OEM Investments in the U.S. in 2017

Investments focus on growing SUV demand as well as sustainability, mobility and autonomy



BMW US Manufacturing Plant.
BMW US Manufacturing Plant. Source: BMW

Throughout both the 2016 presidential election and his first year in office, President Trump criticized automakers including General Motors, Toyota and Ford for importing vehicles to the U.S. from Mexico. At the 2017 North American International Auto Show, the first major automotive exhibition since the 2016 presidential election, many automakers highlighted both their previous and potential future investments in the U.S. While this seemed to be a response to President Trump's rhetoric, details indicate that the investments are more likely to be due to shifting trends in the U.S. market and in the automotive industry.

This report provides an overview of investments taking place in the U.S. announced by OEMs in 2017, and a production forecast of automakers in the U.S.

Related Reports:
GM to concentrate resources on growth opportunities in North America and China (Oct. 2017)
Toyota's U.S. operations: full-scale release of Toyota brand TNGA and Lexus brand GA-L
(Sep. 2017)
Hyundai Motor: Launching the Genesis Luxury brand and Ioniq green car series (May 2017)
U.S. Market Analysis: Market share for SUVs hits 40% (Apr. 2017)

North American OEMs

Ford's Flat Rock Assembly Plant.
Ford's Flat Rock Assembly Plant. Source: Ford

Given GM, Ford and FCA's origins as American companies, the three automakers each have a developed network of manufacturing facilities within the U.S. All three companies are generally regarded as key players in automotive manufacturing in the country. This is reflected in the consistency and the number of announcements from the three automakers about their facilities. For example, all three OEMs announced U.S. investments of at least USD 700 million prior to the 2017 North American International Auto Show.

North American OEMs
Company Investments announced in 2017
General Motors USD 1 billion investment in U.S. manufacturing operations
In January 2017, GM announced a general USD 1 billion investment in U.S. manufacturing operations, directed towards new vehicle, advanced technology and component projects. Combined with the insourcing of IT jobs outside the U.S., the investment will contribute to the creation of 7,000 new jobs. This total includes a USD 27 million investment in Spring Hill Manufacturing in Tennessee for the assembly of the Holden Acadia exported to Australia and a USD 20 million investment in Bay City Powertrain in Michigan for cam rough machining operations for future engines.
Addition and retention of 900 jobs in Michigan
In March 2017, GM announced that it would add or retain 900 jobs across the following three Michigan facilities:
  • Romulus Powertrain Plant: 220 new jobs to increase production of 10-speed automatic transmissions for models including the 2017 Chevrolet Camaro ZL1
  • Flint Assembly Plant: 180 retained jobs by reorganizing employees from Lansing Delta Township to support production of the Chevrolet Silverado HD and GMC Sierra HD
  • Lansing Delta Township: 500 retained jobs to support production of the new Chevrolet Traverse and Buick Enclave
Arlington supplier park to add 850 new jobs
In June 2017, GM announced plans to create a supplier park that will begin operations in 2018 to support production at its Arlington Assembly Plant in Texas. The Arlington Assembly Plant builds the Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Suburban, GMC Yukon, GMC Yukon XL, and Cadillac Escalade. As of November 2017, the Arlington Assembly Plant is undergoing a USD 1.4 billion expansion to improve its competitive viability.
Ford Motor USD 900 million investment in Flat Rock Assembly Plant
In January 2017, Ford announced that it would invest USD 700 million to expand its Flat Rock Assembly Plant in Michigan, which would directly create 700 new jobs. The investment would prepare the plant to produce electric and autonomous vehicles, as well as the Ford Mustang and Lincoln Continental. In December 2017, Automotive News reported that Ford would invest an additional USD 200 million at the plant, adding 150 additional jobs. With the additional investment, the Flat Rock Assembly Plant will shift its focus away from battery-electric vehicles and instead aim to develop a hybrid autonomous vehicle as part of a commercial fleet for ride-sharing or package delivery purposes by 2021.
USD 1.2 billion investment across three Michigan facilities
In March 2017, Ford announced that it would invest USD 1.2 billion across the following three facilities in Michigan to expand its truck and SUV manufacturing capability and support its transition into mobility development:
  • Michigan Assembly Plant (Wayne): USD 850 million investment to retool the plant in preparation for production of the new Ford Ranger in 2018, and the new Ford Bronco in 2020.
  • Romeo Engine Plant: USD 150 million investment to create or retain 130 jobs and expand production capacity of engine components for several vehicles, including the upcoming new Ford Ranger and Ford Bronco.
  • Flat Rock Assembly Plant: USD 200 million investment to develop an advanced data center, Ford's second such facility in Michigan. The data center will support Ford's manufacturing and business operations, and its mobility services. Ford's first data center is located at its headquarters in Dearborn.
USD 350 million investment in Livonia Transmission Plant
In May 2017, Ford announced a USD 350 million investment at its Livonia Transmission Plant in Michigan to create or retain a total of 800 jobs. The investment will be used to support production of a new transmission for front-wheel-drive vehicles that will share software, design elements, and processes with the ten-speed transmission used in the 2017 F-150 Raptor.
USD 900 million investment in Kentucky Truck Plant
In June 2017, Ford announced that it would invest USD 900 million at its Kentucky Truck Plant in Louisville to retain 1,000 jobs. The investment will be used for upgrades to build the new Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator.
USD 5 million investment in American Center for Mobility
In September 2017, Ford announced that they would invest USD 5 million in the American Center for Mobility located in Ypsilanti Township, Michigan to support the development of a testing environment for connected, autonomous and mobility technologies.
Fiat Chrysler USD 1 billion investment across production facilities in Michigan and Ohio
In January 2017, FCA announced an investment totaling USD 1 billion as part of the second phase of an industrialization plan which began in January 2016. The plan restructures FCA's U.S. operations to utilize available production capacity to respond to a shift in demand for trucks and SUVs. Creating 2,000 new jobs, the investment will be used to retool and modernize the Warren Truck Assembly Plant in Michigan to produce the new Jeep Wagoneer and Grand Wagoneer. The investment will also retool and modernize the south plant of the Toledo Assembly Complex in Ohio to produce an all-new Jeep pickup.

Source: Company press releases, Automotive News


Asian OEMs

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky.
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky. Source: Toyota

Larger Asian automakers such as Toyota and Honda have had strong manufacturing presences in the U.S. and have generally invested more in the U.S. compared to other Asian OEMs on an annual basis. This was reflected in the announcements made by Asian automakers in 2017, which included a commitment of USD 10 billion by Toyota in the U.S. across five years. However, other OEMs with smaller manufacturing footprints in the U.S. have announced significant investments. For example, Hyundai-Kia announced that they would invest USD 3.1 billion in the U.S. over a five-year period, while Subaru announced a USD 140 million investment to prepare for production of its Ascent SUV.

Asian OEMs
Company Investments announced in 2017
Toyota USD 10 billion investment in U.S. across five-year period
In January 2017, Toyota Motor Corporation CEO Akio Toyoda announced that the company would invest USD 10 billion over the next five years. Note that this matches the investment that Toyota made over the previous five-year period. This total includes a USD 1 billion investment into Toyota's new North American headquarters in Plano, Texas. Jim Lentz, Chief Executive Officer of Toyota Motor North America, stated that the investment would be used to develop more fuel-efficient models.
USD 600 million investment in Princeton, Indiana plant
In January 2017, Toyota announced the investment of USD 600 million at its plant in Princeton, Indiana, creating 400 new jobs. The investment will increase the production of the Toyota Highlander by retooling the plant, adding new equipment and integrating advanced technologies. The project is expected to begin in the fall of 2019 and will increase annual Highlander production capacity by 40,000 units.
USD 1.33 billion investment in Georgetown, Kentucky plant
In April 2017, Toyota announced a USD 1.33 billion investment into its plant in Georgetown, Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. The investment will enable the Georgetown plant to produce vehicles using Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA), making it the first plant in North America with the capability. Furthermore, the investment will be used to upgrade equipment within the plant and construct a new paint shop.
USD 10 million investment for visitor and training center in Blue Springs, Mississippi
In April 2017, Toyota announced that it would invest USD 10 million to develop a visitor and training center at its Blue Springs Plant in Mississippi.
USD 5 million investment in American Center for Mobility
In July 2017, Toyota Motor North America and the Toyota Research Institute announced that they would invest USD 5 million in the American Center for Mobility located in Ypsilanti Township, Michigan to support the development of a testing environment for connected, autonomous and mobility technologies.
USD 373.8 million investment across five U.S. plants
In September 2017, Toyota announced a total investment of USD 373.8 million across the following five manufacturing plants to support production of Toyota's first U.S.-built hybrid powertrain: 
  • Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky (Georgetown): USD 120.96 million to expand 2.5-liter engine production capacity
  • Bodine Aluminum Jackson, Tennessee: USD 14.50 million to accommodate production of hybrid transaxle cases and housings, and 2.5-liter engine blocks
  • Toyota Motor Manufacturing, West Virginia (Buffalo): USD 115.30 million to accommodate production of hybrid transaxles
  • Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Alabama (Huntsville): USD 106.00 million for a comprehensive plant upgrade to accommodate production of engines for TNGA vehicles
  • Bodine Aluminum Troy, Missouri: USD 17.05 million to increase production of 2.5-liter cylinder heads
Honda USD 150 million investment in Tallapoosa, Georgia and Russells Point, Ohio plants
In March 2017, Honda announced that it invested approximately USD 150 million to support production of its new ten-speed automatic transmission for front-wheel-drive models. Honda invested USD 100 million at Honda Precision Parts of Georgia, LLC in Tallapoosa for a new assembly line and production modifications, and invested USD 49 million for new equipment and increased production capacity at Honda Transmission Mfg. of America, Inc. in Russells Point, Ohio. The new ten-speed transmission is featured on premium trim levels of the 2018 Odyssey.
USD 85 million investment in Lincoln, Alabama plant
In March 2017, Honda announced an investment of USD 85 million as the first phase of a multi-phase project at Honda Manufacturing of Alabama in Lincoln. The project will improve the plant's manufacturing flexibility, strengthen its logistic efficiency, and prepare it for future technologies. The investment will include a building expansion for one of the plant's assembly lines, which is expected to be complete in 2018. Currently, Honda Manufacturing of Alabama produces the Odyssey, Pilot, Ridgeline and the Acura MDX.
USD 124 million investment in new wind tunnel facility at East Liberty, Ohio
In April 2017, Honda announced that it would invest USD 124 million for a multifunctional aeroacoustic wind tunnel facility. The wind tunnel will be located at its testing facilities in the Transportation Research Center in East Liberty, Ohio. The wind tunnel will be used for testing both production vehicles and racecars, and can produce wind speeds of up to 192 mph.
USD 267 million investment in Ohio plants
In September 2017, Honda announced that it would invest USD 267 million across two of its plants in Ohio to support and increase production of the 2018 Accord. USD 220 million will be invested at Honda's Marysville Auto Plant to integrate new technologies and processes, including a USD 165 million welding department. USD 47 million will be invested at Honda's engine plant in Anna, Ohio to produce the Accord's 1.5-liter and 2.0-liter turbocharged engines. The investment is expected to add 300 new jobs.
Hyundai-Kia USD 3.1 billion investment in U.S. across five-year period
In January 2017, Bloomberg reported that Hyundai Motor Group, the parent company of Hyundai Motor and Kia Motors, announced that they would invest USD 3.1 billion in the U.S. through 2022. The announcement is a 50% increase to the group's previously announced investment in the U.S. The investment is expected to be used for a variety of purposes including advanced technologies such as autonomous driving and alternative fuels, the modernization of current facilities, new vehicle models, the expansion of Hyundai's plant in Montgomery, Alabama, and the possibility of a new plant in the U.S.
USD 5 million investment in American Center for Mobility
In October 2017, Hyundai America Technical Center entered a long-term partnership with the American Center for Mobility located in Ypsilanti Township, Michigan and announced that it would invest USD 5 million to support the development of a testing environment for connected, autonomous and mobility technologies.
Subaru USD 140 million investment in Lafayette, Indiana plant
In December 2017, Subaru announced that it would invest more than USD 140 million into its Subaru of Indiana Automotive plant in Lafayette for new machinery and equipment to support production of the Subaru Ascent SUV unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show. The investment is expected to create up to 200 jobs and will enable the plant to produce approximately 400,000 vehicles in 2018.

Source: Company press releases, Bloomberg, Reuters


European OEMs

Mercedes-Benz U.S. International.
Mercedes-Benz U.S. International. Source: Daimler

Contrasting with other automakers, all major European OEMs with a passenger vehicle manufacturing footprint in the U.S. have a single vehicle manufacturing facility within the country. Daimler's facility is located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, BMW has a facility in Spartanburg, South Carolina, and Volkswagen's facility is in Chattanooga, Tennessee. As of November 2017, Volvo is constructing a production facility in Charleston, South Carolina that is expected to begin production in 2018.

European OEMs
Company Investments announced in 2017
Daimler USD 1 billion investment in Tuscaloosa, Alabama plant
In September 2017, Mercedes-Benz announced that it would invest USD 1 billion to expand its production facility in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, the majority of which will be used to prepare for the production of Mercedes-Benz EQ-branded SUVs. Part of the investment will be used to construct a battery plant near the current facility, representing the fifth such facility in the company's battery production network. The investment is expected to create 600 new jobs. Production on the EQ SUV at Tuscaloosa is expected to begin in 2020.
BMW USD 600 million investment in Spartanburg plant from 2018 to 2021
In June 2017, BMW announced that it would invest USD 600 million in its plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina from 2018 to 2021. The investment will be used for additional manufacturing infrastructure for future BMW X models. Currently, the plant is preparing for the production of the new BMW X7.
Volvo Additional USD 600 million investment in first U.S. plant at Charleston, South Carolina
In September 2017, Volvo announced that its plant, currently under construction in Charleston, South Carolina would produce the XC90 starting in 2021 in addition to the S60. Volvo will invest approximately USD 600 million to the facility, in addition to the USD 500 million initially invested in the plant's construction. The added investment is expected to create 1,900 new jobs, for a total of 3,900 jobs. The plant is expected to begin production of the S60 in the fall of 2018. With the addition of the XC90 to the plant's production line, the plant is expected to have an annual production capacity of 150,000 units.

Source: Company press releases

Announced investments in U.S. from European OEMs
Announced investments in U.S. from European OEMs
*BMW investment total includes USD 600 million over four-year period in Spartanburg, South Carolina announced in 2017

Given that major European OEMs only have one passenger vehicle manufacturing facility in the U.S., their investment announcements tend to occur irregularly with breaks between each announcement. Examples include BMW's announcement of USD 600 million into its Spartanburg plant, which was preceded by a USD 1,000 million announcement into the plant in 2014. The most recent investment prior to Daimler's investment in 2017, was a USD 1,300 million investment in 2015 to expand SUV production. Volvo's announcements in the construction of its assembly plant took place in 2015 and 2017.


Joint OEM investments

In 2017, two joint agreements between major OEMs were announced relating to manufacturing in the U.S. The first agreement involved the formation of a joint venture between GM and Honda to manufacture fuel cell systems. The second agreement was formed between Toyota and Mazda to accomplish a series of goals, including the creation of a new manufacturing facility that is expected to produce 300,000 vehicles per year starting in 2021.

Joint OEM Investments
Companies Investments announced in 2017
GM, Honda GM and Honda to establish fuel cell system manufacturing joint venture
In January 2017, GM and Honda announced the establishment of a joint venture, Fuel Cell System Manufacturing, LLC, to mass produce an advanced hydrogen fuel cell system. The companies will invest an equal amount into the joint venture, totaling USD 85 million. Fuel Cell System Manufacturing's operations will take place at GM's existing battery pack manufacturing site in Brownstown, Michigan. The joint venture is expected to create approximately 100 new jobs, with production expected to begin in 2020.
Mazda, Toyota Toyota and Mazda sign agreement for alliance
In August 2017, Toyota and Mazda signed an agreement to form a business and capital alliance. The business alliance features five primary goals as follows:
  1. The establishment of a joint venture which produces vehicles in the U.S. The companies will invest a total of USD 1.6 billion to develop a plant with the goal of beginning operations in 2021. The plant is estimated to produce approximately 300,000 units per year, and will create up to 4,000 jobs. Mazda will produce crossovers for the North American market at the joint plant, while Toyota will manufacture its Corolla.
  2. The joint development of technologies for electric vehicles
  3. The joint development of connected technologies
  4. The joint collaboration on advanced safety technologies
  5. The expansion of complementary products between companies

Source: Company press releases


OEM U.S. investments trend towards SUVs, crossovers and advanced technology

A large number of the announced investments in 2017 were directed towards supporting or increasing production of SUVs and crossovers, highlighting the shift in demand in the U.S. For example, FCA's announcement involved the modernization of its plants to revive the Jeep Wagoneer and Grand Wagoneer, and produce a new Jeep pickup truck. The new supplier park at GM's Arlington Assembly plant will support vehicle production at the facility, which currently only produces SUVs and crossovers. BMW's USD 600 million investment in its Spartanburg plant is dedicated towards its X line of SUV and crossover models. Both Toyota and Subaru have invested in their plants in Indiana to increase production of the Toyota Highlander, and prepare production of the Subaru Ascent, respectively. The prevalence of investments towards the production of crossovers and utility vehicles from global automakers indicate the importance of the segment.

BMW X7 Concept iPerformance Subaru Ascent. Source: Subaru
BMW X7 Concept iPerformance Subaru Ascent. Source: Subaru

Another common theme across the investments announced in 2017 was the trend of automakers investing in technologies to improve sustainability. Ford announced two investments totaling USD 900 million for its Flat Rock Assembly Plant to develop a hybrid autonomous vehicle as part of a commercial fleet for purposes such as ride-sharing or package delivery. Daimler's USD 1 billion investment in its Tuscaloosa plant will be for the production of Mercedes-Benz EQ-branded battery-electric SUVs. Toyota will invest approximately USD 400 million to support production of hybrid powertrains in the U.S. The manufacturing joint venture between GM and Honda announced in January is dedicated towards the development and production of hydrogen fuel cell systems.

Other notable areas of investment include autonomous and connected technologies. As previously noted, Ford's investment into the Flat Rock Assembly Plant will prepare the plant for the production of a hybrid autonomous vehicle in 2021. Ford, Toyota, and Hyundai-Kia all announced investments into the American Center for Mobility to support the development of a testing environment for autonomous and connected technologies. In addition, part of Hyundai-Kia's USD 3.1 billion investment will be used for research on autonomous driving and AI.

Despite an expected slowdown in U.S. passenger vehicle sales in 2017, a number of automakers made announcements of investments for new production facilities. Volvo announced an additional USD 600 million investment in its incomplete plant in Charleston, South Carolina. Toyota and Mazda's business alliance stipulated a USD 1.6 billion investment for the construction of a new joint production facility. Hyundai-Kia's USD 3.1 billion investment raised the possibility of the automaker developing a new vehicle production facility in the U.S.

Generally, while there were not any discernable trends in terms of U.S. investment totals over the previous three years, there were more investment announcements and a greater total invested in 2017 compared to 2016. In addition, eleven automakers, if Mazda's agreement with Toyota is included, announced investments in the U.S. in 2017, while only five automakers announced investments in 2016.


Production forecast by LMC Automotive: U.S. production decline in 2017, slight recovery to begin in 2020

(LMC Automotive, October 2017)

U.S. yearly light vehicle production forecast. Source: LMC Automotive, "Global Automotive Production Forecast (October 2017)"

According to LMC Automotive's forecast data from October 2017, U.S. light vehicle production will hold at approximately 11.2 million units from 2017 through 2019. In 2020, production volume is expected to recover slightly to 11.4 million units.

U.S. production in 2017 is expected to decline by 6.3% to 11.2 million units, predominantly due to slowing vehicle demand. Another contributing factor to the decline is the number of plant shutdowns for new model changeovers and inventory corrections for the production of more SUVs and crossovers. FCA's production is projected to fall by nearly 328,000 units in 2017, given the decline in demand, and the full-year shutdown of the Sterling Heights assembly plant to upgrade for the Ram 1500. FCA's Belvidere plant, which produced the Dodge Dart, was shut down through April to upgrade for Jeep Cherokee production, which began in May. Subaru production is projected to grow by 25.4%, aided by a full year of production of the Impreza and strong demand for the Outback. Volkswagen Group is projected to have a production increase of 39.1%, as the start of production of the new Atlas in February at the Chattanooga plant should add approximately 59,000 units of incremental volume.

U.S. production is projected to decrease by 0.4% in 2018. While a marginal increase in sales in the region is expected, output will once again be impacted by new model changeovers, most notably at Ford's Michigan assembly plant, as the automaker shifts Ford Focus production to China and drops the Ford C-Max for production of the Ford Ranger in October. As such, the plant will be down for four months during the changeover. The largest volume increase for any manufacturer in 2018 is expected at FCA, as the group benefits from new model launches of the Jeep Wrangler, Ram 1500 and a refreshed Jeep Cherokee at its new larger-capacity plants.

In 2020, output is expected to increase by 1.4% from 2017 to 11.4 million units as capacity increases and model localization, particularly at Tesla, Volvo and Hyundai, offset slowing regional demand.

U.S. light vehicle production forecast by make


2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total  11,412,176 11,812,061 11,997,434 11,241,685 11,202,108 11,121,710 11,396,121
Ford Group  Ford 2,218,173 2,410,614 2,335,040 2,357,221 2,158,659 2,081,403 2,156,411
Lincoln 54,019 59,928 71,382 98,351 85,672 93,074 128,226
Ford Group sub-total 2,272,192 2,470,542 2,406,422 2,455,572 2,244,331 2,174,477 2,284,637
General Motors Group    Chevrolet 1,473,568 1,490,596 1,663,486 1,427,252 1,387,689 1,285,123 1,351,555
GMC 362,041 423,910 445,766 467,648 387,268 390,226 443,846
Cadillac 100,507 88,339 168,903 170,921 154,072 190,006 216,256
Buick 164,310 139,092 131,041 63,728 77,910 86,124 76,743
General Motors Group sub-total 2,100,426 2,141,937 2,409,196 2,129,549 2,006,939 1,951,479 2,088,400
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles    Jeep 1,064,906 1,075,280 1,014,326 759,811 917,714 814,885 921,341
Ram 315,900 329,931 340,867 344,366 429,105 417,799 413,755
Chrysler 159,054 180,083 42,805 0 0 0 0
Dodge 176,271 172,399 108,433 73,932 73,536 48,879 0
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles sub-total 1,716,131 1,757,693 1,506,431 1,178,109 1,420,355 1,281,563 1,335,096
Honda Group  Honda 1,076,047 1,062,159 1,099,794 1,060,186 1,135,322 1,149,136 1,101,336
Acura 192,683 207,480 190,225 173,507 157,660 164,357 164,210
Honda Group sub-total 1,268,730 1,269,639 1,290,019 1,233,693 1,292,982 1,313,493 1,265,546
Toyota Group  Toyota 1,335,556 1,332,166 1,338,729 1,234,301 1,235,913 1,182,749 1,135,416
Lexus 0 4,088 43,588 41,086 39,550 45,259 42,655
Toyota Group sub-total 1,335,556 1,336,254 1,382,317 1,275,387 1,275,463 1,228,008 1,178,071
Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi   Nissan 898,672 899,896 954,750 887,213 870,858 879,511 878,122
Infiniti 48,047 50,730 52,570 56,169 47,273 45,392 58,042
Mitsubishi 69,178 50,155 0 0 0 0 0
Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi sub-total 1,015,897 1,000,781 1,007,320 943,382 918,131 924,903 936,164
Hyundai Group  Hyundai 507,145 496,725 485,323 448,518 409,480 417,208 427,559
Kia 259,487 252,280 262,695 262,122 255,468 271,111 245,877
Hyundai Group sub-total 766,632 749,005 748,018 710,640 664,948 688,319 673,436
Subaru Corporation Subaru 188,921 225,999 296,863 372,175 402,168 423,845 437,965
BMW Group BMW 350,754 400,904 411,171 377,209 364,262 391,626 385,981
Daimler Group Mercedes-Benz 244,601 322,743 362,341 331,214 327,204 330,577 333,361
Tesla Motors Tesla 34,708 49,408 83,921 103,895 151,210 187,194 232,189
Volkswagen Group Volkswagen 117,628 87,156 93,415 129,957 130,293 164,773 167,264
Geely Group Volvo 0 0 0 0 940 55,811 56,928
Other    Lucid 0 0 0 0 0 1,643 11,495
Workhorse 0 0 0 0 0 2,370 3,643
Karma 0 0 0 903 2,882 1,592 3,431
Rivian 0 0 0 0 0 37 2,514
Other sub-total 0 0 0 903 2,882 5,642 21,083

Source: LMC Automotive "Global Automotive Production Forecast (October 2017)"
(Note) 1. Data indicate figures of only small-size vehicles, including passenger cars and light commercial vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of under 6 tons.
2. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any data will require permission of LMC Automotive.
For more detailed information or inquiries about forecast data, please contact LMC Automotive.


U.S., GM, Ford, FCA, Toyota, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Subaru, Daimler, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volvo, VW, Mazda

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