Automotive World 2018: Joining of dissimilar materials, high function plastics exhibition
Multi-materialization, resin molding processing for EVs and autonomous driving
At the Automotive World 2018 exhibition (January 17-19, 2018, Tokyo Big Sight), material manufacturers, processing manufacturers, processing machinery makers, parts manufacturers, and trading companies showcased a rich variety of products and technologies, including many electrification and automated driving related exhibits.
As electric vehicles (EVs) grow in number, the need for weight reduction (lightweighting) is increasing due to the increasing weight of secondary batteries used as a power source. Moreover, as electrification and automated driving continue to be promulgated, components that consume more power will also come into increasing use, and this will result in the need for lightweighting as a countermeasure for energy conservation. To respond to these demands, the use of plastics that have low specific gravity and light metals is increasing, and among these, multi-materials created through dissimilar metals bonding are attracting attention recently as a lightweighting solution. At this year’s Automotive World, an exhibition zone was set up for dissimilar material joining and bonding, and companies showcased lightweight materials that combine the workability properties of plastics and mechanical strength properties of metals.
Following the previous report on CFRP components/plastic molding technologies exhibition, and with support from Mr. Takeo Yasuda, head of the Yasuda Polymer Research Institute, this report will cover the exhibition of technologies for dissimilar materials joining, plastics for electrification, automated driving, and various uses of high performance plastics.
Automotive World 2018: CFRP components and plastic molding technology (Feb. 2018)
Tokyo Motor Show 2017: Plastics utilized for autonomous driving and electric vehicle components (Dec. 2017)
JSAE Exposition 2017: Leading resin material makers (Aug. 2017)
JSAE Exposition 2017: Exhibitions of resin molding processing technologies (Aug. 2017)
Dissimilar materials joining: Structural adhesives, resin/metal joining technologies
Recently, multi-materialization by joining of dissimilar materials has been adopted as a countermeasure (solution) in vehicle lightweighting designs. Particularly in the joining of plastics and metals, the ability to provide parts with combined properties of metals like strength and thermal conductivity, and properties of plastics such as reduced weight and workability is gaining attention.
In this exhibition, many manufacturers exhibited various joining and adhesive technologies. Some of the latest joining technologies are introduced in this report.
Daicel Evonic exhibited front-end modules made by dissimilar materials joining at the front booth.
The product’s features/characteristics are as follows:
- Significant increase in mechanical strength achieved by using PA type adhesive on composite parts made with metals/resins
- More than 25% reduction in material usage to achieve weight reduction
- Ability to reduce warp common in conventional composite parts
- Ability to compensate for a known disadvantage of adhesive strength deterioration due to difference in shrinkage ratio common to composite materials
|Front end module (Daicel-Evonik)
Degreased metal (e.g., Al) coated with special adhesive is molded with other resin materials (such as glass fiber reinforced PA6, PA66, PPA, PP).
*GF: Glass fiber, PA: Polyamide, PPA: Polyphthalamide
Copolymer nylon “VESTAMELT”
|Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV rear body (JFE Steel)
JFE Steel introduces "Topology Optimization Technique" for structural adhesive dispensing positioning design. The joint locations of spot weld, adhesives and bolt joints in the vehicle body are optimized within the design space, improving stiffness of thin steel sheets and reducing the quantity of adhesives used.
Display panel:Topology Optimization Technology
Resin/Metal Joining Technology
Yamashita Electric introduced a plastic/metal joining technology using Daicel Polymer’s DLAMP, and uses its original heat and cool system during molding. The joining is done by molding a special shape with laser irradiation on the surface of the metal, which is then placed in the mold and the thermoplastic resin is injection molded (by insert molding). This method is also applicable to different kinds of metal parts like stainless steel and aluminum. Furthermore, by combining with filament fiber reinforced resin having a coefficient of linear expansion close to a metal, a higher adhesive strength and excellent joint durability becomes possible.
|Joining technology used on Daicel Polymer DLAMP (Yamashita Electric)
In the resin/metal joining technology, samples of aluminum joined with various resins are introduced. The exhibit shows tensile/shear adhesive strength, tensile strength, indicating sufficient joining strength for the products.
Features of DLAMP
The picture shows an integrated molded sealing plate and electrode of a lithium-ion battery (LiB). The metal cover is made of aluminum (Al), the electrode of Al/Cu, and the resin of PPS. By direct bonding of metal and resin, thin design with improved durability, parts reduction, and cost reduction was realized for can-type LiB.
AMALPHA Bonding Mechanism
Automotive parts using dissimilar materials bonding
|Break pedal (F-Tech)
Brake pedal made by dissimilar material joining through press forming and injection molding of metal (Al) and heat-and-cool CFRTP(PA). Although not officially adopted yet, good results have been obtained from mechanical strength tests.
*CFRTP: Carbon fiber reinforced thermo plastics, PA: Polyamide
|Lightweight composite beam (Asano)
The exhibit showed a composite beam built by adhesive bonding of aluminum and CFRTP. Weight reduction and strength mechanical improvement becomes possible.
|Air duct (Toyobo)
The exhibit shows a molded part by bonding PBT and high temperature TPC. These two materials have a good compatibility and an example of joined product using good adhesive properties of both materials is shown.
*PBT: Polybutylene terephthalate, TPC: Thermoplastic copolyester
|Front subframe for Honda Accord (F-Tech)
The exhibited product achieves high rigidity and low weight with a composite structure of iron and aluminum. It adopts dissimilar material joining technology based on FSW (Friction Stir Welding). From now on, aluminum frames are expected to meet the needs of contactless charging for EVs and magnetic field compatibility.
|Magnetic pulse forming technology (IHI)
IHI introduces forming by electromagnetic force. The processing technology used is based on high velocity impact of the material to the die. The process also produces atomic bonding between the materials which achieves higher bonding strength.
Rear Door Panel Forming (Image)
Magnetic Pulse Technology: Forming / Welding
|Dissimilar materials bonding (EJOT)
EJOT is a German maker specializing in fastening technology, and introduces bonding technology of composite materials using friction welding. Other than metals and CFRP, the technology also applies to materials with different thickness and combination of new materials. The welding technology was used on the Audi TT tonneau cover (Luggage room cover).
EJOT TSSD bonding technology / EJOWELD bonding technology
Plastic molding products and materials for EV
Asahi Kasei compounded a low specific gravity/non-halogen flame retardant modified PPA, and developed a grade with flame retardant properties and excellent flowability that is able to be molded into products with complex shapes. The product features are as follows:
- Uses non-halogen flame retardant material injection molded and achieving UL94 V0 rating
- Excellent fluidity for thin wall designs
- Low specific gravity product contributing to weight reduction
Plastics for use on HMI system, sensing
High performance plastics: Compact/lightweight, high strength/high elasticity, heat/radiation resistance, mechanical characteristics
|Fuel tube (Ube Industries)
Various tubes and their different applications (like fuel tubes, cooling pipes, etc) made from PA like PA12, PA6, PA9T, and EVOH, ETFE, PP, and laminated adhesive resins
*PA: Polyamide, EVOH: Ethylene-vinylalcohol copolymer, ETFE: Ethylene tetrafluoro ethylene, PP: Polypropylene
Various types of tubes using PA12 based materials
|Drive unit for power slide door (Mitsui Kinzoku Act)
Integrated ECU, compact lightweight electric sliding door unit. In addition to high performance of the mechanical parts, safety and convenience are both achieved by advanced control. PBT with excellent balance between mechanical and electrical characteristics is used.
On many of the exhibited high performance mechanical parts like side door latch, sliding door parts, trunk latch, engineering plastics like POM, PBT are used.
*PBT: Polybutylene terephthalate, POM: Polyoxymethylene (polyacetal)
|PF-based pulley with high mechanical strength and excellent tribological properties (Sumitomo Bakelite)
A pulley made from phenolic resin (PF) as a substitute for metals, lightweight with excellent wear resistance. With reinforced fiber glass as a base material, in addition to high mechanical strength and high elasticity, and being insoluble and infusible as characteristic of PF resins, it also shows high tribological properties under high speed conditions. The following are the features of the material:
・Adhesion due to friction heat on the sliding surface unlikely to occur
・Low frictional coefficient and excellent tribological properties.
Various plastic materials and molded parts for automotive use: Interior materials/decorative materials
Aside from the products introduced above, many plastics related exhibitions were also displayed at the show.
- Somar: Epoxy type insulating resins, adhesives, high performance films
- DNP: Decorative films, curved resin glass for automotive applications
- Denka: Various types of heat dissipating materials, heat dissipating sheets, and application examples for automotive field
- Hitachi Kasei: High temperature resistant sealant for case molding
- Fuji Polymer Industries: Various kinds of heat dissipative materials, thermally conductive electrically insulating adhesive sheets
- Mitsubishi Paper Mills: Cellulose fiber compounds
- Teraoka Seisakusho: Automotive-grade high temperature resistant insulation tapes, and various kinds of adhesive tapes for automotive applications and examples of their usage
- Keihin: Resin materials used on automotive power control units and air conditioning unit
- Furuya Industrial Co: Unique molding technology for DSI molded products
- Mino Group: 3D decorative products
- Plastic automotive components from Chinese and Korean companies
|Thermal solution (Denka)
Introduced heat dissipation materials, thermally conductive sheets for automotive applications.
Display panel: 1 / 2
|Power control unit (Keihin)
It appears that PPS material with better heat resistance is being used.
|Twin turbo charger inlet T joint (SEJI)
Resin molding from a Korean manufacturer that received an Innovation Award from SPE (Society of Plastics Engineers)
Installed models: Hyundai Genesis G70, Kia Stinger
lightweight, multimaterial, dissimilar material, resin, plastic, bonding, adhesive, molding
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