Honda introduces three types of HV; Mitsubishi shows EV-derived PHV
Nissan/Honda/Mitsubishi/Suzuki produce diverse HV/PHV/EV options
Reported below are the recent and planned launches of hybrid vehicles (HV), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHV) and electric vehicles (EV) by Nissan Motor Company, Honda Motor Company, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation and Suzuki Motor Corporation.The simplified HV system called "Smart Simple Hybrid" on Nissan Serena and the micro hybrid system "ENE-CHARGE" developed by Suzuki are also reported.
Acura NSX Concept with three motor HV system by Honda
(at 2013 Frankfurt Auto Show)
EV-derived PHV Outlander by Mitsubishi
(at 2013 Frankfurt Auto Show)
New diverse options of HV/PHV systems
The Japanese market of hybrid vehicles had been led by Toyota with its Toyota Hybrid System (THS). The second automaker from the top was Honda with its Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system. Nissan had a rear-wheel drive (RWD) one-motor two-clutch system on its high-end Fuga/Cima models.
In 2013, however, Nissan, Honda and Mitsubishi each launched HV/PHV fitted with all-new hybrid systems.
Nissan launched one-motor two-clutch system hybrid vehicles with front-wheel drive (FWD) layout in the U.S.
Honda launched vehicles with a new one-motor and a two-motor hybrid systems. Honda is launching hybrid with the still new three-motor system in the U.S. before the end of 2013.
Mitsubishi launched the EV-derived Outlander PHV.
Honda Accord and Mitsubishi Outlander HV/PHV focusing on EV mode for daily driving
The two-motor hybrid system on the Honda Accord allows the driver to drive in EV mode for most cases of daily driving. The use of the engine is limited for electric power generation and high-speed cruising. The vehicle has achieved fuel efficiency of 30.0km/liter.
The Accord PHV is an EV-based PHV that shares the system with the Accord HV. Its lithium-ion battery capacity increased to 6.7kWh, which enables EV mode cruising range of 37.6km.
The Mitsubishi Outlander PHV also is an EV-based PHV. It has a larger lithium-ion battery capacity of 12kWh that enables EV-mode cruising range of 60.2km.
The Honda and Mitsubishi hybrid vehicles have beaten Toyota in today's hybrid market in terms of the fuel economy of the HVs on JC 08 mode and the EV mode cruising range of the PHVs. Meanwhile, Toyota announced at the 2013 Frankfurt Auto Show that it would introduce a new hybrid system, characterized by far higher fuel economy and lower costs. The new system will be mounted starting with the next-generation Prius HV to be launched in 2015 at the earliest. Toyota will also extend the EV-mode range of the Prius PHV which is being developed concurrently.
Related MarkLines reports: "Toyota aggressively adds all-new models to HV lineup" (posted in October 2013) "Nissan mulls next plant in North America by 2017" (posted in July 2013)
HV/PHV/EV sales volume of Nissan, Honda, Mitsubishi and Suzuki
HV/PHV/EV sales volume of Nissan, Honda, Mitsubishi and Suzuki in Japan
|Fit (incl. Shuttle)||24,498||102,386||116,212||33,881|
|Freed (incl. Spike)||11,373||53,895||19,039|
Source: Japan Automobile Dealers Association, Japan Light Vehicle and Motorcycle Association
Nissan: Introduces 15 new HV models in four years through FY 2016
In December 2012, Nissan announced that it would launch fifteen hybrid models in four years through the end of the fiscal 2016. Hybrid variants will be available in a broad range of vehicles including pickup trucks and SUVs. Nissan currently has the rear-wheel drive hybrid system on the Fuga and Cima, and the Smart Simple Hybrid System on the Serena minivan. In the summer of 2013, Nissan's first front-wheel drive hybrid system was introduced on the Pathfinder in the United States.
Nissan plans to introduce a new hybrid model every year. According to Nissan, some sort of electric drive support is necessary on all vehicles, in addition to efforts to improve internal combustion engines, in order to meet the new fuel economy regulations to be introduced in various countries and areas in 2015 and thereafter.
As for the EV segment, Nissan started production of the Leaf EV at the Smyrna plant in the U.S. at the end of 2012, and at the Sunderland plant in the U.K. in January 2013. Taking the occasion of overseas production, Nissan has introduced a number of sales promotions including the introduction of a more affordable grade and enhanced warranty on lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the Leaf EV sales volume in the United States in the period from January to August 2013 more than tripled year-over-year (y/y) from 4,228 units to 14,123 units. Similar promotions were introduced in Japan as well, but its sales remained at 7,655 units within the same time frame with only a 3.8% increase y/y.
Nissan also plans to spread its EV technologies to commercial vehicles. The company will launch the e-NV200 (the second EV model after the Leaf EV) in 2014. Nissan is currently developing the e-NT400.
Nissan's HV/EV launch plans
|(Models produced or to be produced exclusively outside Japan are listed on a separate table "Nissan's overseas production of HV/EV" below)|
|Small and medium HV with FWD layout((1) in table below)|
|Atlas H43 Diesel Hybrid||Supply by Isuzu discontinued||Supplied by Mitsubishi Fuso|
|Infiniti Q50 (2)||Launched in U.S.|
|EV||Leaf (3)||Launched in 2010, Affordable low-grade model in 2012|
|Ultra-micro EV (4)||Provided as patrol vehicles in Yokohama||Large-scale demonstration in Yokohama||Launch in Japan|
|PHEV||Medium and large vehicles (5)||Launch|
(Note) The year under "-2012" is the year of launch. Models launched in 2012 are identified by "Launched."
|(Table 1) Front-wheel drive HV system||Nissan's one-motor two-clutch hybrid system modified for FWD layout is built into the new-generation CVT (called "CVT8 HYBRID" by JATCO, its manufacturer), and combined with a 2.5-liter supercharged engine and lithium-ion battery. The two models already announced are produced in the United States.|
|(2) Infiniti Q50||The Infiniti Q50 (known as the Skyline in Japan), driven by a RWD hybrid system shared with the Fuga and Cima. It was fitted with a 3500cc engine and a motor, and was released for sale in August 2013 in the United States. Its RWD and all-wheel drive (AWD)variants are also available (AWD is not available with the Infiniti M hybrid). The model is produced at the Tochigi plant in Japan.|
|(3) Leaf||Nissan is striving to popularize the Leaf EV. It was partially redesigned in November 2012 which led to extending the per-charge driving range by 28km to 228km. The lowest S grade Leaf was introduced cutting more than JPY 400,000 from the X grade. The X grade had been the lowest trim level until then. In April 2013, Nissan further lowered the price of all three grades by JPY 280,000 flat. The S grade is now offered for approximately JPY 2,200,000 after the government subsidy of JPY 780,000.|
|In June 2013, Nissan introduced a warranty plan honoring free repair or replacement of battery whose chargeable capacity falls to 70% or less of the original capacity within five years of purchase or 50,000km on the odometer in Japan. Despite this and other promotional measures, the sales volume of the Leaf in Japan from January to August 2013 was 7,655 units, only an increase of 3.8% y/y.|
|(4) Ultra-micro EV "New Mobility Concept"||The two-seater Nissan New Mobility Concept, based on Renault's Twizy and powered by lithium-ion battery, has the maximum speed of 80km/h. It measures 2340mm in length and 490kg in vehicle weight. The concept car is designed considering the growing population of the senior citizens and high demand for short distance travels. Various road tests have been under way. The Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism prepares to allow automakers to release ultra-micro electric vehicles in market in 2015.|
|Starting in July 2012, the vehicle has been used for anticrime patrols in Yokohama. Nissan also announced that it will offer up to 100 ultra-micro EVs to the City of Yokohama for a year-long car sharing test starting in October 2013.|
|(5) PHV||Nissan reportedly is developing a one-motor two-clutch PHV system for midsized and large-sized vehicles with market launch slated for 2015. The EV-mode driving range is an important factor for PHV systems. The one-motor two-clutch system on the Fuga and Cima proved that EV-mode driving accounted for nearly half of the total distance traveled on roads. Nissan believes this shows that the system is feasible for PHV installation as well.|
Nissan's overseas production of HV/EV
|HV||Former Altima (US)||Discontinued 2011|
|Pathfinder ((1) in table below)||U.S.|
|Infiniti QX60 ((1) in table below)||U.S.|
|China-only HV (2)||Local production under consideration|
|Infiniti LE concept (6)||Launch around 2017|
|China-only EV (2)||Local production under consideration|
|(Table 1) Pathfinder/QX60||The model is fitted with a 2500cc supercharged engine and an FWD hybrid system. It is produced at the Smyrna plant in the United States for market launch at the end of the summer of 2013. The car has fuel efficiency of 25 mpg in cities and 27 mpg on highways with the total cruising range of 526 miles.|
|The same hybrid system is used on the seven-seater luxury crossover Infiniti QX60 (the former JX), the sibling of the Pathfinder, for launch in the fall of 2013. It is produced at the Smyrna plant.|
|(2) Production of HV/EV in China||Nissan exhibited the Nissan Friend-ME Concept, a hybrid sports car, and the VIWA Concept, a Venucia-brand electric vehicle, at the 2013 Shanghai Motor Show. Nissan has announced plans to offer 1,000 units of the EV to the city of Dalian, China, by 2014. Nissan reportedly is studying the feasibility of local production.|
|(3) Leaf||Nissan started production of the Leaf at the Smyrna plant in the U.S. in the second half of 2012 (with annual capacity of 150,000 units). Production also started at the Sunderland plant in the U.K. in 2013 (with annual capacity of 50,000 units). Concurrently, Nissan introduced lower-priced grade and enhanced quality insurance plans for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the vehicle sales in the U.S. from January to August 2013 increased by 3.3 times y/y to 14,123 units. For more details, see MarkLines Report "Nissan mulls next plant in North America by 2017" (posted in July 2013).|
|(4) e-NV200||Nissan will start producing the e-NV200 at the Barcelona plant in Spain toward the end of 2013 for sales initially in Europe. This will be Nissan's first electric vehicle after the Leaf. The EV-mode range is aimed at 200km, same as the Leaf. The lithium-ion batteries will be produced at the Sunderland plant in the U.K.|
|(5) e-NT400||Nissan has completed the development of the e-NV200. The company is currently developing the e-NT400 based on the commercial vehicle Cabstar that was exhibited at the Commercial Vehicles International Motor Show held in Hanover, Germany, in September 2012. The e-NT400 reportedly is slated for market launch in 2015. (The Cabstar, a sibling of the Atlas F24, is being produced in Spain.)|
|The driving range per charge is about 87 miles (140km) in NEDC standard, which is sufficient for delivery use. The e-NT400 is allowed, as is the e-NV200, in cities in Europe where ICE-powered vehicles are controlled.|
|(6) Infiniti LE Concept||Nissan planned to develop the Leaf-based Infiniti EV for market launch in 2014. It is said that the plan was postponed until 2017 when the new-generation lithium-ion batteries become available.|
(Note) Nissan exhibited the Infiniti Q30 Concept at the 2013 Frankfurt Auto Show. The vehicle will be produced in Nissan's plant in the U.K. starting in 2015. The Etherea Concept, upon which the Q30 was based, reportedly was an FWD hybrid vehicle. The Q30 is to be built on the Mercedes-Benz platform. It is not known whether a hybrid version will be available.
Honda: Introduces three types of hybrid systems
Honda has developed three types of hybrid systems optimized for different vehicle sizes and characteristics: a one-motor system for small-sized vehicles, a two-motor system for mid-sized vehicles, and a three-motor system for large-sized vehicles.
The Accord with the two-motor system was released in June 2013, and the Fit with the one-motor system was released in September. The Acura RLX fitted with the three-motor system will be launched within 2013 in the U.S.
Honda's three types of SPORT HYBRID systems
|One-motor system (on Fit HV)||The system is called "One-motor SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Dual Clutch Drive (i-DCD)" by Honda.A 1.5-liter Atkinson cycle engine is combined with a seven-speed dual clutch transmission (DCT) with a 22kW built-in motor and an 864Wh lithium-ion battery. The all-new Fit HV with the one-motor hybrid powertrain delivers fuel economy of 36.4km/liter on JC08 mode, the highest of any vehicle available in Japan (compared to 26.4km/liter of the previous Fit hybrid model, and 35.4km/liter of the Toyota Aqua). This represents more than 35% improvement in fuel economy from the conventional IMA HV system.|
|The motor is connected to the main shaft which is linked up to the odd-numbered shift stage of the DCT (motor assist and charging is possible even when driven via the even-numbered shift stage as well). The engine and the motor can be engaged and disengaged automatically by switching among three different drive modes according to the driving condition: "EV Drive" for motor-only driving, "Hybrid Drive" with the engine and the motor, and "Engine Drive" for engine-only high-speed cruising.|
|The i-DCD system starts up in "EV" mode and automatically switches between "EV" and "Hybrid" modes during low- to medium-speed cruising. The system switches between "Engine" and "Hybrid" modes during high-speed cruising.|
|When decelerating, the system disengages the engine by using the clutch to increase energy regeneration and further increase fuel efficiency. The electric servo brake in the system also contributes to increasing the efficiency of regeneration.|
|Two-motor system (on AccordHV/PHV)||The system is called "SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive/Plug-in (i-MMD)" by Honda. The system on the Accord HV consists of the newly-developed hybrid-only engine combined with two motors (for generation and driving) and 1.3kWh lithium-ion battery. No transmission is used since the engine is engaged for power generation and high-speed cruising only.|
|The system automatically selects the most efficient mode from among three modes according to driving conditions:"EV Drive" for starting and cruising on electric energy stored in the battery, "Hybrid Drive" for acceleration by using the motor with electricity generated by the engine, "Engine Drive" for high-speed cruising with the engine and axle directly connected so that the engine power is mechanically transferred to the wheels|
|The i-MMD system starts up in "EV" mode and automatically switches between "EV" and "Hybrid" modes during low- to medium-speed cruising. It switches between "Engine" and "EV" modes during high-speed cruising.|
|The system on the Accord PHV is the same as the HV except for the 6.7kWh lithium-ion battery that delivers EV drive range of 37.6km. Most part of the daily driving can be done in "EV Drive" mode. The PHV model sold in Japan will have an available compact inverter for external charging.|
|Three-motor system (on Acura RLX/NSX, Honda Legend)||Called "SPORT HYBRID Super Handling-All Wheel Drive (SH-AWD)" by Honda. The combination of a V6 engine and the high-output three-motor system realizes acceleration performance equivalent to that of a V8 engine along with fuel efficiency better than that of an inline four-cylinder engine.|
|The front wheels of the Acura RLX are driven by a newly-developed V6 3.5-liter direct injection engine combined with a seven-speed DCT with a newly-developed built-in motor. Two motors are installed in the rear to control torque distribution to the right and left rear wheels independently for a sharp cornering performance.|
|A similar hybrid system is used on the next Acura NSX model. The mid-ship engine layout of the Acura NSX requires the engine and a motor to drive the rear wheels and two motors to drive the front wheels (reversed layout from that of the Acura RLX).|
|(Notes) 1.||The DCT and control technologies in the one-motor and three-motor hybrid systems were jointly developed by Honda and a German company, Schaeffler Technologies.|
|2.||The Civic comes between the one-motor and two-motor systems in terms of the vehicle size. The next Civic model reportedly will have the two-motor system of higher fuel economy that justifies higher cost.|
Honda: Launching three types of HV systems
|(Models produced or to be produced exclusively outside Japan are listed on a separate table "Honda's overseas production of HV/EV" below)|
|HV||Insight ((1) in table below)||2009|
|Fit (1, 2)||2010||New Fit|
|New Civic (exclusive model for outside Japan)||US, 2011|
|Freed (incl. Spike)|
|Acura RLX (4)||Launch in U.S.|
|Successor model to the Legend (4)||Launch in Japan|
|PHV||Accord (3)||Launched in U.S. and Japan|
|EV||Fit EV||Launched in U.S. and Japan|
|Micro Commuter Concept (5)||Demonstration test in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures|
(Note) The year under "-2012" is the year of launch. Models launched in 2012 are identified by "Launched."
|(Table 1) Launched in China||The Honda Civic HV has been sold in China (by Dongfeng Honda). In 2012, Honda added the Insight (by Dongfeng Honda), CR-Z and Fit HV (by Guangqi Honda) and the Acura ILX (on Acura sales channel). Honda now has a lineup of five hybrid models in China.|
|(2) All-new Fit HV||The all-new Fit HV was launched in September 2013. Its starting price is set at JPY 1,635,000, cheaper than the Toyota Aqua that is sold for JPY 1,690,000. The Fit series including the gasoline-fueled versions received more than 62,000 orders in one month after the market launch, four folds more than the planned monthly sales quantity (15,000 units). Nearly 70% of them were for hybrid versions.|
|The Fit-based hybrid SUVis expected to reach markets in November 2013. This will be followed by the all-wheel drive Fit HV in December.|
|(3) Accord HV/PHV||The all-new Accord HV/PHV were released in Japan in June 2013 (the gasoline-fueled version is not sold in Japan). The hybrid model delivers fuel economy of 30.0km/liter on JC08 mode (compared to 23.4km/liter of Toyota Camry). The plug-in hybrid model has achieved EV-mode drive range of 37.6km and plug-in hybrid fuel efficiency (combined fuel efficiency) of 70.4km/liter. The Accord HV/PHV are produced at the Sayama plant in Japan. The system details are described above.|
|(4) Acura RLXand all-new Legend||The Acura RLX is the name of the next model of the RL (known as the Legend in Japan) that is the highest grade under the Acura brand. The Acura RLX with the three-motor hybrid system will be released in the U.S. in the second half of 2013. It will also be sold as the all-new Legend in Japan in 2014. The next Legend model will be produced at the Sayama plant in Japan together with the Acura RLX that will be sold in the U.S.|
|(5) Micro Commuter||The ultra-micro electric vehicles are allowed only in specific areas designated by the government. Honda is starting demonstration tests in the fall of 2013 in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures (announced in June 2013). Honda will provide eleven two-seater vehicles in the fiscal year ending March 2014 and twenty more in the fiscal year ending 2015 to examine the marketability of its ultra-micro electric vehicles.|
Honda's overseas production of HV/EV
|HV||Acura ILX ((1) in table below)||Production in U.S.|
|Launched in China|
|(Production in China) (4)||Production in China around 2016|
|(1) Acura ILX||Honda has been producing the gasoline-fueled Acura ILX and HV at the Indiana plant in the U.S. since April 2012. The hybrid model is fitted with a 1500cc petrol engine and a one-motor IMA system. This marks Honda's first production of hybrid vehicles outside Japan.|
|The Acura ILX was exhibited at the Guangzhou Motor Show in China in November 2012. It was also released for sale in China.|
|(2) Accord HV||The U.S. version of the Accord HV is produced at the Ohio plant in the U.S. starting in the summer of 2013 and released for sale in the fall. Its main components will be imported from Japan. Honda has announced the vehicle's EPA city fuel economy to be 50 mpg (compared to 51 mpg of the U.S. version of the Toyota Prius and 43 mpg of the Camry HV).|
|(3) Acura NSX||The all-new Acura NSX is being developed at Honda R&D Americas in Ohio, the U.S. Honda is investing approximately USD 70 million to build a new NSX exclusive plant in an adjacent site. Production at the new plant, Performance Manufacturing Center, will start in 2015 with the perfect blend of associate craftsmanship and new technologies.|
|The new model will feature the newly-developed Sport Hybrid SH-AWD, an AWD system in which the two front wheels are driven independently by two motors.|
|(4) Production of HV in China||Honda announced a goal to start hybrid vehicle production in China within three years (announced in June 2013). The company will organize local suppliers of battery, motors and other key components to reduce costs and offer hybrid vehicles to customers at an affordable price. Details of the production models and manufacturing plants are yet to be finalized.|
|A small lot production of electric vehicles was to begin at the end of 2012. This plan, however, has been postponed due to the recent Japan-China relations and the need of developing charging infrastructure.|
Mitsubishi: Production of Outlander PHV resumed in August 2013
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (MMC) launched a mini truck EV in January 2013.
MMC also launched the plug-in hybrid Outlander in Japan in the same month. The PHV is powered by the Plug-in Hybrid EV System powertrain derived from the company's lineup of electric vehicles.
In March 2013, MMC reported a disorder of a melted lithium-ion battery cell in an Outlander PHV while sitting in a dealership. Production of the PHV was suspended for five months for investigation into the cause of melting and recall of the vehicles already in their customers' possession. Production resumed in mid-August. Because of the high reputation of the vehicle's environmental performance, MMC reportedly had an order backlog of 18,000 units around the world at the time of resumed production despite the reported disorder. The production of the Outlander PHV was resumed with a monthly quantity of 2,000 units. MMC plans to double the quantity to 4,000 units by May 2014.
Endorsed by the popularity of the Outlander PHV, MMC aspires to make PHV version available with the entire lineup of its SUVs.
Mitsubishi: EV-derived Outlander PHV
|EV||i-MiEV||Japan in 2009, North America in 2011|
|MINICAB-MiEV Truck (1)||Launched|
(Note) The year under "-2012" is the year of launch. Models launched in 2012 are identified by "Launched."
|(Table 1) MINICAB-MiEV Truck||The mini truck EV, MINICAB-MiEV Truck, was released for sale in January 2013 to follow the mini commercial van EV, MINICAB-MiEV Van, that was put on sale in November 2011. The EV truck has a cargo space and payload of 350kg, equivalent to that of the gasoline-fueled truck on which the truck was based. The truck is sold with the actual cost of approximately JPY 1.4 million after the application of government subsidy.|
|MMC announced that the production of the MINICAB Van/Truck would be discontinued before the end of 2013. These models will be replaced by vans and trucks which will be supplied by Suzuki. MMC will continue development, production and sale efforts of the MINICAB-MiEV Van/Truck.|
|(2) Dignity||The Dignity is a hybrid-only model which is supplied by Nissan (known as the Cima in Japan).|
|(3) Outlander PHV||MMC launched the Outlander PHV in the Japanese market in January 2013 with plans of its global launch in phases to Europe and North America. Powered by the Plug-in Hybrid EV System (PHEV), the PHV was developed especially for the mid-sized or larger passenger car category with high demand for a long-distance travel. The PHV has an EV-mode range of 60.2km (JC08 mode) along with a total cruising range of 897km (JC08 mode) including engine generation and drive. The model is sold for JPY 3,324,000 to JPY 4,297,000 (consumption tax inclusive).|
|The EV-based PHV powertrain comprises a 2000cc petrol engine, two motors, generator and a high-capacity 12kWh lithium-ion battery. The Twin Motor AWD System drives the front wheels with the engine and the front-wheel drive motor, and the rear wheels with the rear-wheel drive motor. The system has no mechanical connections such as the propeller-shaft. The Outlander PHV has plug-in hybrid fuel efficiency (combined fuel efficiency) of 67km/liter (on JC08 mode).|
|One of the three drive modes is selected automatically: (1) EV drive mode to drive the vehicle by motors alone using electricity stored in the battery; (2) Series hybrid mode to operate the engine to generate electricity and use the electricity to drive the car by motors alone; (3) Parallel hybrid mode for high-speed cruising in which the high-efficiency engine provides most of the power and is assisted by motors for acceleration and uphill climb. No transmission mechanism is used since the engine operation is limited to high-speed cruising.|
(Note) MMC will exhibit two PHV concept cars at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show. The MITSUBISHI Concept GC-PHEV (GC stands for Grand Cruiser) showcases the next-generation large-sized SUV, the Pajero. The MITSUBISHI Concept XR-PHEV (XR stands for crossover Runner) represents the next-generation compact SUV.
Suzuki: Expanding ENE-CHARGE model lineup
In 2012, the Smart Simple Hybrid model was made available with Suzuki's Landy, a model suplied by Nissan (known as the Serena in Japan). Serena. In addition, the deceleration energy regeneration mechanism, ENE-CHARGE, was made available on the Wagon R. Suzuki is expanding the ENE-CHARGE model lineup.
Suzuki: Expanding the ENE-CHARGE micro HV availability
|Micro HV||Vehicles with "ENE-CHARGE"||Wagon R Launched||Spacia, MR Wagon, Swift Launched|
|PHV||Swift (2)||Development suspended|
|(Table 1) Landy||Suzuki has been receiving supplies from the Nissan Serena since 2007 and selling them as the Suzuki Landy. In August 2012, the Landy with the Smart Simple Hybrid System, the same system as that on the Serena, was made available.|
|(2) Swift PHV||Suzuki has been conducting a driving test of the Swift PHV since the fall of 2010. The test vehicle announced at the start of the test had a series plug-in hybrid powertrain with 2.66kWh lithium-ion battery by Sanyo and a 660cc petrol engine.|
|Suzuki reportedly was to release a limited quantity of the Swift PHV for sale in the summer of 2013. But the development of the current Swift-based PHV was suspended because of the price and performance considerations. Suzuki will continue development efforts of the technologies for electrified vehicles. The Swift is slated for remodeling in 2016. The availability of electrified vehicles with the all-new model will be determined upon reviewing the progress of technical development and market trends.|
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