EV & HEV Drive System Technology Expo 2013

Yaskawa develops a motor that does not use rare earth metals; Magna showcases a micro-hybrid system

2013/02/20

Summary

 The fourth EV & HEV Drive System Technology Expo was held at the Tokyo Big Site on January 16 to 18, 2013. The following summarizes the exhibitions.

 Yaskawa (Yaskawa Electric Corporation) exhibited a lineup of its motor drive system, QMET-II, and also presented an explanation panel on a motor that does not use an expensive neodymium magnet, one of rare earths, attracting attention of the visitors. Concerning motors, Meidensha Corporation, which supplies a motor/inverter for Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, showcased a drive unit for EVs, which integrates a motor and a gearbox, while HYOSUNG Corporation, which supplies a drive motor to Hyundai Motor/Kia Motors, also exhibited its products.

 Magna exhibited a powertrain system for EVs/HEVs including a (low-priced) micro hybrid system. Nippon Chemi-Con (Nippon Chemi-Con Corporation) showcased an electric double layer capacitor/module that is used in i-ELOOP, a regenerative braking system employed in Mazda6.

 Incidentally, actual PHVs/EV s were showcased including the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV and the Citroen DS3 Electrum, a converted EV that was jointly developed between SIM-Drive, a Japanese EV venture company, and PSA..



Yaskawa has developed motor that does not use rare earths


Yaskawa develops EV motor, which does not use neodymium magnet

Rare Earths Free Motor  Yaskawa Electric has developed a drive motor for EVs, which does not use expensive neodymium, whose supply is unstable. The new motor adopts IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) structure that uses inexpensive ferrite magnets for a rotor. A ferrite magnet has about one tenth the magnetic force of the neodymium magnet. By optimizing the shape and the layout of the magnets and the rotor, the torque characteristics and the resistance to low-temperature demagnetization are improved. In addition, by using a rectangular wire for the coil winding of the stator, the coil space factor (the density of the coil) is increased by 30% from the conventional product; the shape of the coil end is improved to make it smaller. With these improvements, Yaskawa's new product has achieved the same performance as a conventional product of similar size.
 The new product is applied to QMET-II, Yaskawa's motor drive system that uses its winding-changeover motor. Yaskawa is scheduled to start shipping samples in September 2013. The motor company can provide a higher-performance and highly-functional motor by combining the newly-developed stator that uses a rectangular wire with a rotor that uses a neodymium magnet.
Max. revolution speed 12,000 min-1 Rare Earths Free Motor
Continuous output 45kW
Max. output 80kW
Max. torque 200Nm
Weight About 60kg
External dimensions 250W x 194H x 355L Presentation panel of Yaskawa's newly-developed motor that does not use rare earths (the actual product is not showcased)

 

Lineup of Yaskawa's motor drive system

Characteristics Class Vehicles that use the product
QMET-II By introducing a winding-changeover motor (electronic winding-changeover technology), the QMET-II has acquired the characteristics of low-speed and high-speed motors, which enables it to have high torque and high revolution, giving a wider efficiency range. 120kW 2.0-liter class passenger car, truck/bus
80kW Compact car (1.3- to 1.5-liter class)
YMEV YMEV has achieved high-efficiency in the light-load range with a compact/light-weight system. YMEV uses a motor that does not employ a winding-changeover system. 50kW Compact car (1.0- to 1.3-liter class)
30kW Mini vehicle

 

Specifications Motor Inverter
QMET-II
120kW
QMET-II
80kW
YMEV
35kW

 

Yaskawa's motor drive system is used in Demio EV

Mazda Demio EV  Mazda uses a customized motor drive of Yaskawa's QMET-II system in the Demio EV, which it started leasing in October 2012. The maximum output and maximum torque is 75kW and 150Nm, respectively.

 

Mazda Demio EV Yaskawa"s motor
Mazda Demio EV Yaskawa's motor drives the front wheels
Yaskawa's inverter
Yaskawa's inverter mounted under the hood

Meidensha exhibits a drive unit for EVs, which is currently being developed

Drive unit for EVs  Meidensha Corporation is currently developing a compact and lightweight drive unit for EVs, which integrates a drive motor and a gearbox. The shaft length of a trial product is 35% shorter than the separate structure (the shaft length of a combined motor/gearbox is shortened from 520mm to 350mm). The lubricant oil of the gearbox directly cools the winding wire/iron core of the motor, which helps to make the motor smaller and to improve efficiency.
A motor/inverter currently being developed  Meidensha also exhibited a motor/inverter for EVs/PHVs/HVs, which it is currently developing. The maximum rated output of a motor for midsize vehicles is raised from 80kW to 100kW as compared to that of the product exhibited in the previous year. Meidensha supplies a motor and an inverter to Mitsubishi's Outlander PHEV and MINICAB-MiEV commercial mini EV.


Meidensha"s drive unit for EVs
Meidensha's drive unit for EVs, which integrates a motor and a gearbox

 

Specifications of a motor/inverter currently being developed (reference value)

Motor Inverter
Weight Maximum rating Max. revolution speed Volume
Mini vehicle class (30-40kW) 25kg 30kW-75Nm-3,820rpm 12,000rpm 3.5L
Small vehicle class (50-60kW) 35kg 60kW-150Nm-3,820rpm 12,000rpm 4.6L
Midsize vehicle class (100kW) 40kg 100kW-230Nm-4,150rpm 12,000rpm 7.2L

 

Meidensha"s motor for midsize-class vehicles Meidensha"s inverter for midsize-class vehicles
Meidensha's motor for midsize-class vehicles, which is currently being developed Meidensha's inverter for midsize-class vehicles, which is currently being developed

 

HYOSUNG Corporation: exhibits drive motors

 HYOSUNG Corporation is a Korea-based conglomerate known as a tire stiffener manufacturer in the automotive business and also deals with industrial motors. The Korean company has so far supplied induction motors to Hyundai's i10 BlueOn (maximum output: 61kW) and Kia's Ray EV (maximum output: 50kW). Responding to OEM's request, HYOSUNG says that it would supply induction motors and permanent magnet synchronous motors with maximum output ranging from 30kW to 150kW.

HYOSUNG's lineup of motors for EVs

Type of motor Induction motor Permanent magnet synchronous motor
Built-in (IPM) Spoke-type IPM
Characteristics An inexpensive induction motor that has so far been supplied to Hyundai/Kia. Permanent magnet synchronous motor for EVs/HEVs, which is used worldwide. Next-generation permanent magnet synchronous motor that does not use rare earths.
Max. output 30kW - 150kW
Output density over 1.1kW/kg over 1.5kW/kg over 1.3kW/kg
Efficiency over 94% over 97% over 96%
Cost Excellent Poor Good
Noise/Vibration Excellent Good Good

 

HYOSUNG supplies motors to Hyundai/Kia Permanent magnet synchronous motor
HYOSUNG supplies motors to Hyundai/Kia Permanent magnet synchronous motor with maximum output of 80kW and maximum torque of 280Nm.

 

ACR exhibits a compact clean-diesel power generation system for PHVs

 ACR is a company in Kanagawa, Japan, which deals with exhaust emission control systems. The company is currently working on the development of a PHV, which uses a clean-diesel power generator, and on EV components as a new business. ACR plans to start marketing EV components in September 2013 and HEV components in September 2014.
EV component  ACR develops a motor and an inverter for mini vehicles. By using a water-cooling system in a motor for EVs, the volume per output is reduced to about two thirds compared to that of other companies' products.
Clean-diesel power generation system  The system is a power generation system that uses a 1-cylinder 330cc diesel engine (rated output 10kW) and an 8.5kW generator. It is also equipped with an ultra-compact turbo charger that ACR independently developed.

 

ACR's component for EVs

Motor for EVs
Output Rated output: 15kW (instantaneous 30kW)
Max. revolution speed 7500rpm
Drive voltage 600V(DC/DC)
Motor structure IPM motor
Inverter
Output 30kW (instantaneous), 15kW (rated)
Bus voltage DC420V
Power element IPM(600V/300A)
Cooling system Water-cooling
Smoothing condenser Film condenser
Control system Torque control/speed control
Protection features Protection through monitoring of voltage/current/temperature/revolution speed
Communication system CAN communication system (ISO11898 compliant) Behind is a newly-developed product. ACR plans to make a commercial product about two thirds as small as the product in the photo.

 

 



In EV/HEV related systems Magna exhibits (low-priced) micro hybrid system

 

Magna's powertrain system for EVs/HEVs

(Low-priced) Micro hybrid system  The (low-priced) micro hybrid system, which Magna dubs Cost Efficient Hybrid, is a micro hybrid system for front-wheel-drive vehicles with a transverse-mounted engine. A belt that is run by a motor goes between the engine and the transmission in order to help to drive the vehicle. The system is also equipped with a start/stop system. It can drive on electricity up to 50km/h. It can run up to several hundred meters only on electricity (depending on battery capacity).
 Magna is currently developing the micro hybrid system for A, B, and C segments, which is expected to take a few more years before a commercial product is released.
2-speed drive system for light commercial EVs  This 2-speed drive system is a front-axle module, which is currently being developed, for light commercial EVs. The maximum output and the maximum torque are 105kW and 280Nm (@360V), respectively. By adopting a 2-speed automatic transmission, the system can provide the necessary torque to drive the vehicle when a motor with reduced torque is mounted, which minimizes the cost. The system is also excellent in the efficiency of the regenerative braking (according to Magna's simulation that utilizes a particular delivery pattern, 100% regeneration is possible).
Drive system for EVs  This is an EV drive system that integrates a drive motor and an inverter. Magna supplies this system to US-based OEMs. It can be used in EVs, range-extender EVs, and fuel-cell vehicles. The maximum output and the maximum torque of the motor are 105kW and 282Nm, respectively. The maximum revolution speed is 10,000rpm. The input voltage of the inverter ranges from 250V to 420V. The peak output is 120kW.
Electric rear axle drive  The electric rear axle drive is a module that integrates a motor and a gearbox, which electrically drives the rear wheels. It is equipped with a disconnecting system that separates the axle of the wheel from the driving force of the motor. Production began at a plant in Austria in October 2012. This system is used in the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid.

 

Magna's exhibition

Micro hybrid system 2-speed drive system for light commercial EVs
Micro hybrid system 2-speed drive system for light commercial EVs
Drive system for EVs Electric rear axle drive
Drive system for EVs Electric rear axle drive

 

Nippon Chemi-Con

DLCAP, electric double layer capacitor for vehicles  Nippon Chemi-Con exhibits a capacitor, DLCAP, and a module that it supplies for Mazda's regenerative braking system, i-ELOOP (Note). In the module, there are ten electric double layer capacitors - five each for top and bottom. Compared to the conventional product, the internal resistance is reduced to one third, which improves the storage and discharge capacity of high current. The heat resistance is also improved from 60 to 70 degrees centigrade, which makes it possible to house the product in the engine room.
DXE series  Nippon Chemi-Con markets the third-generation DXE series, which is a generalized version of the above capacitor that it developed for Mazda. Nippon Chemi-Con is currently presenting the product to OEMs.
 Nippon Chemi-Con is also developing an in-vehicle capacity whose heat resistance is to be raised to 85 degrees centigrade.
Next-generation capacitor currently being developed Nano-hybrid capacitor  The nano-hybrid capacitor is a hybrid capacitor that uses nc-Li4Ti5O12/carbon nano fiber complex as an anode. The new capacitor has achieved about three times (30WhL-1 class) the energy density and about the same output performance (6kWL-1 class) of the conventional activated carbon capacitor. Nippon Chemi-Con collaborates with Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology and K & W Incorporated.
Carbon nanotube capacitor  The carbon nanotube capacitor is an electric double layer capacitor that uses single-layer carbon nanotubes for cathode and anode. The product uses electrodes that do not use binder/adhesive, which contributes to the improvement of life performance of the capacitor. It has achieved an ultra-high output of 10kWL-1 class. This is NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization)-sponsored research.

 

An electric double layer capacitor module DLCAP
An electric double layer capacitor module that Nippon Chemi-Con supplies to Mazda DLCAP, an in-vehicle electric double layer capacitor

 

 



Main vehicles exhibited

Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV

The model is a PHEV version of the Outlander SUV, which Mitsubishi Motors launched in January 2013. It employs a twin-motor 4WD system that has a motor each for front/rear wheels. The engine is mainly used to generate electricity and also provides a driving force when the vehicle is running at high speeds.
The model comes with a 12kWh Li-ion battery (Toyota Prius PHV comes with a 4.4kWh Li-ion battery). The cruising range in EV mode is 60.2km (JC08 mode). The combined fuel efficiency is 67.0km/L (JC08 mode)

PSA/SIM- Drive: Citroen DS3 Electrum

 The Citroen DS3 Electrum is an EV model modified by Japan-based EV venture company, SIM-Drive, based on PSA's Citroen DS3. The model has two motors under the hood, which SIM-Drive used as an in-wheel motor in a previously-developed vehicle; the motors drive the left and right wheels through the shaft. A motor, an inverter, and a Li-ion battery (17.5kWh) are mounted in order not to affect the vehicle interior/cargo space. The Citroen DS3 Electrum is 95kg heavier than the base model.
The cruising range is 154km (JC08 mode). The energy efficiency is 113.6Wh/km. This model is compatible with quick charging under CHAdeMO standards and does not carry a regular charger.

Mazda Demio EV

 The Demio EV was released by Mazda in October 2012. Leasing of about 100 units began for government offices/businesses. The model comes with a 20kWh Li-ion battery. The cruising range is 200km (JC08 mode: data by Mazda). The Demio EV is 190kg heavier than the base model.

ZMP/Microsoft Japan RoboCar PHV

 The RoboCar PHV is an experimental vehicle that ZMP Inc. and Microsoft Japan jointly developed. It is assumed to be used in R&D for drive assist technology and self-driving technology. Through an in-vehicle network, CAN, the engineers can obtain the data from various sensors and grasp real-time information on driving conditions through devices including PCs. The model can also accumulate data by using Microsoft's cloud system (Windows Azure), which makes it easy for analysis of the drive data.
The high-grade model (PHV) can be remote controlled in and outside the vehicle. The lower-grade model (PHV Primitive) is a model in which the driver drives the vehicle and aims to obtain data on public roads. The base model is Toyota Prius PHV, but the system used in the RoboCar PHV can be used in other vehicles.

MEGA Multitruck AC Power

 The Multitruck AC Power is a light commercial EV made by France-based MEGA. Users can choose the capacity of a lead battery, type of a motor (alternate current or direct current), and build type (pickup type, van type, and others). MEGA also markets the Mega City, a compact 2-seat passenger car-type EV.

Wheego IRIE

 The IRIE is a 3.01-meter long compact 2-seat EV (US name: LiFE) that is made by the US-based Wheego Electric Cars. The model comes with multiple safety systems including airbag and a tire-pressure monitoring system.

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