JSAE Exposition 2017: Exhibitions of resin molding processing technologies

Introducing weight reduction and molding efficiency improvement by unique materials

2017/08/29

Summary

A
display of Daicel-Evonik's in-vehicle resin products
A display of Daicel-Evonik's in-vehicle resin products:
The company is working on applying PEEK based material, which has been used to reduce the weight of aircraft seat parts, for automobiles

  At the "Automotive Engineering Exposition Yokohama 2017 (sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.)" held in May, 2017, the exhibition booths of material makers were filled with attendees. The makers introduced resin products and technologies for automobiles by function; including weight reduction, heat resistance, noise reduction, and environmental load reduction.

  Automakers are aggressively adopting composite materials and resin parts, especially for electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHV), where the weight of the vehicle body significantly affects range. This reflects increasing demand for electrification of automobiles and weight reduction for lower fuel consumption. As for the adoption of composite materials for structural parts and resinification of fuel piping parts, Japanese makers are following the lead of Western automakers.

  At this exhibition, there were many exhibits where it seemed non-Japanese material makers were aiming to appeal to Japanese OEMs and parts suppliers. Further weight reduction of the vehicle body can be realized by using carbon fiber composite materials that can be integrally molded, or adhesives that replace metal fasteners such as bolts and nuts. The makers were also displaying techniques and technologies to improve and reduce cost through means like parts reduction and shorter molding processes.

  This report will introduce unique resin related materials and products that use original molding technology with the cooperation of Mr. Takeo Yasuda, the Director of the Yasuda Polymer Research Institute.

Related reports: JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2017
Leading resin material makers (Jun. 2017)
Advances in electric power steering (Jun. 2017)
Toyota exhibits newly developed powertrain (Jun. 2017)



Magna: Carbon fiber composite materials

  At the front of its booth, where they were easily visible for exhibition attendees, Magna displayed hoods and front subframes that use carbon fiber composite materials. The supplier has been displaying a large number of electrified components at its booth in recent years, and this year it focused on weight reduction for vehicle bodies.

Light weight composite materials

  The company displayed a Cadillac V series hood made of lightweight composite materials (class A panel). It uses carbon fiber composite material that adopts compression molding technology for the first time in a mass production vehicle, thereby contributing to a shortened cycle time.

  Characteristics: 1) Weight reduction: 20 - 30%, 2) Appearance quality improvement (indentations), 3) Fulfills pedestrian protection requirements, 4) Anti-corrosion material

Hood of Cadillac V series Front sub flame for Ford
model
Hood of Cadillac V series Front sub flame for Ford model


Toyota Boshoku: High impact-resistant plastic

  Toyota Boshoku displayed a door panel molded with a new PP based high impact-resistant plastic. The technology was jointly developed with Toyota Central R&D Labs.

  As the Toyota Boshoku is not a material maker, it will use Mitsui Chemical, Inc.'s manufacturing technologies and sales channels, and seek to promote use of high impact-resistant plastic as one of Mitsui Chemical's strength modifier products in various fields including the automobile market.

High impact-resistant plastic display
panel

    Characteristics:
  1. A high impact-resistant plastic with first class impact strength, featuring a "salami structure" that controls the dispersion of the natural resin components PA11 and PP at the nano-level.
  2. The high impact-resistant plastic can be added to PP using dry blending methods.
  3. The addition of high impact-resistant plastic to PP makes it possible to improve impact strength while maintaining rigidity.
  • PP: Polypropylene
  • PA: Polyamide
A molded door panel
A molded door panel

  Toyota Boshoku also exhibited materials utilizing plant derived fiber, kenaf strengthening PP, as well as products like sheets and door trims.

A seat made by foam in
place method Kenaf strengthening PP
A seat made by foam in place method display
panel Kenaf strengthening PPdisplay panel


ElringKlinger: Metal and resin composite components

  ElringKlinger exhibited multiple metal and resin composite components. The products have composites of aluminum or iron pipe and thermoplastic resin. The company is developing the materials as a replacement for welded iron and aluminum parts, and die-cast aluminum and magnesium products. The resin used is (GF reinforced) PP.

  • GF: Glass fiber
  • PP: Polypropylene

Hydro-forming hybrid (HFH) lightweight parts

  HFH parts are obtained by inserting a metal pipe into a mold and injecting a thermoplastic resin. The bonding technology for metal and thermoplastic resin is the most significant part of this molding method, but details are unknown.

Cross car beam, front end
carrier, front end adapter
Cross car beam, front end carrier, front end adapter


DaikyoNishikawa: CNF enhanced polyamide

  DaikyoNishikawa exhibited a prototype using CNF (cellulose nanofiber), which has been gaining attention as an environmentally friendly material.

CNF reinforced PA

  The component the company displayed uses CNF enhanced PA, which is a material being advanced by the NEDO project (Kyoto Project) that the Yano Laboratory of Kyoto University has been spearheading.

  • CNF: Cellulose nanofiber
  • PA: Polyamide
Molded product of CNF
reinforced PA
Molded product of CNF reinforced PAdisplay
panel

  The maker was also exhibited various products, including instrument panels, back door modules, and resin engine parts.

Instrument panel Daihatsu THOR back door
module
Instrument panel Daihatsu THOR back door module
Engine parts made of resin Subaru Impreza carbon roof
Engine parts made of resin Subaru Impreza carbon roof


Daicel-Evonik: Adhesive for bonding metal and resin, PulPress method for CFRP molding

Copolymer nylon "Vestamelt Hylink"

  Copolymer nylon adhesive is a nylon powder for electrostatic powder coating aimed at bonding dissimilar materials such as metals with resins, and metals with metals. The adhesiveness between the resin and the metal or the like is improved when the product is used for electrostatic powder coating and insert molding.

  The material has been supplied to Mercedes-Benz for cross car beams and been recognized for its weight saving, process simplification, and silencing effect that results from surface bonding.

Composite part of
copolymer nylon and aluminum
Composite part of copolymer nylon and aluminum

PMI hard foam "Rohacell"

  The PMI (polymethacrylimide) rigid foam "Rohacell" is a core material for composites that has excellent heat and creep resistance compressibility, and mechanical strength. It is used for automobiles, aircraft, industrial materials, sports, and medical equipment.

Rohacell

PulPress method

  Rohacell is produced using the PulPress method shown in the right figure.

  The PulPress method can collectively mold complex shapes and screw holes and reduce costs for CFRP molding by more than half compared with the RTM method, which requires manual work.

  The RTM method requires manually aligning carbon fiber sheets in a mold before molding, making it difficult to shorten the processing cycle time. The PulPress method is expected to reduce the cost of CFRP parts through automation, leading to expanded adoptions of in-vehicle CFRP parts.

  • CFRP: Carbon fiber reinforced plastics
  • RTM: Resin transfer molding
PulPress method

  In addition to the above, the maker exhibited various automobile parts made from PEEK and heat-resistant acrylic resin, including PA12 fuel tube-related applications.

  • PA: Polyamide
  • PEEK: Polyetheretherketone

Fuel tube fitting BESTAKEEP
Fuel tube fitting PEEK resin "BESTAKEEP"


Celanese: Long fiber reinforced PP, flexible PPS

  Celanese is the parent company of Polyplastics, the top maker of Japanese engineering plastics (45% investment). It mainly focuses on its engineering plastic materials business, with offerings including POM, PBT, LCP, PPS, PCT, UHMWPE, and LFT.

  • POM: Polyoxymethylene (polyacetal)
  • PBT: Polybutylene terephthalate
  • LCP: Liquid crystal polymer/ Liquid crystal plastic
  • PPS: Poly phenylene sulfide
  • PCT: Polycyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate
  • UHMWPE: Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene
  • LFT: Long fiber reinforced thermoplastics

Long fiber reinforced PP (PP-LFT)

  Applications of longfiber reinforced PP with its high strength, high rigidity, and lightweight features.

Flexible PPS

  It is likely that an Elastomer component is added to the rigid PPS. Its application results from the modification of PPS with excellent heat resistance and mechanical properties.

Seat
pan made of long fiber reinforced PP
Seat pan made of long fiber reinforced PP (PP-LFT)

CoolPoly
(Above and to the left of the stand) Flexible PPS cable bonding band

(Below the stand) CoolPoly products

CoolPoly

  Daicel-Evonik displayed "CoolPoly," which exhibits unusual thermal conductivity. It was a cold polymer immersed in ice.

  Many of the suppliers at the show displayed their products in a clear manner; categorizing components by functions such as weight saving, rather than by resin type. Daicel-Evonik's booth also exhibited a number of resin parts that have been adopted in mass production models and categorized the products based on themes such as electrification and low fuel consumption.

Celanese Celanese


DuPont: Noise suppression, adhesion technology, biomass fiber

Silent Zytel (GF reinforced PA 66)

  One of the benefits of resinizing the cylinder head cover from metal is noise suppression. Silent Zytel is a material to further lower noise.

  Further noise control is achieved by adding a third component that absorbs sound. It is likely that rubber-like additives were used. However, simply adding rubber may impair the high rigidity, which is a required characteristic of the product. Material design for optimizing the physical property balance was probably difficult.

  • GF: Glass fiber
  • PA66: Polyamide 66
Cylinder head cover made
of Silent Zytel
Cylinder head cover made of Silent Zytel

Adhesion technology to bond dissimilar materials display
panel

  The company displayed a joined sample of aluminum and nylon made using adhesion technology to bond dissimilar materials. This technique has been used for applications including plastics with plastics and plastics with metals. Adhesion to bond dissimilar material bonding has recently attracted attention as an elemental technology for combining metal with plastic and is contributing to automotive weight reduction.

  The maker explained its adhesive and its mechanism with a panel that used treatments like co-extrusion, dispersion and emulsion, and extrusion lamination as an example of the adhesion process.

Adhesion technology to bond dissimilar materials

Biomass fiber "Sorona"

  PTT "Sorona" is made from 100% plant derived, 1,3 PDO. It is applied to materials such as floor sheets and seat cushions.

  Characteristics: 1) A new fiber material combining soft texture and durability. 2) Bio-based material contributing to reducing environmental burden.

  • PDO: Propanediol
  • PTT: Poly trimethylene terephthalate
Sorona
Interior components made of Biomass fiber "Sorona"

  In addition to these, the most popular materials DuPont displayed at the exhibition were thermal conductivity polyimide film and a coolant pipe (PA) produced with 3D suction blow molding.

  • PI: Polyimide
  • PA: Polyamide
Polyimide film Implementation of
polyimide film
Polyimide film Implementation of polyimide film
Coolant pipe Plastic oil pan
Coolant pipe Plastic oil pan display
panel

Plastic oil pan

  The plastic oil pan in the image has been adopted for the new 10-speed AT in the Lexus LC. The ROKI supplied oil pan is installed in the AT, which is made by AISIN AW. It is the first time for a Japanese transmission maker to adopt a plastic oil pan. ROKI partnered with DuPont and resolved difficulties in the resinification of oil pans, including heat resistance and impact resistance. DuPont's high heat-resistant nylon resin "ZYTEL" is used. In addition, it suppresses damages even if it receives shocks and prevents oil leakage by placing many fine ribs (rear side image of the oil pan) on the surface of the oil pan.



Exhibition of unique resin products and processing technologies

Sanwa Trading

  Sanwa Trading's booth exhibited automotive mass production components that use the continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic "Tepex." Tepex is a lightweight and high strength sheet in which CF and GF are completely impregnated with thermoplastic resin. Sanwa Trading sells Tepex, the product of the German maker, Bond Laminates. In Western countries, it is also adopted for mass produced items such as structural parts of automobiles and aircraft, as well as sporting goods.

  • PP: Polypropylene
  • CF: Carbon fiber
  • GF: Glass fiber

Continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic sheet "Tepex"

  A product made by inserting PP continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic sheet "Tepex" into a mold and hybrid molding it with long fiber reinforced PP. It is characterized by high strength, high rigidity and low weight. Tepex is considered an alternative material for metals in automotive structural parts.

VW Teramont front end

VW Teramont front end

Victrex

  Victrex is a global major maker of PEEK based materials. It displayed many parts utilizing the material's characteristics; including heat resistance, mechanical properties, and sliding properties.

  • PEEK: Polyether ether ketone
  • ABS resin: Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, Styrene copolymer resin
A slide valve of a brake
booster ABS rod seal
A slide valve of a brake booster. It utilizes PEEK's excellent sliding characteristics and high durability. ABS rod seal
Damping effect reduces high frequency noise. It also achieved a 30% cost reduction.

Fujikura Rubber

  Fujikura Rubber introduced unique products including a CFRP torque transmission shaft and a LED silicone rubber lens. It also exhibited a high vibration damping shaft (CFRP-rubber compound technology) and thermal expansion insulating rubber.

  • CFRP: Carbon fiber reinforced plastics

CFRP torque transmission shaft

  This is a CFRP torque transmission shaft that uses both high strength CFRP tube and high strength bonding technology for CFRP and metal.

    Characteristics of the high strength CFRP tube:
  1. Enables transmission of higher torque than conventional products with a unique self-layered technology.
  2. Can conduct voidless molding.
  3. Can be used in an environment of 100 degrees celsius or higher.
  4. Has excellent fatigue properties.
CFRP torque transmission
shaft

Silicone rubber lens for LEDs

    Characteristics:
  1. Can produce lenses with high light transparency.
  2. Realization of UV stability: Can produce lenses with less yellowing.
  3. Realization of large-sized lens: Can produce lenses with less distortions.
  4. Can produce lenses with fine processing.
  5. Can produce reflectors with high reflectivity.
  6. Realization of undercut processing: Can produce lenses that take design into account.
  7. Can produce lenses with high heat resistance.
Silicone rubber lens for LEDs

Taiho Group

  Taiho Group exhibited a CFRP engine mounting bracket produced by pulp molding. It also displayed a gear made of aramid fiber reinforced phenolic resin with high strength and wear resistance.

  • CFRP: Carbon fiber reinforced plastics

CFRP parts produced with pulp molding

  Pulp molding is the maker's unique molding method. It is a technology for strengthening fibers in resin like paper making.

Flow of the production process: display panel
  1. Mix resin, fiber, and friction modifier together it in water.
  2. This mixture is solidified in the manner of paper making (pulp molding).
  3. After dehydration, drying, and heat and pressure molding, the finishing machining is applied.
    Characteristics of molded products:
  1. High strength: Unrivaled strength realization due to fiber entanglement.
  2. High heat resistance: High heat resistance exceeding general purpose engineering plastics.
  3. High insulation: Thermal insulation using resin with low thermal conductivity (1/400 of iron).
  4. Light weight: Equivalent strength to aluminum realized with half of the specific gravity.
  5. Low noise: Significant reduction of occurrence of tooth striking noise when plasticizing gears.
  6. Friction/sliding and insulation and conductivity: Can realize a high degree of freedom in material settings.

A CFRP-made engine
mounting bracket

A CFRP-made engine mounting bracket produced by pulp molding

Fuji Electronics Industries

  A CFRP engine mounting bracket produced by pulp molding. Fuji Electronics Industries exhibited various in-vehicle parts that realize high quality and low cost through its molding technology.

Sensor housing

  In-vehicle sensor housing for air pressure, fuel pressure, and oil sensors using heat-resistant resin (which seems to be PPS).

  • PPS: Polyphenylene sulfide

Electronic component weldings for insert terminals

  Electronic components such as ICs and capacitors are fixed to the insert terminal by welding (might be using PBT), and this results in slimmed down electronic components.

  • PBT: Polybutylene terephthalate
Sensor housing Electronic component weldings for insert terminals

Toray Research Center

  Toray Research Center introduced a composite material fiber/resin interface evaluation method. It claims that the method can be used to examine the improved strength of composite materials by evaluating and analyzing the adhesion strength between fibers and resin.

Composite material
fiber/resin interface evaluation method GF/resin interface adhesion strength evaluation
Composite material fiber/resin interface evaluation method GF/resin interface adhesion strength evaluation


  The supplier is supporting material design and development by conducting analysis of automotive resin materials and their strength with its superior testing techniques. Moreover, it is likely that these methods will make a significant contribution analysis of and troubleshooting for various materials.

  In addition to Toray Research Center, affiliated companies of material makers including Mitsui Chemical Analysis & Consulting Service, Sumika Chemical Analysis Service, and MC Evolve Technologies also introduced excellent analysis technologies.

------------------
Keywords

Resin, plastic, CFRP, carbon fiber, molding, lightweight, electrification, multimaterial, composite, adhesive, biomass, Magna, Toyota Boshoku, ElringKlinger, DaikyoNishikawa, Daicel Evonik, Celanese, DuPont

<Automotive Industry Portal MarkLines>