: 33.4%)
Created from publicly released materials of each company, interview surveys, etc.

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