70% of new cars in Europe are equipped with start/stop systems

Improved fuel economy entice OEMs to adopt this technology

2013/02/14

Summary

Major OEM's average CO2 emissions in 2011 and distance to 2012 target Newly launched vehicles in Europe are increasingly equipped with a start/stop system, which saves fuel consumption at relatively low costs. It is because, for newly registered passenger cars in the EU, the EU has set a target for the average value of CO2 emissions per vehicle kilometer as 130g CO2/km by 2015 and has also proposed to reduce it to 95g CO2/km by 2020. From 2012, the EU requires payment of excess emissions premiums of OEMs exceeding their targets, based on the amount of exceedance.

 The average EU emission of all OEMs in 2011 was 135.7g CO2/km. Although 18 out of 20 major OEMs already met their 2012 targets in 2011, they have to reduce it further in order to meet the 2015 and 2020 targets.

 Start/stop systems cost less than the HV and EV. They are capable of improving the fuel economy by 5 to 10% through installation in the existing internal combustion engines. Bosch, the major supplier of the start/stop systems, predicts that one out of two newly registered cars in Europe will mount the system in 2013.

 Recently, an increasing number of start/stop systems disable engines during deceleration before a complete stop in order to extend the period that the engine can be shut off as long as possible. Some systems incorporate large capacity capacitors to complement power. Systems to stop engines while coasting at high speeds are also under development.

 Start/stop systems are available with 16 out of 22 new passenger cars launched in Europe in approximately a year and a half between the summer of 2011 and the end of 2012. Daimler provides the system in all the five new models as standard, while BMW offers it on most of the grades of its two new models. As for Volkswagen Group, two VW brand models and most grades of two Audi brand models on sale since 2012 come with its start/stop system as standard. Renault, General Motors and Ford offer the system as standard on some grades of their new vehicles. All the Volvo's new vehicles have it as standard.

Related Reports: Equipment on new European models (1) (Oct. 2012), (2) (Oct. 2012)



CO2 emissions of all the new passenger cars in Europe: The EU average in 2011 was 135.7g CO2/km, while the 2015 target is 130g CO2/km

European regulations on CO2 emissions and the 2011 results

CO2 emission targets  For newly registered passenger cars in the EU, it has set a target for the average value of CO2 emissions per vehicle kilometer to be achieved by 2015 as 130g CO2/km. It has also proposed to reduce it to 95g CO2/km by 2020 and is tightening its regulations in a phased manner from 2012. Within the overall targets individual OEMs have specific targets for their average CO2 emissions to apply to an increasing portion of their passenger cars - 65 % of the best performing registered cars will be taken into account for the 2012 targets, rising to 75% in 2013, 80% in 2014 and 100 % from 2015 onwards.
Excess emission premiums  If an OEM's CO2 average specific emissions exceed its specific CO2 emissions target, calculated as a weighted average of the OEM's fleet, the EU requires the payment of an excess emissions premium, starting from 2012. The premium amounts to EUR 5 for the first g CO2/km of exceedance, EUR 15 for the second g CO2/km, EUR 25 for the third g CO2/km, and EUR 95 for each subsequent g CO2/km. From 2019, it will amount to EUR 95 from the first g CO2/km of exceedance. Each OEM should pay the premium amount/vehicle multiplied by the volume of its fleet.
OEMs' CO2 emissions in 2011 in Europe  The EU average CO2 emissions of all the OEMs were 135.7g CO2/km in 2011. According to European Environment Agency, 18 out of 20 major OEMs already met the 2012 targets in 2011. (2012, however, is in the first phase of the tighter regulations and only 65% of the best performing registered cars are taken into account for the 2012 targets.)
 Although Nissan, Skoda, Daimler and GM Korea did not meet their emission targets in 2010, they decreased their emissions below their targets in 2011. Only Dacia and Mazda exceeded their targets in 2011: Dacia by 5.7g CO2/km and Mazda by 1.0g CO2/km.
 As of 2011, five OEMs (Fiat, SEAT, Citroen, Toyota and Peugeot) are compliant with their 2015 targets and 16 OEMs including these five are compliant with their 2014 targets. (80% of the best performing registered cars are taken into account for 2014 targets, rising to 100 % in 2015.)

Reference:European Environment Agency "CO2 emissions performance of car manufacturers in 2011"

 

Average CO2 emissions and distance to 2012 target for major OEMs in Europe

Registrations
(2011)
(units)
Average mass
(2011)
(kg)
Average CO2 emissions (g/km) 2012 Target
(g/km)
(B)
Distance
to target
(g/km)
(A)-(B)
2010 2011
Average
CO2
(100%)
Average
CO2
(100%)
Average
CO2
(65%)(A)
Fiat 836,642 1,140 125 118 110 119 -9.5
SEAT 293,265 1,289 131 125 114 126 -12.1
Citroen 742,086 1,320 131 126 113 128 -14.9
Toyota 523,143 1,331 129 126 109 128 -18.8
Peugeot 871,476 1,358 131 128 116 129 -13.4
Renault 1,006,021 1,293 134 129 115 126 -11.6
Ford 1,004,863 1,324 137 132 119 128 -8.8
Hyundai 364,221 1,297 134 132 119 127 -7.6
Opel 952,340 1,430 140 134 123 133 -9.8
Skoda 448,821 1,316 139 135 122 127 -5.1
VW 1,574,303 1,415 140 135 122 132 -10.2
Kia 279,483 1,353 143 137 122 129 -7.1
GM Korea 156,787 1,320 144 142 126 128 -1.7
Nissan 443,514 1,375 147 142 127 130 -2.8
Dacia 235,104 1,300 145 143 132 127 5.7
BMW 723,340 1,569 146 144 129 139 -9.8
Audi 617,382 1,578 152 145 127 139 -12.4
Mazda 125,369 1,386 149 147 132 131 1.0
Volvo 225,600 1,701 157 151 132 145 -12.8
Daimler 626,361 1,570 160 153 132 139 -6.9
Source: European Environment Agency "CO2 emissions performance of car manufacturers in 2011"
Note 1. Since CO2 emissions results in 2012 have not been finalized, distances between the 2012 targets and the 2011 results are calculated.
2. The 2011 average CO2 emissions are calculated based on the 65% of the best performing registered cars, as in the regulation to calculate the 2012 average.
3. As for the "distance to target," negative figures indicate that they meet the targets.

 

 



New types of start/stop systems for higher fuel efficiency

 The following three types of start/stop systems are dominant in Europe: (1) One based on a starter-alternator using a belt, (2) one based on a heavy-duty starter and (3) one with direct-start using a direct-injection engine. In the type (1), an alternator with a starter function rotates the crankshaft through the belt. The type (2) strengthens the starter's durability to cater to highly frequent engine starting. The type (3) utilizes the principle of gasoline direct-injection engines. The gasoline is injected directly into the cylinder of the cut-off engine for ignition and restarting.

 Bosch, a major stop-start systems manufacturer, mainly supplies the heavy-duty starter type. Its second-generation system under development will add a stop-restart capability during deceleration prior to a halt as well as coasting at high speeds. Valeo offers two stop-start solutions, one based on a belt-driven starter-alternator and one on a heavy-duty starter. While its current belt-driven starter-alternator can shut off the engine before the vehicle stops completely, the heavy-duty starter that performs in the same way is also under development. Continental supplies a start-stop system incorporating a large capacity capacitor to complement power for restarting the engine.

Bosch to launch the second-generation system with a stop-restart capability during vehicle coasting in 2015/2016

Europe: 50% installation ratio expected for 2013  Bosch says that almost all the OEMs in Europe currently offer stop-start systems in a wide range of their vehicles and as of early 2012, one out of three newly registered cars in Europe mounted the system. Bosch forecasts that one out of two will have the system in 2013.
The U.S.: 50% installation ratio expected for 2016  In early 2012 in the U.S., stop-start systems were mounted on less than 5% of newly registered cars. The installation ratio, however, is expected to rise sharply to 50% by 2016, when the tighter emission regulations should become effective.
Current system  Bosch's current system only switches off the vehicle's engine in stationary situations, such as at a stop sign or at a standstill in a traffic jam. It restarts the engine when the driver lifts foot off the brake pedal and depresses the clutch pedal. The OEM says that the current system delivers fuel savings of about 5% on the EU combined cycle and up to 8% in urban traffic.
Second-generation system  Bosch's second-generation stop-start system under development will shut off the engine while the vehicle is decelerating before it stops or coasting at high speeds. It is expected to improve fuel economy by additional 10% or so compared to the current system. In order to restart the rotating engine, this system requires an effective synchronization of revolutions between the starter and the engine. Bosch plans to make this second-generation system available in Europe in 2015 or 2016 and in the U.S. in 2016 or 2017.

 

Valeo provides two stop-start solutions, one based on a starter-alternator and one on a heavy-duty starter

i-StARS  Valeo launched the second-generation stop-start system, i-StARS in June 2010. A starter alternator, connected to the crankshaft by a belt, provides the stop-start function. While the first-generation StARS shuts off the engine when the vehicle reaches a complete stop, the i-StARS can also shut off the engine with an AT at 8km/h and the engine with an MT at 20km/h. It is applicable to 2.0-liter and smaller gasoline engines and 1.6-liter and smaller diesel engines. The engine restarts in 350 milliseconds. The i-StARS offers fuel savings of around 6% in the EU combined cycle and up to 25% in heavy urban traffic. It will be installed in one million units of PSA Peugeot- Citroen vehicles by 2013.
ReStart  ReStart is a stop-start system on a heavy-duty starter, which shuts off the engine when the vehicle reaches a complete stop. Suitable for all types of engines of all capacities, it delivers fuel savings of around 4% in the EU combined cycle. Valeo plans to develop more heavy-duty starter-based systems: one that can also shut off the engine before the vehicle stops completely, and another one for AT vehicles and the other with even higher fuel-efficiency.

 

Continental:Electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) complements power for the start-stop system to restart the engine

Using high capacity capacitor  Continental supplies its EDLC-embedded start/stop systems to the PSA Group's diesel engine models. When restarting the engine with the 12V lead storage battery only, voltage will decrease due to the starter-motor starting current, and therefore the headlights and meters might grow dim and the air conditioner and navigation systems might not work. As the ELDC can charge or discharge significant amounts of electricity quickly, the charged ELDC are connected in series with the lead storage battery to restart the engine.

Note: Mazda uses an electric double layer capacitor and a 12-25V variable voltage alternator for its regenerative braking system i-ELOOP, which was first installed in Mazda vehicles in 2012, in order to efficiently convert the vehicle's kinetic energy into electricity as it decelerates. The i-ELOOP works in conjunction with its idling stop technology to extend the period that the engine can be shut off. It also improves acceleration in restarting the engine by decreasing the engine load through ceasing the alternator's electricity regeneration.

 

 



Start/stop systems in newly launched cars in Europe

 Start/stop systems are available with 16 out of 22 new passenger cars launched in Europe in approximately a year and a half between the summer of 2011 and the end of 2012. They are offered for a broad range of models including compact cars, SUVs, MPVs, station wagons and sports cars in varied combinations with powertrains.

 Many OEMs aim for large CO2 reductions by pairing a downsized turbocharged gasoline direct-injection engine or turbocharged diesel engine with a start/stop system. As many as eight models - the Mercedes-Benz A-Class, BMW 1 Series, VW Golf, Audi A1/A3, Renault Clio, Chevrolet Aveo and Volvo V40 - offer grades that have achieved CO2 emissions below 100g CO2/km.

Start/stop systems in newly launched cars in Europe (from the summer of 2011 to the end of 2012)

(HVs are excluded. GE stands for gasoline engine, DE for diesel engine and DCT for dual clutch transmission.)
OEM Model (Launch) Availability of
start/stop system
Engine Transmission
(Optional)
CO2 emissions
(AT model)
(g/km)
Daimler M-Class
(Sep. 2011)
ECO start/stop function, standard on all grades 2143cc inline 4
turbo DE
7-speed AT (165)
2987cc V6 turbo DE (189)
B-Class
(Nov. 2011)
ECO start/stop function, standard on all grades 1595cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT
(7-speed DCT)
138-141 (136-137)
1796cc inline 4
turbo DE
114-115 (112)
2143cc inline 4
turbo DE
7-speed DCT (117)
SL-Class
(Dec. 2011)
ECO start/stop function, standard on all grades 3498cc V6 GE 7-speed AT (176)
4663cc V8 turbo GE (214)
A-Class
(Sep. 2012)
ECO start/stop function, standard on all grades 1595cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT
(7-speed DCT)
128-135 (127-133)
1991cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 7-speed DCT (145)
1461cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT 98-105
1796cc inline 4
turbo DE (109hp)
7-speed DCT (109)
1796cc inline 4
turbo DE (136hp)
6-speed MT
(7-speed DCT)
118 (114)
2143cc inline 4
turbo DE
7-speed DCT (115)
GL-Class
(Nov. 2012)
ECO start/stop function, standard on all grades 2987cc V6 turbo DE 7-speed AT (209)
5461cc V8 turbo GE (288)
BMW 1 Series 3-door
(Sep. 2011)
Auto Start/Stop function, standard on most grades 1598cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT
(8-speed AT)
132-137 (134)
1997cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 154 (149)
1598cc inline 4
turbo DE EfficientDynamics
6-speed MT 99
1598cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT 112
1995cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT
(8-speed AT)
117-129 (119-126)
3 Series
(Feb. 2012)
Auto Start/Stop function, standard on all grades 1997cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE EfficientDynamics 6-speed MT 124
1997cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT
(8-speed AT)
147-159 (141-152)
2979cc inline 6 direct injection, turbo GE 186 (169)
1995cc inline 4 turbo DE EfficientDynamics 109 (109)
1995cc inline 4
turbo DE
118-120 (117-118)
2993cc inline 6
turbo DE
8-speed AT (129)
VW Passat Alltrack
(Spring of 2012)
Stop/Start system, standard on all grades 1968cc inline 4 turbo DE 4 Motion BlueMotion Technology 6-speed MT 149
1968cc inline 4 turbo DE 4 Motion BlueMotion Technology 6-speed DCT (155)
Golf
(Nov. 2012)
Stop/Start system, standard on all grades 1197cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 5-speed MT 113
1197cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT,
7-speed DCT
114 (115)
1390cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 120-123 (116)
1395cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 112 (112)
1598cc inline 4
turbo DE
5-speed MT,
7-speed DCT
99 (102)
1968cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT,
6-speed DCT
106 (110)
Audi A1 Sportback
(Beginning of 2012)
Start-Stop system, standard on most grades 1197cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 5-speed MT 118
1390cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT 126
1598cc inline 4
turbo DE
5-speed MT 99
1968cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT 108
Audi A3
(Spring of 2012)
Start-Stop system, standard on all grades 1395cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT,
7-speed DCT
120 (114)
1798cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 135 (130)
1798cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE quatro 6-speed DCT (152)
1598cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT,
7-speed DCT
99 (102)
1968cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT,
6-speed DCT
106 (117)
Renault Clio
(Oct. 2012)
Stop&Start, standard on some grades 898cc inline 3 turbo GE 5-speed MT 99-104
1461cc inline 4 DE 5-speed MT 83-90
GM Opel Mokka
(Summer of 2012)
Start/Stop, standard on all MT models 1364cc inline 4 turbo GE 4x4 6-speed MT 149
1598cc inline 4 GE 5-speed MT 153
1686cc inline 4 DE 6-speed MT 120
1686cc inline 4 DE 4x4 6-speed MT 129
Chevrolet Aveo
(Summer of 2011)
Start/Stop functionality, standard on some grades 1229cc inline 4 GE 5-speed MT 111
1398cc inline 4 GE 125
1248cc inline 4
turbo DE
95
1248cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT 108
Ford B-Max
(Sep. 2012)
Auto-Start-Stop system, standard on some grades 999cc inline 3 direct injection, turbo GE 5-speed MT 114
Volvo V40
(May 2012)
Start/Stop, standard on all grades 1596cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT 124
1596cc inline 4 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed MT,
6-speed
Geartronic AT
129 (143)
2497cc inline 5 direct injection, turbo GE 6-speed
Geartronic AT
(185)
1560cc inline 4
turbo DE
6-speed MT 94
1984cc inline 5
turbo DE
6-speed MT,
6-speed
Geartronic AT
114 (136)
Source: Each OEM's website (UK), press releases on new models
Note 1. The new Peugeot 208 launched in March 2012 will also be available with a stop-start system in 2013.
2. Daimler has upgraded fuel efficiency of the new Mercedes-Benz A-Class up to 26% compared to preceding models, thanks to the start-stop system, fuel-efficient engines and other improvements. The A180 CDI, a diesel-engine model, is the first Mercedes-Benz to emit only 98g CO2/km; the A220 CDI, another diesel-engine model, is the first Mercedes-Benz to meet the Euro-6 emission standard to be effective in 2015.
3. VW's Stop/Start system, standard in all the VW Golf models, cuts fuel consumption up to 4%. The brake energy regeneration mode decreases additional 4% of the fuel consumption. Together with other improvements, the new Golf features 23% higher fuel efficiency than the previous model.
4. The Start-Stop system mounted on the Audi A1 Sportback and the A3 cuts fuel consumption up to 0.4 liter/100km.
5. The Ford B-Max's Auto-Start-Stop system offers fuel savings of 5% in the EU combined cycle and 10% in urban traffic.

 

 



Start/Stop systems of Daimler, BMW and Ford

Daimler:The new A-Class uses the start/stop system with a direct start function

Features of Daimler's ECO start/stop function  ECO start/stop function, included as standard in all the A-Class models, automatically stops the engine when the speed decreases to 5mph and less and restarts the engine when the driver lifts foot off the brake pedal and depresses the clutch pedal.
 The system operates with starter-supported direct start. When the engine is switched off, a new crankshaft sensor registers the attitude of the crankshaft so that the engine control unit knows the positions of the individual cylinders. On restarting, it can then select the cylinder that is in the most suitable position for first ignition. After the starter has briefly turned over the engine, reliable injection, ignition and combustion are immediately possible in the ideally positioned cylinder.
7G-DCT supports start/stop function  For the first time on this type of unit, the 7G-DCT dual clutch transmission, mounted on the A-Class and B-Class models, is supplied with oil by two oil pumps: one mechanical through engine drive and one electric. The electric pump maintains the oil pressure when the engine is switched off via the start/stop function. This means that the transmission is immediately operational when the engine is restarted and the vehicle can move off again without any delay.

 

BMW: Auto Start/Stop function works without impairing comfort and safety

 The Auto Start/Stop function available on each BMW model turns off the engine when the vehicle comes to a complete halt, such as at traffic lights and in a traffic jam, and restarts it when the driver presses the clutch pedal. In case this function could impair comfort or safety, the following functions will respond.
Cases that Auto Start/Stop will not work for the vehicle coming to a halt  The engine temperature is still low, the air-conditioner's temperature adjustment is not yet complete, the battery charging level is not sufficient, and the driver is turning the steering wheel.
Cases that Auto Start/Stop restarts the engine right after the vehicle stops  The system is synchronized with a central control unit that monitors related sensors, the starter motor and the alternator, and in such cases as the vehicle starts moving, the battery charging level is too low and dew condensation is formed on the windshield, the system automatically restarts the engine.

 

Ford: The U.S.-market Fusion is available with Auto-Start-Stop system as USD 295 option

B-Max  The Auto-Start-Stop system switches off the engine when the vehicle comes to a complete stop, such as at traffic lights and in a traffic jam, and restarts it when the driver removes foot from the brake pedal. The power, however, is supplied to the fan, headlamps, radio and some other devices.
The U.S.-market Fusion  The new Ford Fusion, launched in the fall of 2012 in the U.S., is the first non-hybrid midsize sedan available with the Auto-Start-Stop system. It is optional at USD 295 for the 1.6-liter EcoBoost engine model. It will help drivers save as much as USD 1,100 over the five years, according to Ford.

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