HEV/EV development and launch plans among European and Korean automakers

Volume production of HEVs/EVs begins from 2011 to 2013 with greater use of CFRP



 Below is a summary of HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicles), EVs (Electric Vehicles), PHEVs (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles) and FCEVs (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles) being developed and launched by five European automakers and Hyundai.

 All these companies, other than Renault, have two or more electric vehicles currently in market and have announced plans to launch new electric vehicles. BMW, VW and Renault, in particular, plan to start volume production of their electric vehicles from 2011 to 2013.

 Among them, BMW has established a sub-brand "i" and will start volume production of the "i3" EV and the "i8" PHEV in 2013. The i3 and i8 are characterized by a more generous use of CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) compared with the preceding electric vehicles.

 The VW group has made HEVs available with three Audi models and three VW volume production models (Jetta, Golf and Passat) intending to enlarge the HEV market in Europe that remains a niche market category today. The group has similar plans for EVs and reportedly will introduce the Up!, Golf and Jetta EVs in 2013 with the goal to turn them into mass market items.

 Renault plans to launch three EVs in 2011 and another in 2012 with the goal to sell 100,000 EVs in total in 2013.

 Daimler has developed a wide range of electric vehicles from the Smart fortwo Electric Drive to S-Class PHEV. Daimler has been conducting a series of road tests to check and determine their marketability in applicable segments.

 PSA will launch the Peugeot 3008 and two other models featuring a diesel HEV system in 2011 to 2012.

 In 2011, Hyundai launched full HEV versions of the Hyundai Sonata/Kia Optima.

 There have been an increasing number of partnerships formed between OEMs and between OEMs and parts manufacturers. BMW and PSA have established a joint venture company to develop and produce HEV parts. BMW and Daimler each established a joint venture company with a specialized manufacturer to develop and produce CFRP components. VW has purchased 8.2% ownership in SGL Carbon, a leading carbon fiber manufacturer. Daimler has partnered with Bosch toward the development and production of EV motors.

Daimler: Developing a broad range of electric vehicles from the Smart fortwo EV to the S-Class PHEV

 Daimler has plans to launch a broad range of clean vehicles from the Smart fortwo Electric Drive to the S-Class PHEV. The company is conducting a series of road tests to check and determine their marketability in applicable segments.

 As for the HEV segment, Daimler will launch the E300 BlueTec Hybrid, its first diesel-fueled HEV, in 2012. Daimler reportedly plans to make full HEV versions available with its core passenger car models under Mercedes-Benz brand such as the E-Class and C-Class. This will be followed by a launch of an S-Class PHEV in 2014.

 In the EV segment, Daimler plans to start volume production of the Smart fortwo Electric Drive in 2012. The company also plans to conduct road tests of the A-Class E-Cell for market launch in the United States in or about 2014. Daimler will also launch the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG E-Cell, a super-sports car exhibited at the 2011 Detroit Auto Show, in 2013.

Daimler: Developing a broad range of electric vehicles from the Smart to the S-Class

  -2010 2011 2012 2013 2014-
HEV S400 BlueHybrid (Note 2) 2009
ML450 BlueHybrid (Note 2) 2009
E300 BlueTec Hybrid (Note 3) Launch
E-Class Hybrid (Note 4) Launch
C-Class Hybrid (Note 4) Launch
EV Smart fortwo EV (Note 5) Limited sales Volume production
A-Class E-Cell(Note 6) Limited sales Launch
M-Benz Vito E-Cell (Note 7) Road test by rental users
M-Benz SLS AMG (Note 8) Launch
PHEV M-Benz S-Class Launch
FCEV B-Class F-Cell Lease sales Retail sales
Source: Daimler press releases 2011.1.24/2011.7.14, Automotive News 2011.1.24/2011.7.11
(Notes) 1. Years in "-2010" indicate the years of launch of the then-new models; "Launch" indicates the models were released for sale in 2010 in this and all other tables.
2. The Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid features a mild HEV system co-developed by BMW. The Mercedes-Benz ML450 BlueHybrid features a two-mode HEV system co-developed by GM/BMW/Chrysler for rear-wheel drive vehicles.
3. Daimler's first diesel HEV model, E300 BlueTec Hybrid, uses a 2200 cc turbocharged diesel engine in combination with a 20 horsepower motor with 24.9km/L fuel efficiency and 109 g/km CO2 emission. The car can travel at speeds up to 35 km/h in EV mode.
4. It has been reported that Daimler plans to make full HEV versions available, by 2013 if all goes as planned, with its core passenger car models under Mercedes-Benz brand such as the E-Class and C-Class (reported in January 2011).
5. Starting in November 2009, Daimler produced 1,500 units of the second-generation Smart fortwo Electric Drive at Hambach Plant in France for a limited lease sale primarily in Europe and the United States and collected data from actual use. The system uses a 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack consisting of an array of Tesla Motors' 18650 type cells designed for consumer application. Daimler plans to start volume production in early 2012.
6. In September 2010, Daimler produced 500 units of A-Class E-Cell and started a limited lease sale in Europe and Japan. The car uses 36 kWh lithium-ion batteries supplied by Tesla Motors and has a cruising range of 200 km. Daimler plans to launch the car in the United States within three years.
7. The Vito E-cell uses 36 kWh lithium-ion batteries and has a cruising range of 81 miles and a maximum speed of 50 mph. Road tests are scheduled to start before the end of 2011 with rental car users in Hamburg, Germany and Paris, France.
8. Daimler will launch, in 2013 at the earliest, the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG E-Cell that it exhibited at 2011 Detroit Auto Show. Equipped with 48 kWh lithium-ion batteries and four compact motors located near the wheels, the car accelerates from standstill to 60 mph in 4 seconds, has a total maximum output of 526 horsepower and maximum torque of 649 lb-ft from the four motors. It features gull-wing doors.
9. In January 2011, Daimler announced the establishment of a joint venture company with Toray to manufacture and market CFRP-made components.
10. In July 2011, Daimler and Bosch established a joint venture company, EM-motive GmbH, to develop and produce EV motors.


BMW: Starting volume production of the "i3" EV and "i8" PHEV in 2013 with generous use of CFRP

 BMW plans to make its HEVs available with the 5 Series and the 3 Series starting in 2011 to 2013.

 Regarding the EVs, BMW gave birth to "Megacity Vehicle" Concept in the Project i that was started in 2007. BMW produced experimental vehicles, the Mini E in 2009 and the ActiveE in 2011, that are currently used in road tests in Japan, the United States and Europe. In 2009, BMW also announced the Vision EfficientDynamics Concept featuring PHEV system.

 BMW has established a sub-brand dubbed "i" and the company will start in 2013 volume production of the i3 EV and the i8 PHEV deriving from the Megacity Vehicle and the Vision EfficientDynamics, respectively. The company further plans to launch still new models that will fill the gap between these two categories.

 In November 2009, BMW concluded a partnership with SGL Group, a leading material supplier in Germany, for the development and production of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) (BMW has also formed a partnership with Mitsubishi Rayon via SGL). The CFRP will be used in BMW's i3 and i8. Although CFRP has been in use in conventional high-end passenger cars, BMW says this time the application of CFRP will be far larger in scale than ever in terms of the amount of use per vehicle and the production quantity of vehicles in which CFRP is used.

BMW: Starting volume production of the i3 EV and the i8 PHEV in 2013

-2010 2011 2012 2013 2014-
HEV 7 Series ActiveHybrid (Note 1) 2009
X6 ActiveHybrid (Note 1) 2009
5 Series ActiveHybrid (Note 2) Launch
3 Series ActiveHybrid (Note 2) Launch in 2012 to 2013
EV i3 (Note 3) Launch in Europe Launch in US
PHEV i8(Note 4) Launch in Europe Launch in US
Source: BMW press release 2011.8.12, Automotive News 2011.2.28/2011.3.7
(Notes) 1. The BMW 7 Series ActiveHybrid uses a mild HEV system co-developed by Daimler (with lithium-ion batteries). The BMW X6 ActiveHybrid uses the two-mode HEV system for rear-wheel drive co-developed by GM/Daimler/Chrysler (with Ni-MH batteries).
2. The 5 Series ActiveHybrid uses the same mild HEV system used in the 7 Series but the motor output has been increased from 15 kW to 40 kW along with other changes to permit EV mode driving. The system is used in combination with an inline 6-cylinder 3000 cc gasoline engine and 8-speed AT. It was exhibited in the 2010 Geneva Motor Show and is reportedly slated for market launch in 2011. It is said BMW will also launch the HEV system for the next generation 3 Series in 2012 to 2013.
3-1. The i3 is powered by a motor which is located in the rear axle and has maximum output of 125 kW/170 hp and maximum torque of 250 Nm. The vehicle accelerates from standstill to 100 km/h in less than 8 seconds.
3-2. Ninety percent of the users involved in the Mini E road tests are satisfied with the car's practical cruising range (180 km) although some of them prefer longer ranges. For this reason, an optional smaller gasoline engine REx is available as a range extender with the i3.
3-3. BMW plans to produce over 30,000 units of the i3 a year starting in 2014.
4-1. The i8 combines the performance of a sports car with low fuel consumption without affecting each other in contrast to the i3 that was designed for use in big cities. The i8 is a four-seater two-door coupe deriving from the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics Concept.
4-2. The i8 uses the same motor used in the i3 to drive the front wheels and a three-cylinder 1500 cc turbocharged gasoline engine (164 kW/220 hp maximum output, 300 Nm maximum torque) to drive the rear wheels. It has maximum speed of 250 km/h and accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in less than 5 seconds. It has EV driving range of 35 km and has 50:50 weight distribution between the front and rear wheels. The car consumes less than three liters of fuel per 100 kilometers.
5. In February 2011, BMW and PSA agreed to establish a joint venture company, BMW Peugeot Citroen Electrification, to develop and produce components for front-wheel drive HEVs including battery packs, E-machine, generators, power electronics, chargers and associated software. The two companies plan to use the co-developed parts in production vehicles starting in 2014.

BMW's LifeDrive architecture

 BMW has developed the LifeDrive architecture that combines two parts, the Drive module that carries the vehicle's battery and drive system among others, and the Life module that provides a passenger cell that is placed over the Drive module.

LifeDrive architecture of the BMW "i" Concept

 Unlike the vehicles built with a monocoque-structure (self-supporting body in BMW's terminology), the "i" Concept adopts a combination of two independent structures to permit efficient layout of a massive amount of battery cells. This accompanies a number of advantages that include weight reduction, spacious cabin, driving pleasure and a high safety level.
Drive module  The Drive module represents an aluminum-made chassis that accommodates the suspension, battery and driving system along with structural and crash functions. It has a space under the floor for placing a large number of batteries thereby lowering the car's center of gravity.
Life module  The Life module forms the passenger compartment which sits on top of the chassis. A large amount of CFRP is used to make the module. BMW claims it ensures crash safety that belongs to a Formula One car.
Source: BMW-i.com
(Notes) 1. CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) is 50% lighter than steel, 30% than aluminum, and has the same strength as that of steel. It has unsurpassed shock absorption capacity in the event of collision. It also has high resistance against corrosion which eliminates the need for costly rust-protective paint.
2-1. In October 2009, BMW and SGL Group, a leading supplier of carbon fibers in Germany, established a joint venture company, SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, with the goal of developing and producing CFRP for automotive use.
2-2. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based precursor, the raw material required to manufacture carbon fibers, is produced by Mitsubishi Rayon at its Otake plant in Hiroshima Prefecture. Carbon fiber is produced by the joint venture company at its Moses Lake plant in the State of Washington, U.S., and woven into various textiles at Wackersdorf plant in Germany before being made into final components at BMW's Landshut Plant.
2-3. BMW uses CFRP-made roof in the M3 Coupe and M6 Coupe. The extended use of CFRP material is expected to reduce the cost per unit weight to one third compared to the cost prevailing in 2004 when the CFRP was first introduced, thanks to a larger scale of use and improved production efficiency.


VW: Launching HEV/EV versions of Golf/Jetta and other volume production models starting in 2012

 Starting with the Jetta HEV to be launched in 2012, VW plans to make HEV versions available with the Golf, Passat and other volume production vehicles carrying the VW brand under a policy to significantly enlarge the HEV market that remains a niche market in Europe and the United States today. Similarly, VW will introduce EV versions of the Up!, Jetta and Golf in 2013 to 2014 to develop them into mass market items.

 Audi will launch the Q5/A6/A8 HEVs in 2011 and 2012 using the common HEV system components including lithium-ion batteries supplied by Sanyo Electric.

 As for the EV/PHEVs, Audi plans to commercialize its EV/PHEVs under the e-tron sub-brand. It is said Audi will produce a limited quantity of the R8 e-tron EV supercar in 2012 and start volume production of the A1 e-tron PHEV in 2014.

 Porsche is already selling the Cayenne S HEVs and Panamera S HEVs. Porsche will produce a limited number (918 units) of the 918 Spyder PHEV supercar (priced at 684,800 Euro) exhibited at 2010 Geneva Motor Show. The company is currently developing the Boxster E, a pure EV.

 VW anticipates that electric vehicles will account for 3% of VW group's global sale in 2018.

VW Group: Establishing volume production capacities for HEV/EVs

  -2010 2011 2012 2013 2014-
HEV VW Touareg Launch
Porsche Cayenne S Launch
Porsche Panamera S Launch
Audi Q5 (Note 1) Launch
Audi A6 (Note 1) Launch
Audi A8 (Note 1) Launch
VW Jetta Launch
VW Golf Launch
VW Passat Launch
PHEV VW twinDRIVE Road test from 2011
XL 1 (Note 2) Limited production
Porsche 918 Spyder(Note 3) Limited production
Audi A1 e-tron (Note 4) Road test Launch
EV Up! blue-e-motion (Note 5) Launch
Jetta blue-e-motion (Note 5) Launch
Golf blue-e-motion (Note 5) Launch
Lavida blue-e-motion (Note 6) Launch in China
Audi R8 e-tron(Note 7) Limited production
Porsche Boxster E (Note 8) under development
Source: VW Presentation 2011.5.19/2011.6.8, Automotive News 2011.3.14/2011.2.28
(Notes) 1-1. In 2011 and 2012, Audi will launch the Q5/A6/A8 integrating common HEV system components including Sanyo Electric's 1.3 kWh lithium-ion batteries, 2000 cc direct injection turbocharged engine and a 45 ps maximum output motor.
1-2. The Audi A8 HEV is a large-sized saloon yet it boasts 16.13km/L fuel efficiency and 144 g/km CO2 emission.
2. VW exhibited a two-seater XL 1 PHEV at the 2011 Qatar Auto Show powered by a two-cylinder 800 cc diesel engine and a 27 hp motor. The XL1 is the latest concept to come from VW's strategy to produce a "one-liter" car that uses less than 1 liter of fuel per 100 kilometers. The car travels 100 km with 0.9 liters of diesel fuel and has 261 mpg fuel efficiency and 24 g/km CO2 emission. CFRP is used in the body to minimize the body weight to 795 kg. It can run 35 km in EV mode with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. The XL 1 PHEV will be launched in a limited sale in 2013.
3. The Porsche 918 Spyder PHEV is a two-seater car powered by a 500 hp V8 engine and two motors (for front and rear wheels) with 218 hp in total and characterized by the generous use of CFRP. It is a low fuel consumption car that can travel up to 100 km on 3 liters of fuel per NEDC (approx. 78 mpg and reportedly without the V8 engine engaged in full-throttle operation). The car has EV range in excess of 25 km, a maximum speed of 198 mph and accelerates from standstill to 60 mph in 3.2 seconds. It is priced at 684,800 Euro and slated for limited production of 918 units starting in September 2013.
4. Audi exhibited the A1 e-tron at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show. The A1 e-tron is a series PHEV powered by a 75 kW motor and a Wankel generator engine (rotary engine). It uses 12 kWh lithium-ion batteries and has an EV range of about 50 km, extendable by 200 km with power generation by the engine.
5-1. The Up! Concept is a 3.19 meter long ultra-small vehicle slated for production in the second half of 2011 in Bratislava, Slovakia. The Up! blue-e-motion, a volume production EV model, uses 18 kWh lithium-ion batteries (weighing 240 kg) and has 60 kW maximum motor output, 130 km range and 135 km/h maximum speed. Volume production will start in 2013.
5-2. VW plans to launch the Jetta EV and Golf EV to follow the Up!. It is said the drive battery on the Golf blue-e-motion is of the same type as Tesla Motors' in which the 18650 type lithium-ion batteries for consumer use are interconnected. The drive battery has a 26.5 kWh capacity and weighs 300 kg. The vehicle has 85 kW maximum motor output, 150 km range and 140 km/h maximum speed.
6. The Lavida vehicles are sold by VW Shanghai and the Lavida EV is an EV designed exclusively for the Chinese market.
7. The Audi R8 e-tron Concept is an R8-based two seater with 4.43 m overall length and 1.90 m overall width. It is an electric super sports car with two motors in the front and rear axles each (four motors in total with a total output of 230 kW). It uses a 53 kWh drive battery (weighing 550 kg), has a 250 km range and accelerates from standstill to 100 km/h in 4.8 seconds. Limited production is expected in 2012.
8. The Porsche Boxster E uses a 29 kWh lithium-ion battery and has a range of approximately 170 km. Two types are being developed; one with two motors driving the front and rear wheels independently, and another with a single motor that drives the rear wheels. The two-motor type has a maximum combined output of 180 kW, a maximum combined torque of 540 Nm and maximum speed of 200 km/h. The car accelerates from standstill to 62 mph in 5.5 seconds.
9. In February 2011, VW acquired 8.18% ownership in SGL Carbon, a leading supplier of carbon fibers, and became the second largest shareholder of the German company.


PSA: Introducing the world's first diesel-fueled HEV in 2011 with plans to increase availability

 PSA launched electric vehicles at the end of 2010 based on Mitsubishi's i-MiEV. With Mitsubishi's cooperation, PSA is developing the EV version of the Peugeot Partner/Citroen Berlingo slated for production at the end of 2012.

 PSA will introduce the world's first diesel-fueled HEV system in 2011 to 2012 adopted on the Peugeot 3008, Peugeot 508 RXH and Citroen DS5. PSA plans to make the diesel HEV available on other models as well in the near future.

 PSA reportedly has plans to develop diesel-fueled PHEVs by leveraging technologies developed by BMW Peugeot Citroen Electrification established jointly with BMW in February 2012.


PSA: Launching diesel-fueled HEVs in 2011 to 2012

  -2010 2011 2012 2013 2014-
EV Peugeot iOn/Citroen C-ZERO (Note 1) Launch
Peugeot Partner (Note 2) Start production by the end of 2012
Citroen Berlingo (Note 2)
Mitsubishi's small EV (Note 3) Introduction being considered
HEV Peugeot 3008 (Note 4) Launch
Peugeot 508 RXH (Note 4) Launch
Citroen DS5 (Note 4) Launch
PHEV Diesel Plug-in Hybrid Under development
Source: PSA press releases 2010.9.29/2011.7.27, Mitsubishi press releases 2010.3.8/2010.9.29
(Notes) 1. PSA developed a European version of the i-MiEV jointly with Mitsubishi and launched it at the end of 2010 under the model name of Peugeot iOn/Citroen C-ZERO. PSA expects to sell the car in the order of 100,000 units in total in five years.
2. In September 2010, PSA and Mitsubishi agreed to a joint development of an electric vehicle based on PSA's Peugeot Partner/Citroen Berlingo. Production will start at PSA's Vigo plant in Spain by the end of 2012.
3. Mitsubishi plans to launch a global small car by the end of the fiscal 2011 and to launch EVs in fiscal 2013. It is reported that Mitsubishi and PSA are studying the feasibility of supplying the EVs to PSA.
4. PSA plans to adopt the Hybrid4 system in which the front wheels are driven by a diesel engine and the rear wheels by a motor, in the Peugeot 3008 in 2011 and in the Peugeot 508 RXH and Citroen DS5 in 2012. The system will use Sanyo's Ni-MH battery and a 6-speed AMT.


Renault: Planning to sell 100,000 EVs in 2013

 Renault plans to launch three EV models in 2011, the ZOE EV in 2012, and sell 100,000 units of EVs in 2013. The company also plans to launch all-new EV models from 2014 to 2016 and sell a total of 1.5 million EVs under the Renault-Nissan alliance in six years through 2016. Renault has further plans to build a capacity to produce 500,000 EVs a year for the alliance by 2015.

Renault: Launching four EV models from 2011 to 2012

  -2010 2011 2012 2013 2014-
EV Fluence (Note 1) Launch
Kangoo Express Launch
Twizy (Note 2) Launch
ZOE (Note 3) Launch
New EV models Between 2014 and 2016
Source: Renault press releases 2011.2.10/2011.3.3/2011.6.20
(Notes) 1. In addition to recharging from household outlets or quick charging, the owners of the Fluence EV (a third-generation Megane sedan EV) in Israel, Denmark or Australia will have an optional supply of power from the switchable batteries provided by Better Place. The battery price varies by the travelled distance. In Denmark, for example, the battery will cost 399 Euro per month for users with an annual travel distance in excess of 40,000 km, 199 to 249 Euro for distances less than 20,000 km.
2. The Twizy is an ultra-compact vehicle which is 2.32 meters long and 1.19 meters wide and weighs 450 kg including the battery. It is an experimental tandem car representing a new type of urban mobility. It comes in two versions: the Twizy 45 with a maximum speed of 45 km/h which does not require a driving license depending on countries, and the Twizy with a maximum speed of 80 km/h which requires a license. Both versions use a 7 kWh lithium-ion battery that allows up to a 100 km range. The Twizy 45 has a price tag of 6,990 Euro plus battery lease starting from 45 Euro a month, depending on the travelled distance. The price for the higher-end Twizy is 8,490 Euro plus 49 Euro or higher for battery lease.
3. The ZOE is a four-seater compact five-door hatchback which is 4,086 mm long and 1,788 mm wide. A 60 kW motor is used for up to a 160 km range with a maximum speed of 135 km/h.


Hyundai: Launching the Sonata HEV in the United States and Korea in 2011

 In the first half of 2011, Hyundai launched its first gasoline-fueled HEV models, the Hyundai Sonata HEV and the Kia Optima HEV, in Korea and the United States.

 Hyundai is currently developing the i10-based BlueOn EV reportedly for volume production starting in 2013. It is said Hyundai also plans to launch PHEVs in 2013 and it has been reported that Hyundai is more likely to launch PHEVs first as its next-generation electric vehicles considering the present condition of the charging infrastructure in Korea.

Hyundai: Launching the Sonata HEV in Korea and the U.S. in 2011

  -2010 2011 2012 2013 2014-
HEV Hyundai LPI Avante (Note 1) 2009 Will discontinue sales
Kia LPI Forte 2009
Hyundai Sonata (Note 2) Launch
Kia Optima Launch
EV Hyundai BlueOn (Note 3) Volume production
PHEV Plug-in Hybrid (Note 4) Launch
Source: Hyundai press release 2011.3.31, Automotive News 2011.2.14
(Notes) 1. The Hyundai Avante HEV and the Kia Forte HEV are mild HEVs that use a 1600 cc LPI engine (LPI stands for Liquefied Petroleum Injected engine). It has been reported that Hyundai will make gasoline-fueled HEVs available by 2012 and discontinue the LPI HEVs then (reported in August 2010).
2. The Hyundai Sonata HEV and the Kia Optima HEV are full HEVs that allow EV mode drive. Powered by a 2400 cc gasoline engine, a 6-speed AT and LG Chem's lithium-polymer battery and a motor, the HEVs were launched in the first half of 2011 in the United States and Korea. The models made per U.S. specifications have EPA fuel efficiencies of 35 mpg city/40 mpg highway.
3. The Hyundai BlueOn is a compact EV being developed upon Hyundai's 3,585 mm long i10. The vehicle uses SK Energy's 16.4 kWh lithium-polymer battery, has a 140 km range, accelerates from standstill to 100 km/h in 13.1 seconds and has a maximum speed of 130km/h. Volume production reportedly will start in 2013.
4. Hyundai exhibited the Blue-Will PHEV Concept at the 2010 Detroit Auto Show. The company plans to launch PHEVs in 2013 based most likely on the Sonata. Hyundai also plans to launch EVs but it has been reported that Hyundai will first launch PHEVs as its next-generation electric vehicles considering the present conditions falling short of market requirements for EVs such as the driving distance and charging infrastructure.

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