Toyota aggressively adds all-new models to HV lineup

The next-generation Prius has significantly improved fuel economy and lowered costs



  This report describes Toyota Motor Corporation’s launch plans for hybrid vehicles (HV), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHV) and electric vehicles (EV). A brief summary of HV plans of Daihatsu, FHI, an Mazda is also presented as the end of this report.  Toyota’s global hybrid vehicle (HV) sales topped the millionth mark for the first time reaching 1,219,000 units, which accounted for 14% of its total vehicle sales. Toyota plans to launch eighteen new HV models from April 2013 to the end of 2015, and to further increase the hybrid models both in its lineup.
  Toyota developed the new-generation hybrid powertrains featuring a lightweight, compact hybrid system with lower costs. This system will contribute to further 10% improvement in fuel economy. The new powertrains will be fitted on HVs starting from the fourth-generation Prius to be launched in 2015.

The Lexus LF-NX Concept
The Lexus LF-NX Concept, a compact crossover
hybrid that debuted in the 2013 Frankfurt motor
show and slated for market launch in 2014.
The Lexus IS300h
The Lexus IS300h, the first HV model of the IS Series,
targeted mainly for the European market
(exhibited at the 2013 Frankfurt motor show)

Toyota sold 1.2 million HVs worldwide in 2012

 Toyota sold 678,000 HVs in the home market in 2012, more than doubling the number sold in the previous year. As a result, HVs accounted for over 40% of Toyota's vehicle sales in Japan. The combined sales of Prius and the Aqua amounted to 584,000 units, which accounted for 86% of hybrid vehicle sales in Japan.

 Additionally, Toyota's overseas sales increased by 73% to 540,000 units. Its global sales increased by 94% to 1,219,000 units, topping the million units mark for the first time.

Toyota's HV sales in Japan

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Jan.-Jun.
Total sales in Japan 1,580,232 1,455,355 1,365,660 1,556,205 1,185,858 1,673,946 798,436
HV sales
thereof: Prius
thereof: Aqua
Ratio of HVs 5.1% 7.1% 18.4% 25.2% 26.6% 40.5% 41.3%
Source: Japan Automobile Dealers Association, Japan Light vehicle and Motorcycle Association
(Notes) 1. Domestic vehicle sales volume include mini vehicles as follows: 6,308 units  in 2011, 43,259 units in 2012, and 20,560 units in the first half of 2013.
2. The combined sales volume of the Prius and  Aqua was  264,704 units for  January through June 2013 accounting for 80.3% of Toyota's hybrid vehicle sales.

Toyota's HV sales volume in the world

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Overseas 347,400 325,300 278,900 297,900 312,600 541,000
Worldwide 429,400 429,700 530,100 690,100 628,900 1,219,000

Source: Toyota's press release dated April 17, 2013



Introducing 18 new HV models from April 2013 to the end of 2015

 Toyota plans to launch eighteen new hybrid vehicles from April 2013 to the end of 2015. The new models will be introduced to further increase the lineup.

 According to Toyota, hybrid vehicles have entered a new phase of market penetration. Toyota expects further market penetration of hybrid vehicles and forecasts that the hybrid vehicles will represent over 50% of vehicle sales in an environmentally-conscious country.

 Additionally, Toyota has developed a four-cylinder 2500cc petrol engine exclusively for hybrid powertrain that has realized thermal efficiency of 38.5%. The company plans to further improve the fuel economy.

Toyota's HV/EV launch policy

18 new models
 Toyota is launching eighteen new HV models from April 2013 to the end of 2015. The company intends to expand its hybrid lineup by vigorously introducing totally new models.
2AR-FSE engine
 Toyota developed a 2500cc four-cylinder inline 2AR-FSE petrol engine featuring D-4S new-generation fuel injection system. The engine is mounted on the Crown Athlete/Royal and Lexus IS 300h. The engine will also be installed on the GS300h and LF-NX Concept slated for market launch in the near future. The D-4S system uses a combination of both direct and intake port injectors for each cylinder. Injectors are switched to maximize the combustion efficiency based on the vehicle’s driving conditions.
 The 2AR-FSE engine has achieved the highest thermal efficiency at 38.5%. "Thermal efficiency" is the ratio of the amount of heat output used to produce power (fuel directly contributing to the actual driving distance)in the total thermal energy provided for engine operation (actually used amount of fuel ). Increasing the ratio has direct impact on the fuel economy. (The maximum thermal efficiency of a petrol engine is usually said to be about 30%.)



Adopting new-generation hybrid system starting with next Prius

Introducing the next-generation hybrid powertrain

The next Prius model to be introduced in 2015 will have a new-generation hybrid powertrain.
Toyota will adopt significantly improved battery, electric motor, and gasoline engine to make the new powertrain
lighter in weight, smaller in size and lower in cost, resulting in 10% higher fuel economy than the present powertrain.
Fuel economy  The second- and third-generation Prius each achieved about 10% higher fuel economy compared with that of their immediate predecessors. A further 10% improvement is expected for the fuel economy of the fourth-generation Prius. The U.S. model will have fuel economy rating raised from the current "50 mpg combined" to about "55 mpg combined" when the new model reaches the market.
Evolution of battery  The next Prius will feature improved batteries with higher energy density.
 Toyota has stepped up its research and development of both nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. In addition, the company is developing new battery technologies such as solid state, lithium-air and even magnesium batteries.
Gasoline engine  Toyota already has a hybrid vehicle fitted with the 2AR-FSE engine with the 38.5% thermal efficiency. The next-generation Prius will have a gasoline engine that will boost that level to a world leading level of more than 40%.
Vehicle design  The next-generation Prius will be developed in accordance with initiatives under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA).

Source: Printed material distributed by Toyota at Frankfurt Motor Show 2013, Automotive News dated September 2, 2013
(Note) Toyota is concurrently developing the Prius plug-in hybrid (PHV) with the aim of increasing the all-electric cruising range and the ease of charging through the adoption of wireless charging system.


Hybrids available under all flagship models through all four dealer channels in Japan

 Toyota currently sells the Prius and Aqua HVs through all four dealer channels to maximize its HV sales in Japan. Hybrid versions will be made available for all flagship models under all channels to further strengthen the product appeal. The hybrid version will start with the Corolla series in 2013, followed by the Noah/Voxy and the Harrier which will be re-introduced in the market.

Hybrid models sold through "Toyota brand" dealers in Japan

Dealers Hybrid models sold in Japan
All Toyota dealers Prius Prius α Prius PHV Aqua SAI
Toyota channel Crown Majesta Crown Royal/Athlete Estima
Toyopet channel Alphard Harrier
Corolla channel Camry Estima Corolla Axio Fielder Noah
Netz channel Vellfire Voxy
Source: Toyota in the world
(Notes) 1. The Harrier and Noah/Voxy in blue will be launched in the fall of 2013 and thereafter.
2. Hybrids are available under all Lexus brand models other than the ISC (a coupe in the  IS series) and ISF (sporty version in the IS series).



Proactive launch of all-new hybrid models

 Toyota is refreshing the existing Crown Royal/Athlete hybrids within a year. The company is also bringing the Harrier hybrid back to the market.

 The Lexus IS300h, Corolla Axio/Fielder HV, and Crown Majesta are the new hybrid models, which Toyota added to the lineup recently. The Lexus GS300h, the RC-based hybrid, and LF-NX Concept-based hybrid are other all-new hybrids that will reach the market shortly.

 The hybrid versions accounted for 66% of the orders received within a month of release of the Crown Royal/Athlete (launched in January 2013). More than 70% of the orders for the Lexus IS Series  were hybrid versions (launched in May 2013).

Toyota: HV/PHV/EV launches and plans

(Models produced or to be produced outside of Japan exclusively are listed on a separate table "Toyota's overseas production of HV/EV" below)

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV Harrier((1) in table below) discontinued New model
Estima (Exclusive model in Japan) 2006
Lexus GS450h Launch
Lexus LS600h /LS600hL Launch
Crown Royal/Athlete(2) 2008 New model
Highlander (Exclusive model for outside Japan) 2005 Production
to US
Lexus RX450h 2009
3rd-generation Prius (3) 2009 4th-generation
Prius launch
Lexus HS250h 2009
SAI (Exclusive model in Japan) (4) 2009 Refreshed
Lexus CT200h 2011
Prius α 2011
Camry 2011
Alphard/Vellfire 2011
Aqua 2011
Lexus ES300h (Exclusive model for outside Japan) Launch
Lexus IS300h(5) Launch
Corolla Axio/Fielder(6) Launch
Crown Majesta(7) Launch
Voxy/Noah Launch
Lexus GS300h(8) Launch
Lexus RC based HV (9) Launch
Lexus LF-NX concept (10) Launch
FT-Bh concept 2nd half of the 2010s
PHV Prius based Launch (Japan/U.S./Europe)
NS4 concept About 2015
EV iQ-based EV Launch
Ultra-micro EV (11) Coms launch "i-Road"

(Note) 1. The year under "-2012" is the year of launch. Models launched in 2012 are identified by "Launch."

(Table 1) Harrier  Production of the second-generation Harrier, including the gasoline-fueled variant, was discontinued in the summer of 2012. Because of the lingering popularity in the market, Toyota will launch a new series of the Harrier including the HV version in the winter of 2013.
(2)Crown  The HV variant was the stand-alone model under the former Crown Series. The all-new Crown family has the Royal HV and the Athlete HV respectively.
 The all-new Crown Royal/Athlete were launched in December 2012 and their hybrid variants followed in early 2013. The  former hybrid system had a 3500cc engine but the new hybrid system has the newly-developed 2500cc engine. As a result, the fuel efficiency improved significantly from 14km/liter to 23.2km/liter. The hybrid variants accounted for 66% of the orders received within the first month of release. The addition of software has enabled six-speed sequential shiftmatic mode.
(3)Prius  Details on the next-generation Prius slated for launch in 2015 are found in a preceding section.
(4)SAI  The SAI was re-launched in August 2013. The SAI sold an average of only 380 units a month for January through August 2013 and therefore was freshened to bolster up sales. The modification of the hybrid system control and other changes increased JC08 mode fuel efficiency from 21.0km/liter to 22.4km/liter.
(5)IS300h  The Lexus IS Series models were fully redesigned and the IS300h hybrid variant was introduced in May 2013. By combining the 2.5-liter four-cylinder inline Atkinson-cycle engine featuring a D-4S injection system and the 105kW motor, the new model has achieved fuel efficiency of 23.2km/liter on JC08 mode. The hybrid variant accounted for over 70% (5,500 units) of the orders (7,600 units) received within the first month of release.
 The hybrid variant was introduced to compete with European cars. The CO2 emissions have been reduced to 98g/km in European test mode becoming the first car in the class to mark the two-digit result (100g/km in Japan's MLIT tests). The former Lexus IS series consisted of petrol and diesel models. The new lineup comprises petrol and hybrid models instead. According to Toyota, a hybrid vehicle could beat the diesel counterparts in terms of performance and price when the fuel efficiency in high-speed cruising is improved.
(6)Corolla  A hybrid variant was added to the Corolla Axio/Fielder in August 2013. Fitted with the 1.5-liter hybrid system which is also used in the smaller-sized Aqua hybrid, the Corolla hybrid has JC08 fuel efficiency of 33.0km/ liter (falling between the Aqua's 35.4km/liter and the Prius' 32.6km/liter). The Axio sedan has the starting price of JPY 1,925,000, again falling between the Aqua's JPY 1,690,000 and the Prius' JPY 2,170,000.
(7)Crown Majesta  The all-new hybrid-only model was launched in September 2013. It is fitted with the 3.5-liter V6 Atkinson-cycle engine with D-4S new-generation direct injection system, nickel metal hydride battery, and a 147kW motor. The JC08 fuel efficiency has more than doubled from that of the previous model to 18.2km/liter.
(8)Lexus GS300h  The model made European debut in the Frankfurt motor show held in September 2013. Unlike the GS450h featuring a combination of the 3500cc V6 engine and an electric motor, the GS300h is fitted with the downsized 2500cc four-cylinder engine and an electric motor (shared with Crown Royal/Athlete HV, Lexus IS300h). The GS300h is said to be targeting European markets. It has European combined fuel efficiency of 21.3km/liter and CO2 emissions of 109g/km. It is slated for 2013-end launch.
(9) RC-based HV  A Lexus RC coupe series is likely to be unveiled at the 2013 Tokyo Motor Show (sharing the platform with the GS/CS hybrid and gasoline models, and a 3500cc V6 engine with the Gs/CS gasoline model ). The series will have hybrid variants and be released for sale in Japan and Europe.
(10) Lexus LF-NX concept  The model made its world premiere at the Frankfurt motor show in September 2013. The premium compact crossover with 4,640mm overall length, which is smaller than the RX (4,770mm). The model is to be the first Lexus in this segment. It is fitted with the same hybrid system as the GS300h combining the 2500cc engine with an electric motor. The model built on the RAV4 platform will be produced at the Kyushu plant and reach the market in 2014.
(11) Ultra-micro EV  Toyota exhibited Toyota i-Road Personal Mobility Concept, an ultra-micro electric vehicle concept, at the Geneva motor show in March 2013. The tandem two-seater electric three-wheeler is designed to give motorcycle-like maneuverability. It also contributes to  congestion mitigation and respond to shortage of parking space in cities. The Toyota i-Road runs 50km per charge.
 Starting at the end of 2014, Toyota and a French City of Grenoble will conduct a joint demonstration test of ultra-compact urban EV car-sharing. The vehicle is tested for the so-called "last mile" mobility needs between the nearest station and the travel destination. Toyota will offer 70 units of "COMS" that are already being sold in Japan and "i-Road-based ultra-compact electric vehicles" in total.

(Note) More information on "FT-Bh Concept" and "Concept Car NS4" will be found in MarkLines report on Toyota's HV/EV posted in August 2012 at



HV/EV production to start in China around 2015

 Toyota began producing the Avalon HV last year at the Kentucky plant in the United States. The company plans to start producing HV/EV in China in 2015 or thereabouts. In addition, Toyota established a joint-venture company in China for producing nickel metal hydride batteries.

 The joint project with Ford Motor Company for developing pickup trucks that dates back to 2011 was discontinued in the summer of 2013. Toyota was to produce the next-generation Prius for North American markets which had been slated for launch in 2015 at the earliest. But the plan was postponed due to the correction of the superstrong yen.

Toyota: Overseas production of HV/EV

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV Camry US, 2006
Thailand, 2009
China, 2010
Full-sized pickup  to be developed jointly with Ford ((1) in table below) Discontinued
Highlander (exclusive model for outside Japan) US
Lexus RX450h (2) Canada
Prius (3, 4) Thailand, 2010 Production
in US
China, 2011
Auris (exclusive model for outside Japan) UK, 2010
Yaris (exclusive model for outside Japan) France
Avalon (5) US
China-only HV (6) China, around 2015
EV RAV4 EV Canada
China-only EV (6) China, around 2015

(Note) The year and country name under "-2012" indicates the starting year and country of production. Only the country name is given for production that started in 2012.

(1) Pickup  In August 2011, Toyota and Ford had agreed for joint development of hybrid systems for light-duty trucks and SUV. The two companies since then had been discussing technical details and business feasibilities. But they failed to correct divergence in opinions regarding the design of key components and selection of suppliers. They decided to discontinue further talks in July 2013.
 A number of reasons may have led to the decision: Ford has become confident about its hybrid technologies. Ford is taking a firm attitude toward Japan at the TPP talks such as demanding an extension of the 25% import duty on pickup trucks. Demand for full-sized pickup trucks is recovering on account of shale gas revolution.
(2) RX450h  Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc. (TMMC) invested USD 100 million in its Cambridge plant to increase its production capacity for the RX350 by 30,000 units to 104,000 per year. The new facility will start production in early 2014. In addition, the plant will start producing 15,000 units of the RX450h a year.
(3)Prius (US)  Toyota's fourth-generation Prius for North American markets, including the key hybrid system components, was planned to be produced in North America. But the plan was postponed because of several reasons: Priority was placed on maintaining the 3 million vehicles production a year in Japan as a result of the correction of superstrong yen. The Mississippi plant was supposed to produce the Prius, but is tied up with the production of the Corolla. This indicates that Toyota's plants in the United States have no extra capacity for producing 100,000 units of the Prius per year. Additionally, a new production structure would be necessary for producing key hybrid components including batteries in particular.
 Four models of hybrid vehicles, namely the Toyota Highlander, Camry, Avalon and Lexus RX, are produced or to be produced in North America. Key components such as batteries and motors are shipped from Japan.
(4) Prius(China)  Toyota is currently engaged in knockdown production of the Prius in China. The company will start production using locally produced key components (batteries, etc.) in 2015 at the earliest.
(5) Avalon  A hybrid model was added to the Avalon and has been produced at the Kentucky plant in the United States. The hybrid model is fitted with a 2500cc engine and an electric motor. Its EPA fuel efficiency is 40 mpg city/39 mpg highway/40 mpg combined.
(6) China-only HV/EV  Yundong Shuangqing, Toyota's hybrid vehicle developed exclusively for Chinese markets, was exhibited at the 2012 Auto China in Beijing. Following that, the Yundong Shuangqing II was exhibited at the Auto Shanghai in May 2013. The Yundong Shuangqing will be fitted with hybrid system components (including drive batteries) which are developed by Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing (China) Co., Ltd R&D Center. It will reach the market in or about 2015. Toyota also plans to produce and sell electric vehicles.
 Under joint business with First Automotive Works (FAW), Toyota will launch a Toyota-branded hybrid passenger car and FAW-branded electric sedan, the Ranz, around 2015. Under joint business with Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group (GAIG), Toyota is also likely to launch a Toyota-branded hybrid passenger car and an electric hatchback model carrying GAC Toyota's own brand.
 In May 2013, Toyota established a new joint-venture company, for producing nickel metal hydride battery for on-board use, with Hunan Corun New Enrgy Co., Ltd., a battery manufacturer located in Hunan Province, China. The company purchased the on-board nickel metal hydride battery business from Panasonic in 2011. The Chinese government is demanding all foreign automakers engaged in HV/EV production to produce at least one of the following three components; batteries, motors or control units at their joint-venture companies in China.



Other automakers' HV plans: Daihatsu, FHI (Subaru) and Mazda

 Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. has launched the Mebius (Prius α provided by Toyota) following the Camry hybrid-based Altis.

 Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd.(FHI) already launched and Mazda Motor Corporation will launch their hybrid vehicles in 2013 in cooperation with Toyota.

Daihatsu: Mebius (Toyota Prius α)

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV Altis(Camry HV) Launch
Mebius(Prius α) Launch

Fuji Heavy Industries: XV HV

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV XV (Note 1) Launch
(Notes) 1. In June 2013, FHI launched in Japan an HV based on the small-sized XV SUV in Japan. The HV will be launched in North American markets as well after the fall of 2013. The XV hybrid is fitted with the exclusively-developed 2000cc horizontally-opposed petrol engine and special Lineartronic CVT transmission integrating a motor. The rear wheels are driven via propeller-shaft benefitting from Subaru's All Wheel Drive (AWD) system technology. The hybrid vehicle has JC08 fuel efficiency of 20km/liter.
2. FHI is currently developing an AWD type hybrid (rear wheels driven by motors) and a front-wheel drive type hybrid vehicle.
2-1. The hybrid system with the motor-driven rear wheels was exhibited as the VIZIV Concept at 2013 Geneva motor show. The system has three motors in which two drive the rear wheels and one drives the front wheels. The vehicle does not have a propeller-shaft.
2-2. The front-wheel drive type is similar to the VIZIV Concept but without the motors that drive the rear wheels. It is intended in particular for the southern part of the largest market, North America, where snowfall is minimal and an AWD system is less needed but an affordably-priced hybrid system of high fuel efficiency is in demand.

Mazda: Axela HV to be launched toward the end of 2013

-2012 2013 2014 2015 2016-
HV Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid 2009
Axela HV (Note 1) Launch
EV Demio EV Launch (lease-sales)
EV for the U.S. market U.S. launch by 2018
(Notes) 1. With the cooperation of Toyota, Mazda will launch a hybrid sedan fitted with the 2000cc new-generation SKYACTIV engine toward the end of 2013. The vehicle is expected to have JC08 fuel efficiency of 30km/liter or higher. Mazda was once selling the Tribute hybrid jointly developed with Ford but discontinued in 2010.
2. Mazda is likely to launch electric vehicles, in 2013 at the earliest, fitted with a small hydrogen rotary engine that will function as an auxiliary generator. Mazda plans to more than double the cruising range from the conventional electric vehicles. The model names, launch schedules and other details are not known.
3. In July 2013, the status of Mazda's "Electric Drive System Development Office" was promoted from the department to division level. The decision was made to integrate the electric drive technology development activities under a single function, whose function had previously been divided in several departments.

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