China Commercial Vehicles Show 2015 (Part 1)
JAC, SAIC-IVECO, FAW, CNHTC
- Trends in heavy- to medium-duty truck markets in China
- Show's overview: Energy and strength paving road to a giant truck market
- JAC: heavy-duty truck GALLOP K6 & Junling series of light-duty trucks
- Nanjing Iveco (NAVECO): medium-duty Yuejin C500 truck
- SAIC-IVECO Hongyan: GENLYON tractor
- FAW: Jiefang JH6 6×4 flagship tractors
- CIMC-C&C Trucks:
- China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd. (CNHTC)
- Beijing Foton Motor Co., Ltd.: Auman GTL (Benz, Cummins engines)
- Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor Co., Ltd.: Chenglong H7
The China Commercial Vehicles Show 2015 (CCVS 2015), the largest international truck show in Asia according to the show organizer, was held in Wuhan, China, occupying six halls of the Wuhan International Expo Center. The biennial commercial vehicles show this year was themed after "New Normal, New Opportunities."
The show's venue, the Wuhan International Expo Center, is located in a newly-developed site in the left bank of the Changjiang River, about 20 minutes south by car from the western center of the Wuhan city. Opened in October 2011, the Expo Center occupies 150,000 square meters with 12 halls, tower hotels and a shopping center (yet to be opened).
|Six halls for CCVS 2015||Single gate to the show venue||Spacious Expo Center (hotels to the left)|
Three of the six halls were occupied by commercial vehicles manufacturers, the remaining three by parts suppliers, trailer body manufacturers, local modified truck manufacturers and truck dealers from Hubei Province.
Partly due to a long spell of rainy and cold weather, the CCVS 2015 venue was not as crowded as combined vehicle shows for passenger cars and trucks. However, there were many young people and women, especially young employees representing vehicle manufacturers, were ardently taking pictures and notes.
There were only 15 manufacturers of heavy- and medium-duty trucks (among approximately 65 manufacturers of heavy- to light-duty trucks in China including independent manufacturers that belong to certain groups) and six leading body manufacturers at the show. Among the exhibitors were leading truck manufacturers such as Sinotruk and C&C TRUCKS that did not take part in passenger car and truck motor shows in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and Tri-Ring Group, a leading manufacturer of military vehicles. Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Company, enjoying the highest market share in China, occupied Hall 1 to display trucks manufactured by its group companies that included Dongfeng Special Commercial Vehicles and Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor.
Among those manufacturers that did not take part in or otherwise cancelled the CCVS 2015 were leading private manufacturers in China such as Dayun, Beiben Trucks and Hualing Trucks, Japan-affiliated manufacturers such as Guangqi Hino Motors, Qingling Motors and UD Trucks Corporation, and the Korea-affiliated Sichuan Hyundai Motor. The show's regular exhibitors such as Daimler, DAF and Navistar were not represented either at the show this year. As a result, there were many empty booths in the spacious venue.
|Cancelled booths||4 to 5 vehicles on display on average||Visitors taking pictures and notes|
2014 Guangzhou International Commercial Vehicle Exhibition (Dec. 2014)
Trends in heavy- to medium-duty truck markets in China
|Wuhan city constantly congested with vans and light-duty trucks||Trucks queueing for cargo||Changjiang River in Wuhan, China's commercial artery serving 24 hours for domestic vessels carrying containers and trucks|
China's truck production in January to October 2015 declined 13% year-over-year to 2.11 million units. Production of medium- to heavy-duty trucks declined significantly due to slow economy and physical distribution. The industry saw a 40% decline year-over-year for heavy-duty trucks and a 23% decline for medium-duty trucks. Dongfeng Motor Corporation is the largest manufacturer of medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The second largest manufacturer is China National Heavy Duty Truck Group for heavy-duty trucks and China FAW Group Corporation for medium-duty trucks.
Other than economic trends, the heavy-duty truck manufacturers faced a number of challenges after the IV level emissions standards were introduced in China in January 2015. It revealed negative factors such as the shortage of testing and urea supply facilities and increased cost of research and development.
Nevertheless, the truck manufacturers in China have a forward-looking vision arising from large projects involving re-development of old cities and building and road construction works after the second half of 2015. They also expect truck replacement demand to meet the new emissions standards. The rapid progress of Internet shopping is also expected to create demand for inter-city and intra-city transportation. The China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) predicts that this will lead to significant demand increase and growth for truck manufacturers in China.
Show's overview: Energy and strength paving road to a giant truck market
|Van-bodied truck||Cummins engine||Rear-lift axle and air suspension||New model||12-speed manual transmission|
All-new models on display at the show included urban-use trucks by JAC with 3-ton and 8-ton loading capacities, and high-end tractors unveiled earlier at the Auto Shanghai 2015 by Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor Co., Ltd. and Iveco Hongyan Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd. Many of them were 6x4 tractors although 6x2 air-suspension trucks with rear-lift axle were also exhibited by several manufacturers. Body manufacturers exhibited many van-type bodies including trailers. There were only a few displays of steel cargo bodies that are otherwise very popular in trucking industry in China.
Manufacturers as well as visitors to the show seemed little interested in electric trucks. Only four electric trucks were exhibited; two by JAC and one each by Dongfeng Special Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd. and Dongfeng Automobile Co., Ltd.
A broad variety of engines were exhibited by Chinese manufacturers such as Yuchai and Weichai, and by their licensors and partners such as Cummins, Caterpillar, Navistar, Daimler and Man. Their engines are used on many trucks.
Trucks fitted with automatic transmission are commonplace in Europe and Japan but they are very rare in China. Truck users in China place top priority on absolute power, rough terrain performance and loading capacities. Many of them are self-employed drivers fighting a big load of cargo. It appeared too early to introduce telematics, digital tachographs and other cutting-edge technologies that address rationalization of vehicle operation and increased economic performance.
Reported below are exhibits of products full of energy and strength that are paving road to growth of the giant truck market.
JAC: heavy-duty truck GALLOP K6 & Junling series of light-duty trucks
JAC is an integrated automobile manufacturer that has an independent design center in Tokyo. Its commercial vehicles division develops and manufactures a broad range of vehicles from heavy- to light-duty trucks that are facelifted annually. JAC exhibited its mainstream heavy-duty cargo trucks including a few all-new models, and medium- and light-duty trucks. It did not exhibit heavy-duty tractors at the show.
Facelifted heavy-duty truck, GALLOP K6
The GALLOP is based on the 4x2 cargo truck for urban use that was facelifted in April 2015. It is JAC's latest heavy-duty semi-high roof model with 2.5m maximum width and fitted with an engine jointly developed with U.S. Navistar for the CCVS 2015. The front area has been facelifted. The GALLOP is 9m long with a 5m wheelbase, 5.5-ton VW and 8-ton loading capacity. It is fitted with a 4.8-liter Navistar MaxxForce MF4.8 engine that delivers 190ps power and 76kgm/1200-1600rpm torque.
The interior features a plain business-like instrument panel and a large-capacity roof console. Its grade is high for a heavy-duty truck compared to the W-series of medium-duty trucks that were launched last year. The truck is fitted with a 7-speed manual transmission.
Remodeled Junling series of light-duty trucks unveiled to the press on the first day of the show
|The New Junling K is 6m long, 1.9m wide, has 2-ton loading capacity and is fitted with 2.8-liter JAC engine with 85ps power.||The wide New Junling H is 6m long, 2.2m wide, has 3-ton loading capacity and is fitted with 3.2-liter Navistar engine with 160ps power.|
|A Junling class truck before remodeling is shown to the left. Several exterior designs are available. The previous Elf cab was used for years after die remodeling. The cabs on the all-new New Junling K and H have been redesigned entirely.|
|Before remodeling||After remodeling|
Inside the all-new Junling truck
Decorative strips have been added around the instrument panel to improve appearance. An LED monitor is positioned at the center of the instrument panel along with a small table by the front occupant's side and a ventilator on the roof.
Nanjing Iveco (NAVECO): medium-duty Yuejin C500 truck
NAVECO is a regular exhibitor at the CCVS with semi-bonnet type vans and light-duty trucks. It is a joint venture established in March 1996 by Nanjing Auto, a subsidiary of SAIC, and IVECO, an Italian truck manufacturer. The company started producing semi-bonnet type vans and other vehicles.
In 2007, NAVECO became SAIC's important commercial vehicles division after which its range of production expanded to SUVs, trucks, buses and specially-equipped vehicles. The company leads the van type vehicles that are widely used in urban areas. This is inspiring other manufacturers to make vans which, in turn is contributing to the expansion of delivery vans. NAVECO recently has started developing and manufacturing light-duty and medium-duty trucks.
Yuejin C500 gull-wing version of the medium-duty Yuejin C500 truck
NAVECO has four series of light- to medium-duty trucks of varying sizes (C, X, H and S series.) The Yuejin C500 is a high-end model with a wing body that falls in the C5500 series of medium-duty trucks. It is the latest single-cab model that was launched in September 2015 after being facelifted like the previous Eurocargo truck manufactured by Iveco, the original manufacturer. The truck was named the energy-saving truck of the year in November 2015 by the Chinese truck manufacturers association. The wing body is made of aluminum panels that are driven by motor. It was exhibited without cargo fasteners. The C500 is 8.9m long, 2.47m wide and has 13.5-ton GVW. It is fitted with a 3.8-liter Cummins ISF engine or Shanghai Diesel Engine Co., Ltd.'s SC4H engine (co-developed with a U.K. company Ricardo) with 168ps power and 62kgm/1300-1700rpm torque.
|Instrument panel with spare storage||A large ventilator in the roof|
Yuejin C300 refrigerated truck (light-duty Yuejin C300 truck)
|The C300, a twin model of C500, is a refrigerated truck that is 6m long, 2.03m wide, has 6.4-ton GVW and is fitted with Iveco's a 2.8-liter SOFIM engine with 125ps power and 33kgm/3000rpm torque.||The C300-based detachable body truck is assembled by a local body maker. The box weighs 1.02 ton and is 4.1m long, 2.07m wide and 2.15m high. The height of the box on the rigid chassis is adjustable by foot operation.|
SAIC-IVECO Hongyan: GENLYON tractor
SAIC-IVECO Hongyan Commercial Vehicle Company is a heavy-duty truck manufacturer headquartered in Chongqing City, China. It was established in 2007 by Chongqing Hongyan Automobile and SAIC-IVECO Commercial Vehicles. Chongqing Hongyan Automobile has a long history as Sichuan Automobile. It was licensed military vehicle development technologies from a French company called Berlite. Likewise, SAIC (Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation) was licensed Iveco's development technologies. The Chinese companies formed a joint venture to manufacture vehicles using licensed technologies starting from prototypes.
Iveco, an original company of the joint venture, itself has made foray into China in direct competition with the Chinese companies. SAIC-IVECO Hongyan offers 4×2, 6×2, 6×4 and 8×4 models of tractors, dump trucks, cargo trucks and concrete mixer trucks under its native brand, Genlyon. Iveco's engines are used mainly in SAIC-IVECO Hongyan's tractors whereas other trucks are fitted with engines supplied by Wenchai and other Chinese manufacturers. The company is one of the regular exhibitors of the motor show but its display is limited to tractors.
Its mainstream models, Genlyon tractors, are manufactured at the company's new plant in Chongqing that was engineered by Iveco.
GENLYON 6x4 C100 tractor
The flagship model featuring a facelifted grille with plated ornamental strips was exhibited as an all-new model. The tractor is based on the Iveco Stralis identified by Iveco's legendary cab that was introduced 20 years ago. But the tractor on display has doors and interior trims of simpler design.
The 6x4 long-haul tractor with a high-roof cab is 6.8m long with a 3.3+1.35m wheelbase, 25-ton GVW, 15.2-ton fifth-wheel hitch weight, and 49-ton GCW (Gross Combination Weight). It is fitted with rigid suspension, 12-speed manual transmission and 550-liter fuel tank and powered by a 13-liter C13 engine with 480ps power and 225kgm/1500rpm torque.
GENLYON 6x2 C100 twin front-steer tractor
The 6x2 twin front-steer tractors are commonplace for medium- to long-distance haulage in China (as well as in the U.K. because of lower tire friction and better economy). The Genlyon 6x2 C100 is 6.9m long with a 1.8＋2.7m wheelbase, 25-ton GVW, 7-ton fifth-wheel hitch weight, 38.4-ton GCW, rigid suspension, 12-speed manual transmission and 400-liter fuel tank. The tractor is fitted with a 9-liter C9 engine with 380ps power and 154kgm/1500rpm torque.
The high-roof Genlyon tractor features the old Iveco Stralis cab with a simple-designed instrument panel and a roof console box except for the unique color of the interior.
IVECO Cursor series of engines on C100 (compatible with IV emissions standards in China)
|12.8-liter C13 engine with 350ps to 480ps power||8.7-liter C9 engine with 290ps to 400ps power|
IVECO CHINA Series
|IVECO STRALIS 6x4 tractor||IVECO ASTRA 8x8 heavy goods tractor|
IVECO, an Italian manufacturer that inspired the joint venture in China, exhibited Italian-made tractors. The left-side photo shows a 6x4 tractor with a rear-lift axle configuration (the axle is lifted off the ground when the truck is empty or partially loaded to reduce tire wear and fuel consumption). The Iveco Astra in the right-side photo is an all-new model with the cab replaced by the Stralis cab. It is the first heavy goods vehicle developed to meet a growing need in China. It has 33-ton fifth-wheel hitch weight and 275-ton GCW and is fitted with a 13-liter HD9 engine with 560ps power.
FAW: Jiefang JH6 6×4 flagship tractors
Buses and heavy-duty trucks proudly displayed side by side in FAW booth (no new models)
FAW Group is China's state-owned automotive corporation that has three key divisions including commercial vehicles, passenger cars and the Hong Qi (Red Flag) luxury car brand. The commercial vehicles division has the largest market share only next to Dongfeng Motor Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd. Its heavy-duty trucks are seen in virtually all parts of China.
FAW Group exhibited tractors and heavy-duty commercial vehicles including a 6x4, four 6x2 tractors, a 6x4 chassis-cab and a snow plow truck. None of them were new lines or models of specific appeal.
Jiefang JH6 6×4 flagship tractors
The JH6 is the flagship model of the J6 heavy-duty truck series. A reference exhibit at the 2014 Auto China in Beijing, the JH6 debuted officially at the Auto Shanghai 2015. The interior of the model exhibited at the CCVS 2015 has a lighter color tone that gives a higher grade impression. The cab to the left is based on the J6 cab in the existing 6x2 J6 series. Special efforts were made to reduce component weight, fuel consumption and maintenance costs and increase safety and riding comfort. These changes were made to improve overall quality appeal in international markets. Most notable change of all is the reliability that was tested for 50,000 hours and 5 million km to increase the truck's appeal as a high-end brand. Another improvement is the safety. The cab suspension's wall thickness and other components were increased to meet the ECE R29 crash test standards as did other manufacturers.
The JH6 is 6.9m long with 3.3+1.35m wheelbase and 40-ton VCW. It is fitted with 600-liter fuel tank, an 11-liter Xichai Aowei engine with 460ps power and 214kgm/1100-1400rpm torque, 12-speed manual transmission and lightweight leaf-suspension.
Inside JH6: Steering switches (volume control, etc.), 8-inch monitor, etc.
(World premiere) Unique light-colored interior, unlike other Jiefang trucks, and combined with the 700mm-wide bed, gives pleasant ride and high-grade impression.
C&C Trucks is a new heavy-duty truck manufacturing and sale company established as a holding company of China International Marine Containers (CIMC) Group Co., Ltd., a world-leading Chinese supplier of logistics and energy equipment, and Chery Automobile Co., Ltd.
In 2010, C&C Trucks launched, jointly with Yuchai, a native Chinese engine manufacturer, the U460 truck series fitted with the 6K12 engine. The company is producing 6x2, 6x4 and 8x4 tractors and dump trucks. It exhibited a 6x4 tractor, four 6x2 tractors and an 8x4 dump truck at the show.
C&C U460 6x2 rear-lift air suspension model (latest version)
The C&C Trucks' U-series of tractors are fitted with Yuchai engines with 290 to 480ps power. The company exhibited the latest, lightest air-suspension tractor aimed at economic and ride comfort performance. Its framework presents a most proactive attitude of an emerging manufacturer featuring an air-suspension system licensed by a German manufacturer along with a step-integrated aluminum fuel tank. The cab itself is manufactured locally but is designed by an Italian Torino-based carrozzeria. The tractor was unveiled in 2010 Auto China in Beijing after which it was partially refined with redesigned trim, better emission performance and an engine update.
The tractor is 6.9m long with 3.3+1.35m wheelbase, 40-ton GVW, 800 (300+500)-liter fuel tank and 12-speed ZF manual transmission, and is fitted with a 12-liter Yuchai-YC6K12 engine with 12-liter with 460ps power and 224-m/1550rpm torque.
|Tyre: 12r22.5 , 315/80r22.5||Air-suspension and tank layouts|
C&C V340 6x2 twin front axle tractor (2.3m wide narrow cab)
Medium-to-long-distance tractor 6.9m long with 1.9+2.6m wheelbase and 38-ton GVW, fitted with YC6k10 340ps engine
|Air-suspension-lift axle||Cab four-point full-floating air-suspension (already adopted on tractors for Japanese and European markets)||Vuteq fuel tanks and SCR devices in right and left sides|
C&C Trucks: Interior trim designed for comfort and safety
The V-series trucks are designed for practical and drivability appeal as in German products. The instrument panel, multi-monitor LED meter cluster and steering switches that are found in the U460 and other U-series models are absent in the V-series trucks. A floor console was used in earlier models but has been removed to increase available space. The V-series trucks have instrument panels that are of the same design as those in the previous Actros.
(Slight resemblance to MAN trucks) Photographed with a long 12-speed transmission knob, parking brake, air-suspended seat, high roof (1.9m, high enough with a head clearance for a standing driver), and a large-capacity roof console.
China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Co., Ltd. (CNHTC)
CNHTC, a state-owned company with a long history, is one of the leading heavy-duty truck manufacturers in China alongside Dongfeng Motor Commercial Vehicle Co., Ltd. and China FAW Group Corporation. It was originally founded as an automobile manufacturer in 1935 in the city of Jinan, China, and was later reconstructed in 1956. The company was licensed in the 1960s by Skoda, then a Czech company, Steyr of Austria and Volvo. In the 2000s, the company reconstructed Sinotruk, a Hong Kong-based company, as its subsidiary. In 2009, CNHTC concluded a technical licensing agreement with MAN, a German company, which set the base for developing and manufacturing heavy-duty trucks. To be more precise, CNHTC became a licensee of the entire MAN TG Series trucks from product designing to testing to production in China. They are now produced locally under its own Sitrak brand of high-end trucks. The company exhibited ten vehicles at the CCVS 2015 including HOWO, Sitrak and HOHAN heavy-duty vehicles.
|HOWO tractor (440ps)||T7H6x2 rear-lift axle||T7H6x4 leaf-suspension|
Initially CNHTC manufactured the HOWO trucks by adopting Volvo's elementary technologies and cab and other components from the previous Volvo products. Today, the company shares key components with Sitrak (MAN).
HOWO T7H6 Series (see photos above)
6x2=Fitted with air-suspension, rear-lift, frame and axles from MAN-TGA series and 12-speed manual transmission, is 6.9m long with 3.2+1.3m wheelbase and 37.2-ton GCW, and powered by 11-liter MC11 engine with 440ps power and 214kgm/1000-1400rpm torque.
6x4=Fitted with leaf-suspension and 16-speed automatic transmission, is 6.9m long with 3.2+1.4m wheelbase and 40-ton GVW, and shares the engine with the 6x2 version.
|SITRAK tractor (540ps)||C7H6x2 rear-lift axle|
Sitrak was launched in 2009 by Sinotruk as CNHTC's new brand under the technical licensing agreement with MAN. Initially it was MAN's "TG narrow cab" model but was replaced by the TGX 6x2 (rear-lift and steer model in Germany) after modification to the C7H series.
The front grille, lamps and part of the trim have been modified to suit the local market. The cabin is of a middle-roof style with a flat floor. The tractor is powered by the MC1 engine based on the MAN-D26 modified to suit the local market.
Fitted with air-suspension and rear-lift, is 6.9m long with 3.2+1.4m wheelbase and 37.2-ton GCW, and powered by 12-liter MC13 engine with 540ps power and 255kgm/1050-1350rpm torque and 12-speed ZF manual transmission.
6-liter MC13 engine fitted on Sitrak C7H ranging from 480 to 540ps of power (right-side photo taken from press release)
|Right=MC11 6- and 11-liter engines with 430ps maximum power, fitted on HOWO T7H Left=4- and 5-liter 200ps engines fitted on HOHAN J series|
HOWO T7H instrument panel
SITRAK C7H instrument panel (similar to MAN's with meters shared with MAN's)
Beijing Foton Motor Co., Ltd.: Auman GTL (Benz, Cummins engines)
Foton Auman, a manufacturing company of commercial vehicles, was established in 2002 by Beiqi Foton Automobile Co., Ltd. It is an emerging manufacturer and a regular exhibitor at motor shows in several cities.
The company grew steadily through a series of technical licensing agreements with European and American manufacturers. In 2012, Beijing Foton Automobile established Beijing Foton Daimler Automotive jointly with Daimler, a long time technical partner.
The company also uses Cummins engines as well from the United States alongside the Benz engines. It uses cab structures taken from Isuzu Giga except for the cab on the self-supplied GTL that resembles the cab on the Mercedes-Benz Actros.
Auman GTL, identical flagship heavy-duty models fitted with engines of two different licensers
|Auman GTL fitted with 6- and 12-liter Benz OM457 engines with 490ps power and 225kgm/1100rpm||Auman GTL fitted with 6- and 12-liter Cummins ISG engines with 460ps power and 235kgm/1200rpm|
Auman GTL with a Cummins engine: Introduced at the show as Foton Daimler Automotive
A Cummins logo "ISG Cummins super efficiency" is placed on the door panel. A 6x4 model fitted with leaf-suspension, 600-liter fuel tank and 40-ton GVW, is 6.9m long with 3.3+1.3 wheelbase.
Photographed with a high roof (sufficient head clearance for a standing driver), a large-capacity roof console and an instrument panel taken undoubtedly from the previous Mercedes-Benz Actros, and a 16-speed manual transmission
Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor Co., Ltd.: Chenglong H7
Established in 1954 in Liuzhou, an industrial district in the southern part of China, as a subsidiary of Dongfeng Motor Corporation, the company started producing automobiles in 1969 ranging from small passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks. It is an emerging manufacturer that became China's first manufacturer to develop medium-duty diesel trucks in 1981 and heavy-duty trucks in 2003.
Currently Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor develops and produces several types of trucks under license by European manufacturers. Its passenger cars are marketed under the Dongfeng brand while medium- to heavy-duty trucks are sold with the Liuzhou logo. The company exhibited three vehicles at the show, including a 6x4 tractor, an 8x4 and a 6x2 trucks. The highlight of the Dongfeng Liuzhou Motor's booth was the Chenglong H7 that debuted at the 2015 Shanghai Motor Show.
Chenglong H7, a 6x4 air-suspension tractor
H7, a new flagship that replaces the current Chenglong M7, has an available air-suspension model. The front design was restyled including the doors with covered steps. The quarter panel and the side deflector behind the cab were also restyled. The cab frame is taken from the previous Renault Premium as before although the appearance and visual quality have been improved significantly.
The massive front grille of a self-assertive motif is of Italian design (according to PR video) that will be well accepted among Chinese drivers.
The Chenglong H7 meets the new emissions standards in China. Its frame has been freshened entirely with the urea tank and SCR device located on the left.
The 6x4 air-suspension model has an arm-bearing air-suspension on each of the twin rear axles. It has four-point full-floating air-suspension as in European (and Japanese) models. It is 6.9m long with 3.3+1.35m wheelbase, 40-ton GCW and 600-liter fuel tank and is powered by the Cummins ISZ450-41 engine with 450ps power and 230kgm/1200rpm torque coupled with a 12-speed manual transmission. Variants fitted with Yuchai engine is also available.
Interior (the instrument panel is shown deformed by the wide-angle lens)
The H7 features all-new steering switches, 10-inch LED monitor and an instrument panel with a monitor. Its equipment and quality have come close to European and American vehicles (cabs on Japanese trucks are narrow and simple).
The H7 has a semi-flat floor but is high enough with a head clearance for a standing driver. An increasing number of trucks are fitted with a large-capacity roof consoles and bunk beds (exactly how they are used is unknown as the trucks are often used for a long-distance transportation by a single self-employed driver).
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