SAE 2012 World Congress (1): OEMs' exhibits
Get connected; Ford Focus EV and Honda Fit EV displayed
The SAE 2012 World Congress was held on April 24 to 26, 2012, in Detroit, USA. This report summarizes the exhibition of new technology and new vehicles by six OEMs (Ford, Chrysler, GM, Nissan, Honda, and Hyundai).
This year's theme is "Get connected" - "Connect" literally means the connection of vehicles with infrastructure, the Internet, and smart grid, which promote the automotive industry , and also means that presentations of technology and vehicles at the SAE are important to "connect" engineers who develop new-generation technology for vehicles. At this SAE, there were six OEMs exhibited--the same number of OEMs as in 2010 and 2011. However, the number of suppliers that displayed declined substantially from about 140 last year to about 100. There used to be about 300 exhibition booths before Lehman's fall.
Exhibition by six OEMs is as follows: (in no particular order).
Note: "hwy" means EPA fuel economy under the highway driving program. "mpg" means miles per gallon.
Ford exhibits Focus EV and Mustang
Ford showcased the Focus EV, for which it started taking orders in three states - California, New York, and New Jersey - at the end of 2011. The company also exhibited a new-generation Fusion PHV version dubbed "Fusion Energi", which is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of 2013. When MyFord®Mobile, which is a smartphone application that is developed by Ford and Microsoft, is used, the driver can get the charging status of battery of the Focus EV/the Fusion Energi and the time and distance to nearby charging stations for EVs.
|New Fusion Energi (front) and Ford Focus EV||Summary of MyFord®Mobile - an application that helps the driver to get information, including the charging status of EV (enlarge).|
Ford EcoBoost Engine
Each OEM is currently working on the development of the "downsized engine", which produces enough torque with small displacement with turbocharger and which reduces friction and mechanical loss. Ford names its downsized new engine the EcoBoost Engine and is currently increasing the ratio of models, to which the EcoBoost Engine is available, to 90％ in North America (80% worldwide） by 2013.
At this SAE, Ford exhibited a mockup of the 1.6-liter EcoBoost Engine, which is to be used in the 2013MY Fusion that will be launched in 2012. The EcoBoost Engine employs technology that achieves high output and low fuel consumption, featuring direct-injection, turbocharger, DOHC, and a variable intake/exhaust valve timing mechanism.
1.6-liter turbo EcoBoost Engine
Ford's EcoBoost Engine and major models that use it
|1.0-liter I3 EcoBoost||1.6-liter I4 EcoBoost||2.0-liter I4 EcoBoost||3.5 V6 EcoBoost||(Reference)|
|Major models that use EcoBoost Engine||Focus (Europe)||2013 Fusion||Taurus Edge||Flex, F150 Taurus SHO Explorer Sport||Toyota Camry 2.5L I4|
|Spec.||DI 4-valve DOHC 1.0L||DI 4-valve DOHC 1.6L||DI 4-valve DOHC 2.0L||DI 4-valve DOHC 2.5L||4-valve DOHC 2.5L|
|Variable valve timing mechanism||Intake and exhaust VCT||Intake and exhaust VCT||Intake and exhaust VCT||Intake and exhaust VCT||Intake and exhaust VVT|
|Max. output||120ps||179hp||240hp||355hp(Flex) 365hp(SHO)||178hp|
|Fuel economy (city/highway) (Estimated)||26/37mpg||22/32mpg (Taurus)||17/25mpg (Taurus SHO)||25/35 mpg|
VCT: variable camshaft timing VVT: variable valve timing
Ford Mustang BOSS302
In 1969, Ford produced a high-performance version of the Mustang sports car - Boss302. Last year, Ford launched a model with the same model name - the Mustang BOSS302. At this SAE, Ford showcased the model and its engine. The naturally-aspirated 5.0-liter V8 engine features 4 valves and 4 camshafts and redlines at 7500rpm. The maximum output is 444hp, which is higher than other Mustang models. "302" means the engine displacement in cubic inches, which is equivalent to 4,951cc.
|Undersurface of Ford Mustang BOSS302||A 5-liter V8 engine to be used in Mustang BOSS302|
CHRYSLER exhibits DODGE DART and an engine mockup
Chrysler showcased the 2013MY Dodge Dart, which is scheduled to be launched in the summer of 2012. The Dart is a compact sedan that shares the platform with Fiat's Alfa Romeo Giulietta. The model uses an LED tail lamp and features a luxurious interior and exterior design including a large LC panel on the instrumental panel, though it is a compact car. Three engines, namely 1.4-liter inter-cooled turbo, 2.0-liter and 2.4-liter engines, are available with 6-speed AT, 6-speed MT, and 6-speed DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission). On the intake side of the 1.4-liter turbo engine and the 2.4-liter engine, MultiAir (an electro-hydraulic variable valve-lift system technology that Fiat developed) is used in order to improve fuel economy and output and to reduce CO2 emissions.
|The 2013MY Dodge Dart, which is scheduled to be launched in the summer of 2012||Dodge Dart (rear view)|
|A 2.40-liter Tigershark engine (187hp/171lb-ft) with MultiAir, which is used in the Dodge Dart|
Chrysler also exhibited the mockup of an 8-speed AT for FR vehicles, which is used in the 2012MY 300C, which was remodeled last year. The 8-speed AT dubbed the TorqueFlite 8 is developed by Chrysler and ZF. In the US, Chrysler and ZF produce the transmission at each company's plant to supply to Chrysler. Chrysler also plans to use the transmission in RAM light trucks starting this year.
An 8-speed AT, which is used in the 300C
GM exhibits 4G (LTE) CHEVY VOLT Research Vehicle
GM's subsidiary, OnStar, exhibited the Chevy VOLT, which is connected to the 4G high-speed data network of the US-based cellular phone company, Verizon. Using this system, passengers in the rear seat can connect to the Internet while the car is running, chat on Skype video phone, or remote-control home appliances such as air conditioner at home from within the vehicle. OnStar says that the VOLT with 4G (LTE) connection, which is exhibited in this show, is at the research stage and its commercialization is not yet decided.
|Chevy VOLT with 4G (LTE) connection||The interior of the VOLT|
Nissan exhibits charging equipment for the LEAF at a joint booth with GE
Nissan is the organizer of this year's SAE World Congress. Nissan displayed at a large joint booth with GE the LEAF EV, charging equipment, and other products.
DC (Direct Current) rapid charging equipment
Currently, there are two types of rapid charging equipment for EVs and the connector of each type is different and is not compatible. Under the CHAdeMo charging standards, which Japanese OEMs mainly adopt, a special DC (Direct Current) connector for rapid charging is used apart from the standard AC (Alternating Current) charging connector. On the other hand, under the COMBO charging standards, in which eight European and US OEMs - GM, Ford, Chrysler, VW, Daimler, BMW, Audi, and Porsche - participate, one connector is used for rapid DC charging and standard AC charging. Nissan says that the integration of connectors of the CHAdeMO and the COMBO standards will accelerate the use of rapid DC chargers.
Nissan showcased its DC rapid charger and a rapid charger made by Aerovironment (US-based manufacturer of charging equipment for EVs). It takes about 30 minutes to charge the battery of the LEAF 80% with these DC rapid chargers. The charging output and the price of Nissan's product is 44kW (100 A/m) and $10,000, respectively, while those of Aerovironment's one is 50kW and $45,000, respectively. Nissan was able to attract attention through comparable performance at less than one-fourth the price and with compact size.
|Compact rapid charger developed by Nissan||Explanatory diagram for DC charging connectors under the COMBO and the CHAdeMO standards (enlarge)|
Nissan independently developed a system that includes the Power Control System (6kW), in which, during a blackout, the large battery of the LEAF EV can act as a power source to supply electricity to home appliances for a short time. Nissan estimates that the average remaining battery level (about 12kWh) of the LEAF can be enough to supply electricity to home appliances for about a two to three-hour blackout.
|A system that supplies electricity to home appliances from the battery of the LEAF||Conceptual diagram of the EV/POWER SUPPLY system|
GE's AC battery charger for EVs
GE launched and displayed an AC charger for EVs. The charger is a public charger that targets shopping centers, hospitals, corporations, and street-parking lots. It adopts a retractable cord to minimize the size.
GE's AC charger for EVs. The cylindrical type on the right is for the public use, while the wall-mounted compact model on the left is a standard/household AC charger.
Honda exhibits Fit EV and a brake system for EVs
Honda exhibited a production model of the FIT EV, which it announced at the LA Auto Show last fall, and its brake system, and a hybrid system for a 2-motor PHV, which is among the "Earth Dreams Technology" - new-generation innovative technology that the company announced last year.
The FIT EV is a second-generation EV following the Honda EV Plus, which Honda started leasing in Japan and the US in 1997. The model is produced in Japan. Honda is scheduled to start leasing it in California and Oregon, on the West Coast of the US, around June and in New York State, on the East Coast, next year.
The production target is about 1,100 units over three years. EVs are often used as commuters in urban areas; Honda chose the compact FIT as a base of this EV. The model exhibited at this SAE, which is designed for the US, has only an AC connector, through which it takes three hours to fully charge the battery. Honda says that it will see the spread of rapid DC charging equipment in the US from now on and will consider adding such equipment if necessary.
Honda applies the technology for FCX Clarity, a fuel-cell EV, to FIT's gearbox coaxial motor (92kW) and power control unit. The FIT EV comes with a Li-ion battery (20kWh) made by Toshiba, which can be fully charged (240V) within three hours. The cruising range is 123 miles in city mode and 95 miles in highway mode. The maximum speed is 90mph (144km/h).
Honda collects data through a wireless network from leased FIT EVs on how EVs are actually used by customers in order to use the data for future development. Honda still has not decided to produce EVs overseas including the US in the future, but says that, taking costs into account, production in the US is one of the issues to be considered.
|Summary of "Earth Dreams Technology" (enlarge)||FIT EV and its drive system|
|FIT EV specifications (enlarge)|
Specifications of FIT EV and other major EV and PHEV
|HONDA FIT EV||NISSAN LEAF||CHEVY VOLT||TOYOTA PRIUS PHV|
|Fuel economy (mpg) city/hwy||116mpge (combined) Honda in-house data||106/92mpge EPA||93 (EV mode) 37 (Gasoline only) 60 (combined) EPA||95 (EV mode) 50 (combined)|
|Cruising range||123mile (city) 95mile (hwy)||73mile (EPA)||375 mile||Tank capacity 10.6 gal|
Electric servo brake system that is used in FIT EV
Honda displayed an electric servo brake system that is used in the FIT EV. The brake system of a gasoline-engine vehicle uses negative pressure of the engine to generate hydraulic pressure and to apply the brake. On the other hand, concerning EVs and HVs, there are cases where negative pressure cannot be used since there is no engine or the engine is not activated sometimes. EVs and HVs adopt a brake system that consists of a pump and a solenoid valve that generate hydraulic pressure, and "Pedal Feel Simulator", which makes the brake pedal feel closer to that of a gasoline-engine vehicle. Honda has adopted in the FIT EV a system in which a brake hydraulic pump is directly driven by an electric motor for the first time.
Since the electric motor is activated only when the brake pedal is pressed, it does not generate any noise while the vehicle is running. In addition, by adopting an electric motor, detailed control is possible including regenerative braking being fully engaged from the early stage of deceleration until just prior to a stop. Honda says that this has improved efficiency by about 5% compared to the current system. It will use this system in PHVs and electrically-controlled SH-AWD to be launched in the future in order to improve fuel efficiency.
|Mockup of electric servo brake system||Explanatory diagram of electric servo brake system (enlarge)|
A gearbox coaxial motor used in FIT EV
The FIT EV, which is scheduled to be launched this year, is equipped with a gearbox coaxial motor. This gearbox coaxial motor is smaller in width by 175mm than the current motor used in the 2003MY FCX (The Clarity FCX has also been equipped with the gearbox coaxial motor since 2008).
|A gearbox coaxial motor that is used in the FIT EV||Configuration diagram of a gearbox coaxial motor (enlarge)|
A hybrid system for 2-motor PHVs
Honda displayed a mockup of the engine and the electronically-controlled CVT of its 2-motor hybrid system. The carmaker adopts a large-capacity water-cooled EGR, which reduces NOx and pumping loss (improvement of fuel economy), in it's i-VTEC Atkinson-cycle 2.0-liter gasoline engine. The engine-powered water pump is switched to an electric water pump. The hybrid system consists of this i-VTEC Atkinson-cycle 2.0-lliter gasoline engine, and an electronically-controlled CVT, two electric motors (120kW), and a Li-ion battery (6kWh) made by Blue Energy; the cruising range is more than 500 miles (LA4 mode) and the maximum speed in EV mode is 62mph (100km/h). It takes 2 to 2.5 hours to charge the battery (120V) and 1.5 hours (240V).
Honda plans to use this 2-motor hybrid system in the 2013MY New Accord, which is remodeled in North America this year.
|The engine and the electronically-controlled CVT of the 2-motor hybrid system||Explanatory diagram of 2-motor hybrid system (enlarge)|
Hyundai exhibits EV and direct-injection engine
Hyundai's fuel-cell EV and Kia's RAY EV
Hyundai displayed a fuel-cell EV that is based on the Tucson, which it unveiled last year. The model comes with a fuel cell with output of 100kW and a Li-ion battery (180V/21kWh), and a motor (100kW). The cruising range is up to 406 miles; the maximum speed is 100mph (160km/h). The model has two hydrogen fuel tanks (700bar) with a total capacity of 5.64kg at the rear part of the vehicle and a Li-ion battery under the floor, and a fuel-cell power generation unit and a control unit under the bonnet hood.
Hyundai used a large-capacity capacitor for a fuel-cell EV before, but switched to a Li-ion battery. It also adopts aluminum body parts to reduce vehicle weight. The gasoline equivalent fuel economy is 70mpg. The model can be started at minus 25 degrees Celsius. Hyundai will make multiple test runs with plans to start commercial production in 2015.
|Hyundai Tucson fuel-cell EV||Features and specifications of Hyundai Tucson fuel-cell EV (enlarge)|
Kia showcased the RAY EV, which it launched in Korea at the beginning of this year. The RAY EV is based on the gasoline-powered RAY; it is Kia's first EV. The model comes with a 16.4kWh (330V) Li-polymer battery and a 50kW motor. The cruising range is 86 miles; the maximum speed is 81mph (130km/h). It takes six hours to charge the battery (220V). It takes about 25 minutes for quick charge.
|Kia RAY EV designed for Korea||Features and specifications of Kia RAY EV (enlarge)|
Hyundai exhibits energy-saving engines including diesel and direct-injection engines
Hyundai exhibited two engines that meet Euro6 emission standards, which it launched last year, and a 6-speed AT.
The R2.0L, 2.0-liter diesel engine, is a 16-valve DOHC engine that features a variable geometry turbocharger, two high-pressure and low-pressure EGRs, and DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and actuates cam through HLA (Hydraulic Lash Adjuster). In the low-torque range, only the high-pressure EGR is activated; in high-torque range, only the low-pressure EGR is activated. The R2.0L engine meets Euro6 emission standards, in which the NOx limit value is 56% stricter than that of Euro5. Commercial production of the engine is scheduled to begin in Korea and Slovakia. Hyundai also uses this system with two high-pressure and low-pressure EGRs in a 2.2-liter engine and a V6 3.0-liter engine.
|The R2.0L diesel engine||Specification of the R2.0L diesel engine|
|Operation system of high-pressure EGR and low-pressure EGR|
The 1.6-liter direct-injection gamma engine is a compact gasoline engine, winning the 2012 Ward's 10 Best Engines Award, used in the 2012MY Hyundai Accent and the Kia Rio in the US. The engine employs variable intake and exhaust timing mechanisms. The maximum output and maximum torque of this naturally-aspirated direct-injection 4-cylinder engine with variable induction system is 138hp and 123lb-ft (167Nm), respectively. The Hyundai Accent reduces air resistance with engine undercover, boasting fuel economy (city/hwy) of 30/40 mpg; the (hwy) fuel economy is improved by 18% from that of the former model. A 6-speed AT or a 6-speed MT is available for the Hyundai Accent. Either model is among the few passenger cars marketed in the US which boast fuel economy (hwy) of over 40mpg.
Hyundai says that its direct-injection engine is suitable for high-output, but that it would improve the engine by enhancing low-torque performance and fuel economy in the future. This 1.6-liter gamma engine is currently being produced at plants in Korea and Slovakia. Hyundai also plans to produce it in China.
The 1.6-liter gamma engine and transmission
Hyundai's 6-speed Dry Dual Clutch Transmission
Hyundai exhibited its newly-developed 6-speed Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT), which is used in the Hyundai Veloster in combination with the 1.6-liter direct-injection gamma engine. This dry DCT is produced in Korea and is used in models made in the US (the above-mentioned Veloster) and the Ceed that Kia manufactures in Europe. Hyundai says that the fuel economy is improved by 5 to 6% from the current torque-converter 6-speed AT.
A 6-speed Dual Clutch Transmission
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