Honda to reform six-region development strategy

Electrified vehicles to account for two-thirds of vehicles sales around 2030



2017 Accord Hybrid
2017 Accord Hybrid equipped with second-generation two-motor hybrid system (for the U.S. market)
(photo: courtesy of American Honda)

 At a press conference held by its president in February 2016, Honda Motor Co., Ltd. announced that it has started taking initiatives to further build up its operational structures because the company believes its six-region global operation structure is in need of drastic reform.

 For development, while the models exclusive to specific regions that resulted from the six-region structure have produced considerable results, Honda intends to revitalize its global models to reduce the burden resulting from increased development man-hours. The company also has made organizational changes to clarify roles and responsibilities in development processes.

 Honda will modify its policy of "producing vehicles where needed" and form a system to mutually complement production among its regional bases around the world. The company's exports as a proportion of its production in Japan decreased to 3.4% (30,000 units) in fiscal year 2014 (ended in March 2015). Honda plans to increase the export proportion to between 10% and 20% in order to utilize its flexible production system in Japan and maintain the functions of its main plant.

 The Japanese automaker will step up the introduction of electrification technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The company is aiming to have electrified vehicles account for two-thirds of its vehicle sales by 2030 so that zero-emissions fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) make up around 15%, and hybrid vehicles (HVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) account for 50% or more. The company will focus on PHVs in particular for its future electrification strategy.

 Honda will launch a number of electrified vehicles between 2016 and 2017. In Japan, the company began lease sales of the Clarity Fuel Cell (FCV) in March 2016. The company will release the Freed one-motor HV, a new Odyssey and Accord that are equipped with a revamped two-motor hybrid system, and the NSX and Acura MDX three-motor HVs by the end of 2016. In the U.S., Honda will launch the Clarity Fuel Cell in the second half of 2016, as well as EV and PHV variants built on the same platform underpinning the FCV in 2017.

 Honda will scrap the plan to achieve global sales of 6 million units that it announced in 2012, and will give prioritize making products in its own unique way over increasing scale. The company expects this policy change to eventually lead to an increase in sales volume.

Honda shifts direction for development and production

2012 to present Post-revision
Concurrent development in all six regions Emphasize developing models that meet regional needs Return to strengthening global models
Production system Do end-to-end production and sales in regions where there is demand While maintaining the fundamentals of local production, rebuild inter-regional complementary relationships
Sales targets Achieve global sales of 6 million units in FY 2016 Emphasize increasing product appeal over expanding scale


Related report:

Electrification Technologies (Part 2):Honda's 2 motor HV system maximizes efficiency, "zero delay" promoted for new NSX


Revising the six-region global development strategy: A return to strengthening global models

 As announced in September 2012, Honda reformed its structure and has developed automobiles concurrently in six regions around the world (Japan, North America, China, Asia Pacific, South America, and Europe) starting with the new Fit that was launched in 2013. Under the "concurrent development by all six regions" and "adoption of locally optimized design drawings" initiatives, and with the aim of expanding its global unit sales, Honda has employed a common basic design in each model while detailed specifications and procurement have reflected local needs and conditions. Honda has strengthened its structure by assigning the development of Acura models to its facilities in North America, the largest market for the brand, and allowing its employees in China to develop products in response to customer needs there.

 As a result, products that meet local needs were developed and some regional models such as the Pilot large SUV in North America and the Brio series in Asia matured into key products that support the automobile business of the respective regions. The period after the Lehman slowdown in 2008 saw expansion in emerging markets, and Honda's sales volume in Asia and other emerging markets increased from 1.04 million units in FY 2011 to 1.69 million units in FY 2014.

 Meanwhile, the burden on development teams outside Japan grew and Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Honda's global development center, was put in the position of needing to do more support work. The increased man-hours and workload are considered a factor in the massive recall of the Fit.

 Honda is aiming to improve development efficiency by revitalizing global models like the Fit, Civic, Accord, CR-V and HR-V. The company will introduce new platforms for global models and adopt downsized turbo engines.

 Honda will re-emphasize a strong focus on a "concept of products." At the same time, the automaker will further evolve its design and driving experience, which are a part of Honda's DNA.

Honda reconsiders its six-region global development strategy

Develop base models in Japan  Honda's Japanese development team will play a leading role in developing base models for common use in all regions. Base models as well as variants will be developed from the initial stages to reflect the needs of each region. This reformed structure will enable the development of optimal local models while reducing the burden on development teams.
Establish supervising managers for each area  The automaker will clarify the chain of responsibility for its development process, which has been complicated by the six-region concurrent development strategy. Honda has added new positions responsible for three product areas (Acura, compact vehicles, and mid to full-sized vehicles) to oversee product managers in charge of developing models to ensure their respective products satisfy customer needs. At the same time, the automaker established a new position in charge of overseeing driving performance evaluation from the standpoint of the entire vehicle for all models, and new positions in charge of supervising the respective design creation of Honda and Acura models.

Source: Honda press release dated 24 Feb. 2016, Nikkei Sangyo Newspaper 2 Feb. 2016
(Note) Honda announced in September 2012 that the company "will go ahead with concurrent development in all six regions, wherein each region participates in product development concurrently and at the same level from the early stage of the development. Introducing the same model in all regions within a short period of time enables Honda to secure a certain level of production volume on a global basis from an early stage of the product introduction." The company also adopted locally optimized design drawings to reflect local needs of each region. This "simultaneous launch in six regions of the world" is believed to have imposed an excessive burden on the company's development teams.

Rebuilding production systems to support global models across regions

 Honda increased local production overseas ahead of its competitors, introduced the N Series in Japan to strengthen its mini vehicle lineup, and implemented a policy of "selling all of the vehicles that were built domestically." Consequently, Honda's vehicle exports decreased to 30,000 units (3.4% of the production in Japan) in FY 2014, showing an extremely low export ratio compared to the average industry ratio of around 50%. Since poor domestic vehicle sales caused the company's in-country production to decrease, Honda modified its policy and started utilizing its capacity in Japan; in one such case shifting part of the Fit production for the North American market at its Mexican plant to the Yorii Plant in September 2015. As a result, the company's exports recovered to a little less than 100,000 units in FY 2015. Honda plans to achieve an export target of 158,000 units in FY 2016. The automaker also plans to increase its annual domestic production volume from 760,000 units in FY 2015 to around 950,000 units over the next 3 to 4 years.

 Honda will reorganize its production system by both, (1) supporting production by utilizing global models, and (2) strengthening production and sales of regional models. The company will enhance its global headquarters' operations and build a system to support global models across regions while maintaining its basic policy of producing vehicles where needed. The company also intends to increase production in Japan and maintain its main Japanese plant's functions, including production technology innovation.

Reorganizing the global production system

(1) Supporting production by utilizing global models
Europe  European facilities supply the new Civic hatchback to North America and other global markets
Japan  Japanese facilities provide other regions in the world with flexible production/supply support depending on the demand and supply balance in each region
 Honda started producing the Fit at the Yorii Plant and exporting it to North America in 2015. (In line with the company's production realignment in Japan, this will be shifted to the Suzuka Plant in the summer of 2016.) In 2016, the company will start producing the Accord HEV at its Sayama Plant and exporting it. In the future, Honda will consider producing and exporting the Civic and CR-V while carefully monitoring demand in North America. (The Civic has not been produced in Japan since 2013.) The company will establish a system to support production between Japan and the U.S. as needed.
 Honda has already been supplying the Jazz (Fit) to Europe. In addition to that, the HR-V and CR-V will also be supplied from Japan so that its plants in Europe can focus on production of the new Civic hatchback.
(2) Strengthening production and sales of regional models
North America  The new Pilot, Ridgeline, Odyssey, and CR-V are scheduled to be launched. Production of large-sized SUVs has been concentrated at the Alabama Plant, but in response to strong demand for light trucks in North America, Honda will move to a system where these kinds of vehicles are produced at two plants, with production of the Acura MDX to start in 2017 at the East Liberty Auto Plant in Ohio.
China  Production and sales will be expanded along with the introduction of key new models such as the Honda Avancier large SUV and the new Acura CDX compact SUV, which are slated to be launched in 2016.
Japan  The Freed compact minivan is scheduled to undergo a full redesign in 2016.

Source: Honda press release dated 24 Feb. 2016, Nihon Keizai Newspaper dated 25 Feb. 2016


Honda Group Production

FY2011 FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 FY2016 FY2017
Production in Japan 912,307 870,455 876,039 936,879 867,648 760,899 812,000
Production outside of Japan 2,664,055 2,264,169 3,180,102 3,466,193 3,581,090 3,970,851
Global production 3,576,362 3,134,624 4,056,141 4,403,072 4,448,738 4,731,750
Exports from Japan 310,254 253,060 163,324 97,311 29,684 96,825 158,000
Unit sales in Japan
B-segment or larger 454,270 434,918 354,453 414,034 406,777 383,227
A-segment vehicles 154,210 165,666 362,344 434,345 381,460 320,308
Total 608,480 600,584 716,797 848,379 788,237 703,535

Source: Honda press releases, Nikkan Jidosha Newspaper dated 5 Apr. 2016

Introduction of electrification technology with launches of Clarity Series FCV, EV, and PHV

 Honda intends to have electrified vehicles account for two-thirds of its overall vehicle sales by 2030, with zero-emissions FCVs and EVs accounting for around 15% and HVs and PHVs accounting for 50% or more. PHVs in particular will be a focus, and models equipped with these powertrains are to be increased.

 Honda's HVs come with three different hybrid systems, including the one-motor system used in the Fit and Vezel, two-motor, and three-motor systems. The company will launch various HVs with these systems in 2016.

 The fully-redesigned Freed compact minivan will be equipped with a one-motor hybrid system.

 The new Odyssey launched in February 2016 is available with a two-motor hybrid system that incorporates a newly-developed motor. The new Accord Hybrid has a new two-motor system and will go on sale in May.

 The automaker began production of the new NSX, which is equipped with a three-motor hybrid system, in later April at its plant in Ohio. Like the Acura RLX and NSX, the 2017 Acura MDX will come with a three-motor hybrid system.

 The Clarity Fuel Cell FCV features a downsized drive unit that can fit under the hood, as well as a frame structure identical to that of gasoline-powered vehicles, and so Honda developed an EV and PHV based on the same platform. Following the U.S. launch of the Clarity Fuel Cell FCV in late 2016, the EV and PHV variants will go on sale there in 2017. These three models are called the Honda Clarity Series.


Clarity Fuel Cell
Clarity Fuel Cell for the U.S. market (photo: courtesy of American Honda)
All-new NSX
All-new NSX (at 2015 Tokyo Motor Show)
Acura Precision Concept
Acura Precision Concept, indicating the design direction of future Acura products, featuring a five-sided front grill called a Diamond Pentagon grille (at 2016 NAIAS)


Electrified vehicles to be launched between 2016 and 2017

Launch timing Model Description
February 2016 Odyssey Hybrid  The Odyssey luxury minivan is available with a two-motor hybrid system. The new motor features a revamped wiring method and structure, and has a system that is about 23% smaller and lighter while producing higher torque and output than previous systems. The new hybrid system combined with a 2.0-liter Atkinson cycle engine offers a class-leading fuel economy of 26 km/liter under the JC08 testing standard.
March 2016 Clarity Fuel Cell  This FCV went on sale in Japan in March 2016. It seats five passengers and can drive 750 km on one tank of hydrogen (JC08 testing). Honda aims to sell around 200 units in Japan in the first of its availability. The downsized fuel cell stack and motor fit under the hood of the FCV, Which makes the cabin space possible.
 Honda and General Motors are jointly developing a next-generation fuel cell system, aiming to commercialize it by around 2020. The work will shift to the next phase, which includes production and purchasing. Both companies are considering collaboration on production and procurement for core elements of the system.
First half 2016
(North America)
New NSX  Honda began mass-production of the new Acura NSX at the Performance Manufacturing Center (PMC) in late April 2016. The PMC was established in Ohio, U.S.A. The new NSX is equipped with a 3.5-liter V6 twin-turbocharged engine and a three-motor hybrid system. Prices for the model range from USD 156,000 to 205,700.
 The new NSX is scheduled to be launched in Japan, China and Europe by the end of 2016.
May 2016 New Accord  The Sport Hybrid i-MMD (Intelligent Multi-Mode Drive) system features a motor that has been revamped structurally, as well as in how it is manufactured. This improved hybrid system makes it so the car offers powerful driving performance and improved quietness. The new Accord will come standard with the Honda Sensing advanced safety driver assistance system.
 The 2017 Accord Hybrid will go on sale in North America as well in the spring of 2016 with EPA fuel economy ratings of 49/47/48 mpg (city/highway/combined).
 The new Accord will be Honda's first hybrid vehicle to be produced and launched in China.
Second half 2016
(North America)
Acura MDX Hybrid  The restyled and refreshed Acura MDX will go on sale in the summer of 2016. It will be the first model that adopts the Diamond Pentagon grille of the Acura Precision Concept.
 The 2017 Acura MDX will be available with Acura's three-motor Super Handling-All Wheel Drive (SH-AWD) system combined with a 3.0-liter V6 engine, in addition to the 3.5-liter V6 direct-injection engine that is equipped in models until now. It will go on sale in the second half of 2016.
August 2016 Freed  The Freed compact minivan will undergo a full redesign. The current model is available with a 1.5-liter gasoline engine and the previous-generation Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) hybrid system.
Honda to launch Clarity Series in U.S., with fuel cell, all-electric, and plug-in hybrid variants built on a common platform
Second half 2016 FCV  The Clarity Fuel Cell will be launched in California in the second half of 2016. It will offer an EPA-accredited driving range in excess of 300 miles and will be available for lease sales at a monthly price of under USD 500.
Second half 2017 EV  Honda says the Clarity Electric will be the world's first affordable, midsize, five-passenger EV.
PHV  The Clarity Plug-In Hybrid will offer an all-electric driving range of over 40 miles. It will go on sale in all 50 states.

Source: Honda's press releases

New models other than electrified vehicles

 Among new models other than electrified vehicles, the new Civic sedan went on sale in North America in November 2015. It was awarded the North American Car of the Year at the 2016 North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) and Honda is considering launching it in Japan, where the Civic has not been sold since 2010.

 Two SUVs primarily for the Chinese market made their global debuts at the 14th Beijing International Automotive Exhibition (Auto China 2016). These models will be launched in 2016.

 In addition to the nine-speed automatic transmissions equipped in the Acura MDX and TLX for the U.S. market, Honda developed a new 10-speed AT. The new AT improves fuel efficiency by 6% or more and enhances acceleration performance. Honda is aiming to improve the fuel economy of its gasoline-powered vehicles with this new AT and 1.0-, 1.5-, and 2.0-liter downsized turbo engines.


New Civic sedan
New Civic sedan (at Auto China 2016)
New Civic hatchback
New Civic hatchback (at 2016 Geneva International Motor Show) (photo: courtesy of Honda)
Acura CDX
Acura CDX, presented with "emotional styling" based on the Acura Precision Concept (at Auto China 2016)
Avancier, Honda's new flagship SUV in China (at Auto China 2016)


Phased launch of new Civic variants

Sedan  The Civic sedan went on sale in North America in November 2015. It comes with a newly-developed 1.5-liter direct-injection turbo engine and 2.0-liter naturally aspirated engine. It is equipped with the Honda Sensing advanced safety driver assistance system, including automatic braking. The Civic sedan and coupe (described below) are built at Honda's plants in Indiana, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada.
Coupe  The Civic coupe went on sale in North America in March 2016. Like the sedan, it comes with two newly-developed engines and is equipped with Honda Sensing.
Hatchback  The new Civic hatchback will be built at Honda's plant in the U.K. It will go on sale in Europe in early 2017, as well as in North America. The current model is built on a platform specifically for Honda's European models, but the new hatchback will use Honda's global platform shared with the sedan and coupe. The new Civic hatchback will come with 1.0- and 1.5-liter direct-injection turbo engines as well as a 1.6-liter diesel engine.


Honda to launch two SUVs in China

July 2016 Acura CDX  This compact SUV is primarily designed for the Chinese market. This model features emotional styling based on the Acura Precision Concept. It is powered by a 1.5-liter direct-injection turbo engine mated to an eight-speed dual clutch transmission. It will be built at Guangqi Honda Automobile Co., Ltd.'s ZengCheng Plant.
Before the end of 2016 Avancier  The new Avancier will be Honda's new flagship SUV model in China. It is Honda's first Chinese model equipped with a 2.0-liter turbo engine. It is also equipped with Honda Sensing.

Sales forecast by LMC Automotive: Honda's light vehicle sales to reach 4.88 million units in 2019

(LMC Automotive, February 2016)
Honda Group Sales Forecast

 According to LMC Automotive's sales forecast (Quarter 1 2016), Honda Group's light vehicle sales in 56 countries in 2016 will be 4.55 million units, down 0.3% from 2015. However, the Honda Group's sales will start to increase from 2017 and reach 4.88 million units in 2019, up 6.8% from 2015.

 Sales in the U.S.A., Honda's largest single national market, will increase between 2013 and 2018, reaching 1.7 million units in 2018 and 1.66 million units in 2019, down 0.3% from 2018. LMC Automotive forecasts that from 2015 to 2020 the Honda Group's sales in the U.S.A. will increase at a rate that is ahead of the overall market, and much of this is due to Honda's presence in the SUV segments, which the research company expects will generate substantial volume for the group within that time period.

 LMC Automotive forecast a slight drop of 1.6% in Honda's sales in the Asia-Pacific in 2016 to 2.36 million units, with a projected level of around 2.3 million units over the next three years. It will not be until 2019 that the group sees a return to growth with sales reaching almost 3 million units by 2023.

 Given the recent turbulence in the Chinese economy, LMC Automotive expects to see Honda's sales remain just below 1 million units over the next three years. Again, in 2019, the research company expects to see the automaker's sales in China surpass 1 million units, marking a return to growth.

 Although a slight drop in volumes is expected in Indonesia in 2016, LMC Automotive forecasts growth for the group in the long term in both India and Indonesia.


Honda Group's sales in 56 countries in 2019 will be 4.88 million units

Global Make 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Honda Honda 4,023,240 4,213,079 4,362,934 4,345,867 4,422,364 4,441,249 4,647,881
Acura 190,454 195,777 205,591 202,443 214,435 221,899 217,387
Everus 0 0 0 6,548 10,679 13,802 14,539
Total 4,213,694 4,408,856 4,568,525 4,554,858 4,647,478 4,676,950 4,879,807
USA Honda 1,359,876 1,373,029 1,409,386 1,425,837 1,481,159 1,524,238 1,493,171
Acura 165,436 167,843 177,165 169,692 172,367 177,467 166,128
USA sub-total 1,525,312 1,540,872 1,586,551 1,595,529 1,653,526 1,701,705 1,659,299
China Honda 781,471 811,172 998,752 959,020 907,751 915,623 1,016,266
Acura 3,409 4,671 4,135 9,770 17,983 19,250 27,771
Everus 0 0 0 6,548 10,679 13,802 14,539
China sub-total 784,880 815,843 1,002,887 975,338 936,413 948,675 1,058,576
Japan Honda 742,295 849,914 691,986 709,722 712,393 630,519 715,642
India Honda 107,661 179,750 202,403 201,674 197,764 205,300 226,096
Canada Honda 145,231 152,893 156,503 159,156 164,593 164,162 160,966
Acura 19,005 19,533 21,003 19,442 20,157 20,961 18,723
Canada sub-total 164,236 172,426 177,506 178,598 184,750 185,123 179,689
Indonesia Honda 91,694 159,147 159,253 123,564 136,738 137,303 154,789
Brazil Honda 139,275 137,904 153,391 121,453 133,587 139,476 153,219
Thailand Honda 213,164 106,482 112,189 105,176 107,090 114,329 120,175
Malaysia Honda 51,544 76,605 94,900 91,434 87,962 88,027 90,265
Mexico Honda 58,381 60,128 73,509 82,376 83,747 85,716 85,488
Acura 2,570 2,595 2,423 2,808 3,291 3,541 3,899
Mexico sub-total 60,951 62,723 75,932 85,184 87,038 89,257 89,387
UK Honda 55,660 53,544 53,417 59,648 59,684 56,126 51,293
Australia Honda 39,258 32,997 40,100 40,959 42,828 42,888 43,612
Pakistan Honda 22,931 22,263 25,654 31,385 33,384 33,122 33,550
Germany Honda 22,929 22,572 21,151 28,026 32,017 32,898 29,917
Turkey Honda 15,417 13,787 16,284 15,036 21,354 27,853 28,246
Philippines Honda 13,349 13,378 19,316 23,893 24,213 26,766 28,197
Taiwan Honda 25,392 24,627 24,785 25,511 26,297 27,279 28,070
Acura 11 3 0 0 0 0 0
Taiwan sub-total 25,403 24,630 24,785 25,511 26,297 27,279 28,070
Singapore Honda 423 1,541 7,915 11,899 15,233 18,594 20,451
Spain Honda 6,720 7,520 7,879 11,449 14,570 15,899 15,262
Acura 1 6 12 0 0 0 0
Spain sub-total 6,721 7,526 7,891 11,449 14,570 15,899 15,262
Russia Honda 25,741 20,655 4,622 5,886 6,532 11,048 13,494
Acura 0 1,106 721 691 624 662 812
Russia sub-total 25,741 21,761 5,343 6,577 7,156 11,710 14,306
Vietnam Honda 4,529 6,658 8,423 11,183 12,293 13,599 13,468
France Honda 8,867 7,130 7,365 11,106 13,033 13,704 13,056
Argentina Honda 12,213 8,866 5,453 8,458 9,726 10,475 11,665
Poland Honda 6,430 5,633 5,769 6,135 9,481 11,415 11,025
South Africa Honda 12,904 10,447 11,064 10,902 10,129 10,428 10,878
Italy Honda 4,357 4,365 4,808 9,079 11,103 11,490 10,520
Korea Honda 4,856 3,601 4,511 4,971 6,968 7,340 6,858
Switzerland Honda 5,562 4,477 3,322 5,032 5,558 5,555 4,980
Sweden Honda 3,638 3,442 3,581 4,397 5,182 4,961 4,330
Finland Honda 2,914 2,938 2,525 3,101 3,819 4,417 4,112
Portugal Honda 1,718 1,800 1,635 2,911 3,712 4,027 3,883
Belgium Honda 2,850 2,735 2,559 3,557 4,015 4,151 3,788
Czech Republic Honda 1,861 1,861 1,795 2,332 3,320 3,792 3,508
Chile Honda 3,404 3,701 2,456 2,933 2,981 3,088 3,138
New Zealand Honda 3,130 3,555 3,613 2,922 2,959 2,963 2,962
Netherlands Honda 2,007 1,483 1,298 2,378 2,973 3,195 2,880
Ireland Honda 1,006 1,365 1,507 2,061 2,339 2,892 2,778
Norway Honda 2,628 2,100 2,105 2,325 2,925 2,971 2,624
Austria Honda 2,155 1,750 1,809 2,241 2,594 2,725 2,489
Estonia Honda 1,554 1,384 1,486 1,550 2,161 2,552 2,392
Denmark Honda 1,807 2,081 2,352 2,299 2,675 2,703 2,379
Hungary Honda 1,058 1,070 1,260 1,252 1,813 2,260 2,300
Peru Honda 2,289 1,979 2,120 1,992 2,156 2,192 2,274
Colombia Honda 2,487 2,654 2,016 1,754 1,821 1,831 1,896
Slovakia Honda 1,163 1,051 1,009 1,219 1,721 1,941 1,879
Ukraine Honda 3,502 1,410 433 779 877 1,400 1,413
Acura 21 20 132 40 13 18 54
Ukraine sub-total 3,523 1,430 565 819 890 1,418 1,467
Romania Honda 503 523 830 838 1,307 1,504 1,453
Greece Honda 618 593 539 749 790 918 1,182
Latvia Honda 326 309 238 338 531 671 712
Slovenia Honda 412 302 221 374 546 612 569
Lithuania Honda 307 180 177 294 468 549 533
Acura 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lithuania sub-total 308 180 177 294 468 549 533
Uruguay Honda 594 436 538 462 453 488 512
Bulgaria Honda 261 312 200 283 399 473 473
Luxembourg Honda 213 453 223 360 421 470 441
Kazakhstan Honda 534 398 178 108 107 223 244
Ecuador Honda 171 129 121 88 112 108 118
Source: LMC Automotive "Global Automotive Sales Forecast (Quarter 1 2016)"
(Note) 1. Data indicates figures of only small-sized vehicle, including passenger cars and light commercial vehicles with gross vehicle weights of under 6 tons.
2. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any data requires the permission of LMC Automotive.
3. Please contact LMC Automotive with any requests for additional information or inquiries about forecast data.

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