SAE 2011 World Congress: report on displays by suppliers
The following is a summary of reports on eco-friendly technologies and new technologies by suppliers and material manufacturers at the SAE 2011 World Congress (held in Detroit on April 12 to 14, 2011; referred to as the SAE show). The number of companies at the show increased slightly from last year's about 100 to 140, but fell far from 300 two years ago; it seems to take some time to recover to the business conditions before the fall of Lehman's. For further details on a summary of reports on the exhibition by OEMs, please refer to another report on displays by OEMs.
LG Chem exhibits products including large Li-ion battery for heavy-duty trucks
LG Chem exhibited its parts as a strategic partner of GM, which is the host company of this year's SAE Show, at the same main booth as GM.
The company exhibited a large Li-ion battery that it is scheduled to begin producing in July 2011, which will be used in Class4-7 PHEV trucks. The Li-ion battery module consists of 96 cells. The battery has a controller and an air-cooling fan. Currently, since the battery is installed on the outside of the vehicle, where a diesel fuel tank is set, a battery cover made of iron sheet is used. LG Chem is currently developing a battery for HEV trucks, which is planned to be installed in the cabin of the truck.
LG Chem says that it uses a water-cooled Li-ion battery for HEV passenger cars.
Air-cooled Li-ion battery for heavy-duty truck PHEVs
Water-cooled Li-ion battery for HEV passenger cars
LG Chem also displayed a storage battery that uses a Li-ion battery, which it is currently developing as a backup power source at home or a small store. There are two types of the battery - 5kWh (HxWxL= 1200x1230x760mm) and 10kWh (HxWxL= 1600x1230x760mm), which are also said to come with a solar power generation device. The monthly power consumption of one ordinary household in Japan is said to be about 300kWh, which means that the storage battery can generate electricity for a half to one day.
Household storage battery that uses a Li-ion battery
Behr exhibits a battery cooling system used in GM's CHEVY VOLT
1. Behr exhibited a cooling system for the interior of a vehicle (air conditioner) such as Condenser Radiator Fan Module, which is used in the Chevy Volt, and a model of a cooling system for Li-ion batteries. The battery cooling system consists of a battery cooler set in front of the radiator, a special pump, a multiplate endothermic device that is referred to as a Cold Plate, and a compact heat exchanger that is referred to as a Chiller, which exchanges heat with a low-temperature refrigerant of the air conditioner when the temperature exceeds a certain level.
CHEVY Volt's radiator module. Consisting of four layers: from the front of the vehicle: Battery Cooler, Condenser, Power electronics unit cooler, and Radiator.
Cooling system for Li-ion battery. Its components including pump, Cold Plate and Chiller.
2. Behr displayed a cooling device for a compact cylindrical Li-ion battery cell, which is used in Mercedes-Benz S400 Blue Hybrid. In the sheet referred to as Cooling Plate or Evaporator Plate, which is at the bottom of the battery case, a refrigerant of the air conditioner's cooling system is circulated to absorb heat generated by the battery.
Cooling case of a cylindrical Li-ion battery cell
3. Behr also exhibited an EGR Cooler and an intercooler of an engine with a supercharger. EGR Cooler, which utilizes cooling water for the engine, is used for the reduction of NOx from a diesel-powered engine, and is also said to be effective in improving fuel efficiency of a downsized small-displacement direct-injection gasoline engine with a supercharger as it reduces combustion temperature. In Japan, EGR Cooler is also used in gasoline engines used in HEVs.
Behr's EGR Cooler
Panel explaining that EGR Cooler can improve fuel economy by 5-10%
Intercooler installed inside the collector of an engine with supercharger used in GM's Chevy Corvette
4. Behr developed an evaporator that delays the rise of the room temperature in the hot weather while a vehicle with an idle reduction system is standing at a red light with the air conditioner compressor stopped. The evaporator is adopted for the BMW 7 series. By laying an evaporator that uses gel solvent on the evaporator at the outlet for a cool blast of a regular air conditioner, the interior of the vehicle is cooled by utilizing latent heat from the solid-liquid phase transition of gel. According to Behr, a vehicle is standing for about 22% of the traveling time in an urban area and the average standing time is 23 seconds. The evaporator aims to cool the vehicle during standing.
Evaporator layer for gel refrigerant, which is added
Magna exhibits various parts and systems including Dynamax
1. Magna exhibited a coupling system for 4WD (referred to as Dynamax), which is used in the 2011-model-year Kia Sportage. The Dynamax consists of a control unit and a wet multiplate clutch and controls hydraulic pressure by solenoid depending on driving conditions to distribute the driving force of the front and rear wheels. The pressure sensor is said to be made in Korea.
Coupling system used in Kia Sportage's 4WD
2. The film insert molding is a 2-stage molding technology in which a transparent plastic is injected on a decorative film that is molded under vacuum. The technology is used in a wide range of products from home appliances to auto-parts. Magna exhibited door interior parts that are used in Chevy VOLT, which it made by film insert molding. The company says that it manufactures the product at its Toledo plant in Ohio.
Door interior parts made by Chevy VOLT's film insert molding
3. Magna recycles scraps of cushions used in automotive seats, which are produced at its plant, into polyol. The polyol is used as raw material when polyurethane is produced. The recycled material is used as seat material for Chrysler's Grand Cherokee. The content rate of the recycled material is up to 5%.
4. Magna exhibited VideoMirror to display higher-quality camera images by a backup camera when the vehicle moves backward. The VideoMirror is used in Honda Odyssey and Chevy Traverse, which are made in North America. Last year, NHTSA proposed that it mandate the use of a backup camera beginning with 2014-model-year vehicles.
VideoMirror - a backup mirror that displays high-quality images by a backup camera
Sekisui Chemical exhibits intermediate film for automotive laminated glass
Laminated glass is used for automobile windshields worldwide due to safety regulations. Sekisui Chemical produces S-LEC, which blocks ultraviolet and middle infrared radiation from the sun and shields heat, as an intermediate film for laminated glass. In order to maintain transparency, nanosized particles that can block infrared light are dispersed into this heat-shielding intermediate film. By minimizing the rise of the cabin temperature and reducing the frequency of the air conditioner operation, the actual fuel economy in traffic congestion has been improved to reduce CO2 emissions.
Reduction of CO2 emissions when an intermediate film that can shield heat is used for the glass (calculation example) TTS=Total Transmission Solar
According to Sekisui Chemical, about 20% of vehicles made in the US and about 40% of vehicles made in Europe, many of which use diesel-powered engines, use windshields with an intermediate film that has insulation properties for the sound from the engine and wind. In addition, in order to reduce weight, the interior-side layer of the laminated glass has recently been made thinner (from 2.0mm to 1.6mm, weight reduction of about 1.5kg). Further sound insulation effect is required of the windshield. Sekisui Chemical produces 3-layered intermediate film (0.76mm), in which a plastic film with excellent sound insulation properties is inserted between the two PVB layers.
Effect of thinner windshield and side glass on weight reduction and of the sound-insulation intermediate film
TI Automotive exhibits a plastic fuel tank and exhaust treatment parts that it jointly developed with Tenneco
TI Automotive exhibited products including a cutaway sample of a plastic fuel tank, which is referred to as Ship-In-Bottle (SIB). Through the adoption of the SIB system, the components that have been attached outside of the fuel tank can be installed within the fuel tank, which reduces the number of binding sites. As a result, the amount of fuel permeation out of the tank （fuel that evaporates to leak out of the tank） is said to have been halved.
In addition, TI Automotive says that it will advance SIB to a pressurized fuel tank that is referred to as TAPT (Tank Advanced Process Technology) and will supply it in North America for production models that VW will start producing at its plant in Tennessee in 2012. By pressurizing the inside of the tank, the amount of fuel vapor within the tank can be minimized.
Manufacturing process of SIB plastic fuel tank: After blow molding, the tank is divided into two and components such as the fuel pump are installed within the tank and then the divided faces are bonded again.
Structure of a future fuel tank that TI Automotive is currently planning
Internal structure of TAPT plastic fuel tank. It is reinforced to withstand pressure.
TI Automotive also displayed SCR（Selective Catalytic Reduction） and an exhaust pipe system that includes NOｘ catalyst, which it jointly developed with Tenneco and UMICORE. TI Automotive developed an in-tank pump and an injector, and urea piping with a heater and Tenneco developed iron tube and catalyst, making them into a system.
Exhaust pipe system that TI Automotive developed jointly with companies including Tenneco
AVL exhibits powertrain for Range Extender EV and panels presenting various simulations
AVL exhibited a powertrain system concept of Range Extender EV, which uses a compact gasoline engine exclusively for recharging. The system is said to consist of air-cooled or water-cooled battery (11kWh, 384V), a motor (1410kW, 500Nm), an inverter and a motor controller, a 4-cycle 2-cylinder 570cc gasoline engine (18kW at steady-state), a battery control system, and a reduction gear/transmission (250Nm) with a wet clutch. A compact gasoline engine is used exclusively for power generation and controls the head of the system including a battery.
Components of Range Extender EV system
AVL also carried out panel presentations of various computer simulations. It displayed a flow analysis in the intake tract by using CFD （Computational Fluid Dynamics） and optimization of diesel-powered engine cycle, simulation of exhaust aftertreatment system including catalyst and SCR, structural analysis of crank shaft and piston, and analysis technology for cooling performance of EVs.
Explanation on diesel-powered engine cycle simulation
Explanation of exhaust aftertreatment simulation
Hybrid Design Services (HDS) exhibits an EV based on Toyota Corolla
HDS exhibited an EV, which is Toyota Corolla with its engine and transmission replaced by a motor with a maximum output of 62kW (83hp) and a Li-ion battery (35kWh) with an air-cooling fan. The EV is equipped with regenerative brake and its cruising range is said to be up to 120 miles (about 200km). HDS has already developed a package for revamping a commercial passenger car into an EV or a HEV, currently developing a package for revamping a heavy truck into a HEV.
In order to meet customers' demand for cost and quality, as for parts such as motors, Li-ion batteries, and electronic control units, the company uses those parts that have already been commercialized by auto-parts suppliers. It plans to win ECE safety certification for customers in Europe in the future.
HDS also developed and displayed Ultra Capacitor for HEV buses. The capacitor costs higher than a Li-ion battery, but since a battery to be used in HEV city buses that travel shorter and start and stop repeatedly is more likely to degrade as it is charged and recharged repeatedly, a capacitor that hardly degrades is more suitable.
The company does not mass-produce HEV/EV versions of passenger cars and buses, but if the demand increases in the future, it will produce the product at its production facilities in Michigan.
EV revamped based on Toyota Corolla
Explanation of Ultra Capacitor, which is developed for buses
FEV exhibits two new engines that it developed for OEMs as well as engines with new technologies
FEV displayed and introduced two engines that it developed as mass-produced engines for OEMs.
1. The 4-cylinder diesel-powered engine for Daimler is a standard engine for Mercedes-Benz's passenger car - C, E, and Small-S class. Daimler took charge of the basic design while FEV was in charge of performance, exhaust, calibration of On-Board Diagnostic (OBD), and adaptation to vehicle.
The 2.2L engine has four variations. The maximum output and the maximum torque of the engine with 2-Stage turbo, intercooler, and Start/Stop system is 150kW (204hp) and 500Nm, respectively. The CO2 emission is 134g/km. The exhaust emission meets Euro5 emission standards. Some of the 6-cylinder diesel-powered engines to be used in Mercedes-Benz's passenger cars are said to be replaced by this turbo in-line 4-cylinder engine in the future.
2.2L turbo 4-cylinder diesel-powered engine for Daimler
2. FEV also displayed a new DOHC 4-valve 3.6L V6 gasoline engine, which is referred to as Pentastar. In a similar manner, Chrysler did the basic design while FEV developed as a technical engineering partner. The Pentastar engine has variable valve timing on both intake and exhaust valves. The maximum output and the maximum torque is 305hp(260kW)/268 lb・ft (353Nm); the mileage is improved by about 7% compared to the current V6 engine. Chrysler is planning to gradually replace its current seven models of V6 engines by this new engine by 2014.
3.6L V6 Pentastar engine has integrated a cylinder head and an exhaust collecting pipe
3. FEV combined a 0.7L turbo SOHC 3-cylinder Extremely Downsized Engine, which it had displayed at the 2010 SAE, with a 7-speed Hybrid Transmission, which has a new 20kW built-in motor, and an added start/stop function. FEV exhibited the Extremely Downsized Engine as a powertrain for HEVs.
Based on a commercial 2-valve SOHC engine, the Extremely Downsized Engine has adopted a direct-injection engine and a camshaft with Mahle's phase difference switching mechanism, which is referred to as Cam in Cam. In addition, three clutches are used for the transmission in place of a torque converter. FEV expects that, when it is used in a vehicle, the vehicle can also run in an EV mode and improves fuel economy by 20-25% compared to engines with the same output level. The company says that several OEMs have shown an interest.
HEV powertrain that combines a 0.7L turbo engine and a 7-speed Hybrid Transmission with built-in motor
FEV also displayed concept engines including a lean burn engine that is based on TDI as a base engine and uses CNG as fuel and a diesel-powered engine with a variable valve-lift system. Compared to gasoline, CNG is unlikely to cause accidental fire and burns stably when in thinner conditions where there is plenty of air. Therefore, when a proper catalyst is used, a lean burn （which means the improvement of fuel economy） is possible without increasing NOｘ emissions and CO2 emissions are less, which is why the research of the lean burn engine is conducted.
METHODE ELECTRONICS exhibits noncontact torque sensor
METHODE ELECTRONICS has developed a noncontact high-precision torque sensor that emits an electromagnetic signal to measure strain/stress by the change of the signal and demonstrated it on the transmission. The sensor has already been adopted for steering and is said to be also adopted for mass-produced transmissions in 2014.
Explanation of noncontact torque sensor
Demonstration of noncontact torque sensor attached on the shaft of transmission
IVA Automotive Engineering exhibits an engine that is developed for Mini Cooper
IVA Automotive Engineering exhibited an engine that it has developed for the Mini Cooper. For the Mini Cooper, two types of naturally-aspirated engines and three turbo-charged engines are available. IVA took charge of designing, performance/endurance test, control, development including performance matching, and start-up of production. The company is also said to have participated in the decision making of the specifications of the engine. The 1.6L 4-valve direct-injection engine has adopted a variable valve timing on the intake side, an oil-cooling & water-cooling Split scroll (bifurcated) turbo as an oil-cooler turbo, a variable capacity oil pump, and an electronically-controlled mechanical water pump. The engine designed for the US is a 135kW (181hp) engine.
Variable lift adopted for the intake side
Exhaust channel to the inlet of the Split scroll turbo is separated for each cylinder
IVA is an engineering company that is owned 50% by VW. It develops vehicles and engines for major OEMs including BMW, Daimler, VW, GM, Ford, PSA, Renault and Fiat, and suppliers. The company says OEMs request that it develop products that meet two opposing requirements - low-cost and high-performance.
INALFA exhibits sunroofs for CADILLAC
INALFA SUNROOF SYSTEMS, which is headquartered in the Netherlands, produces sunroofs in Europe, the US, Mexico, Korea, China, and Brazil, supplying them to BMW, Daimler, Chrysler, Ford, GM, VW, Audi, Volvo, Hyundai, Kia, Renault, and Nissan. In the US, the company is currently producing sunroofs for models such as Cadillac SRX, BMW X3 and X5, and Jeep Grand Cherokee.
(On April 27, INALFA's shareholder, AAC Capital Partners, announced that it would sell INALFA to China-based Beijing Hainachuan Automotive Parts (BHAP))
Sunroof for Cadillac SRX
DAESUNG exhibits console switches and other products
DAESUNG ELECTRONIC, headquartered in Korea, produces switches and sensors in Korea, China, and India, supplying parts to OEMs such as Hyundai and Daewoo, and electronic manufacturers including Samsung and LG.
Motor for electric power steering