美国市场的发动机构成:呈现小型化趋势

乘用车4缸发动机占3分之2、轻卡6缸发动机占5成

2012/09/24

概 要

 以下为主要厂家在美国销售的搭载于乘用车/轻卡(SUV、Pickup、Van)的发动机的汽缸数/排量的构成概要。 
 报告前半部分着重介绍“北美(美国/加拿大/墨西哥)生产的美国量产车”,后半部分着重介绍“包括进口车在内的全部美国量产车”。

北美生产车・美国量产车的发动机汽缸数构成(MY1997-2012)

北美生产车
合计
北米生産車の気筒数構成 合計 ・MY(车型年份) 2012北美生产车(乘用车/轻卡合计)的发动机汽缸数构成比例为:4缸39.6%、6缸39.5%。10年前4缸发动机所占比例约为25%、6缸发动机约为45%,基本与MY2009处于同一水平。
・4缸发动机在乘用车/轻卡中的搭载比例均呈现上升趋势。
・MY2009以后,6缸发动机所占比例略微回升,原因在于6缸发动机在轻卡中的搭载比例增加。
・8缸发动机由于在轻卡中的搭载比例降低,所占比例减少至17.4%。
乘用车 北米生産車の気筒数構成 乗用車  ・乘用车发动机汽缸数方面,到MY2007的近10年内,4缸发动机所占比例持续约为50%、6缸发动机约为40%。
・MY2008以后,4缸发动机所占比例增加,6缸发动机所占比例减少。
・MY2012,4缸发动机所占比例为66.8%、6缸发动机所占比例为22.9%。
・主要原因为三大美国公司生产的车型,增加了4缸发动机的搭载。
轻卡 北米生産車の気筒数構成 ライトトラックス ・轻卡的发动机汽缸数方面,到MY2008左右,6缸和8缸所占比例均超过40%,几乎囊括搭载于轻卡的全部发动机。
・之后,出现4、6缸发动机比例增加和8缸发动机比例减少的情况,6缸发动机的所占比例到MY2012上升至53.2%。8缸发动机的比例降至29.0%,与4缸发动机(占17.3%)之间的差距快速缩小。
・三大美国公司车型中搭载的发动机呈现显著的小型化趋势。
资料:根据WARD'S Automotive Yearbook 各年版制作(以下相同)。
(注)1.
MY2012为暂定值。
2.
北美生产车以下列14家公司在北美(美国、加拿大、墨西哥)生产、美国销售的车型为对象。
3. 在北美生产的厂家有:GM/Ford/Chrysler 三大美国公司、丰田/日产/本田/三菱/马自达/富士重工/铃木7家日本公司、VW、BMW、Daimler、现代汽车集团4家欧洲/韩国公司,共计14家。

 



(1)北美生产车的发动机构成 MY2009-2012:乘用车中4缸发动机占3分之2

 在北美生产、美国销售的MY2012车型的发动机构成(乘用车、轻卡合计),由于皮卡及SUV等轻卡的销售比例增加,6缸发动机的所占比例连续3年增加,达39.5%(MY2009为34.3%)。另外,4缸发动机由于在乘用车和轻卡中的搭载增加,MY2012整体所占比例达39.6%,略高于6缸发动机。

 6缸发动机中,4L级发动机的整体所占比例从MY2009到MY2012,由4.5%减少至1.1%,3L级比例由28.6%增加至37.2%,小型化继续推进。

 乘用车发动机构成方面,4缸发动机MY2012所占比例为66.8%。纵观其4缸发动机排量构成比,近年持续增加的不满2L级较上一年度减少2.9%为18.2%,2L级则由上一年度的42.8%增加至48.6%。主要原因为三大美国公司搭载4缸2L级发动机的车型:Chevorlet Malibu、Ford Focus、Chrysler 200的中型三厢车销量增加。

 轻卡方面,6缸发动机MY2012比例过半,为53.2%。而MY2009占40.1%的8缸发动机的所占比例则减少至29.0%。另外,MY2009到MY2012期间轻卡整体的排量构成比,2L级由15.3%增加为17.3%、3L级由35.6%增加为49.4%,而4L级由18.2%减少为6.3%、5L级由30.9%减少为27.1%。

 另外,从北美生产车合计来看,涡轮增压发动机的所占比例,从MY2009到MY20012期间,由5.3%倍增至11.3%,而混合动力车的所占比例仅为1%。

 含有乙醇燃料(最多85%)的发动机,其构成比(北美生产车合计)MY2011升至14.0%后,MY2012又减少至10.6%。轻卡MY2012上升至18.5%,而乘用车则由MY2011的8.0%骤减至1.0%。

 三大美国公司北美生产车合计的发动机构成,呈现显著的小型化趋势。MY2011至MY2012,8缸发动机的构成比由35.8%大幅减少至25.9%,但6缸发动机、4缸发动机的比例则分别由40.8%、22.9%增加至43.1%和30.4%。

 乘用车方面,MY2011以后Chrysler的菲亚特 500(搭载4缸1.4L发动机)、Ford的嘉年华(搭载4缸1.6L发动机)、GM的Chevrolet Cruze/Sonic(搭载4缸1.4L涡轮增压发动机/4缸1.8L发动机)等车型相继发售,受此影响,4缸以下2L级发动机的比例由MY2010的0.7%快速增加至MY2012的19.0%。

北美生产/美国量产车的发动机构成(MY2009-12)

(辆)

 汽缸数排量数量构成比例
MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2012MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2012






4
-1.9L 566,576 865,583 967,898 773,067 7.1% 8.8% 8.4% 8.2%
2.0L-2.9L 2,572,076 3,026,922 3,123,983 2,961,885 32.4% 30.7% 27.1% 31.4%
小计 3,138,652 3,892,505 4,091,881 3,734,952 39.5% 39.4% 35.5% 39.6%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 220,945 221,277 316,318 300,665 2.8% 2.2% 2.7% 3.2%
3.0L-3.9L 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 0.5% 0.4% 0.2% 0.3%
小计 256,817 262,361 343,112 326,274 3.2% 2.7% 3.0% 3.5%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 59,729 32,109 1,000 0 0.8% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 2,275,075 3,183,802 4,109,085 3,511,510 28.6% 32.2% 35.6% 37.2%
4.0L-4.9L 355,027 401,497 264,059 107,377 4.5% 4.1% 2.3% 1.1%
5.0L- 31,378 41,720 64,793 114,244 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 1.2%
小计 2,721,209 3,659,128 4,438,937 3,733,131 34.3% 37.1% 38.5% 39.5%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 541,107 689,085 435,674 218,120 6.8% 7.0% 3.8% 2.3%
5.0L- 1,273,905 1,358,705 2,218,747 1,423,858 16.0% 13.8% 19.2% 15.1%
小计 1,815,012 2,047,790 2,654,421 1,641,978 22.8% 20.7% 23.0% 17.4%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 11,639 12,328 6,938 3,470 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0%
小计 11,639 12,328 6,938 3,470 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 566,576 865,583 967,898 773,067 7.1% 8.8% 8.4% 8.2%
2.0L-2.9L 2,852,750 3,280,308 3,441,301 3,262,550 35.9% 33.2% 29.8% 34.6%
3.0L-3.9L 2,310,947 3,224,886 4,135,879 3,537,119 29.1% 32.7% 35.9% 37.5%
4.0L-4.9L 896,134 1,090,582 699,733 325,497 11.3% 11.0% 6.1% 3.4%
5.0L- 1,316,922 1,412,753 2,290,478 1,541,572 16.6% 14.3% 19.9% 16.3%
合计 7,943,329 9,874,112 11,535,289 9,439,805 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 423,614 408,386 1,232,341 1,067,547 5.3% 4.1% 10.7% 11.3%
(其中)可使用乙醇 792,704 1,104,818 1,613,449 1,003,415 10.0% 11.2% 14.0% 10.6%
(其中)柴油 373,627 302,871 508,919 409,241 4.7% 3.1% 4.4% 4.3%
(其中)混合动力 98,118 117,121 97,147 96,738 1.2% 1.2% 0.8% 1.0%


4缸-1.9L 566,576 865,583 967,898 773,067 14.6% 18.9% 21.1% 18.2%
2.0L-2.9L 1,972,242 2,087,362 1,964,665 2,066,122 50.7% 45.6% 42.8% 48.6%
小计 2,538,818 2,952,945 2,932,563 2,839,189 65.3% 64.5% 64.0% 66.8%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 220,945 221,277 316,318 300,665 5.7% 4.8% 6.9% 7.1%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 220,945 221,277 316,318 300,665 5.7% 4.8% 6.9% 7.1%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 38,592 29,961 0 0 1.0% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 867,330 1,083,921 1,083,845 971,491 22.3% 23.7% 23.6% 22.9%
4.0L-4.9L 32,330 32,640 0 0 0.8% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 938,252 1,146,522 1,083,845 971,491 24.1% 25.0% 23.6% 22.9%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 127,075 132,011 113,582 0 3.3% 2.9% 2.5% 0.0%
5.0L- 64,248 128,122 139,240 137,167 1.7% 2.8% 3.0% 3.2%
小计 191,323 260,133 252,822 137,167 4.9% 5.7% 5.5% 3.2%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 575 374 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 575 374 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 566,576 865,583 967,898 773,067 14.6% 18.9% 21.1% 18.2%
2.0L-2.9L 2,231,779 2,338,600 2,280,983 2,366,787 57.4% 51.0% 49.7% 55.7%
3.0L-3.9L 867,330 1,083,921 1,083,845 971,491 22.3% 23.7% 23.6% 22.9%
4.0L-4.9L 159,405 164,651 113,582 0 4.1% 3.6% 2.5% 0.0%
5.0L- 64,823 128,496 139,240 137,167 1.7% 2.8% 3.0% 3.2%
合计 3,889,913 4,581,251 4,585,548 4,248,512 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 185,277 173,011 351,779 362,657 4.8% 3.8% 7.7% 8.5%
(其中)可使用乙醇 269,378 289,922 368,239 42,806 6.9% 6.3% 8.0% 1.0%
(其中)柴油 152,293 125,642 71,990 99,467 3.9% 2.7% 1.6% 2.3%
(其中)混合动力 44,867 61,423 49,022 58,064 1.2% 1.3% 1.1% 1.4%
轻卡4缸-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.0L-2.9L 599,834 939,560 1,159,318 895,763 14.8% 17.8% 16.7% 17.3%
小计 599,834 939,560 1,159,318 895,763 14.8% 17.8% 16.7% 17.3%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 0.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.5%
小计 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 0.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.5%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 21,137 2,148 1,000 0 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 1,407,745 2,099,883 3,025,240 2,540,019 34.7% 39.7% 43.5% 48.9%
4.0L-4.9L 322,697 368,857 264,059 107,377 8.0% 7.0% 3.8% 2.1%
5.0L- 31,378 41,720 64,793 114,244 0.8% 0.8% 0.9% 2.2%
小计 1,782,957 2,512,608 3,355,092 2,761,640 44.0% 47.5% 48.3% 53.2%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 414,032 557,074 322,092 218,120 10.2% 10.5% 4.6% 4.2%
5.0L- 1,209,657 1,230,581 2,079,507 1,286,691 29.8% 23.2% 29.9% 24.8%
小计 1,623,689 1,787,655 2,401,599 1,504,811 40.1% 33.8% 34.6% 29.0%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 11,064 11,954 6,938 3,470 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
小计 11,064 11,954 6,938 3,470 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
合计-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.0L-2.9L 620,971 941,708 1,160,318 895,763 15.3% 17.8% 16.7% 17.3%
3.0L-3.9L 1,443,617 2,140,967 3,052,034 2,565,628 35.6% 40.5% 43.9% 49.4%
4.0L-4.9L 736,729 925,931 586,151 325,497 18.2% 17.5% 8.4% 6.3%
5.0L- 1,252,099 1,284,255 2,151,238 1,404,405 30.9% 24.3% 31.0% 27.1%
合计 4,053,416 5,292,861 6,949,741 5,191,293 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 238,337 235,375 880,562 704,890 5.9% 4.4% 12.7% 13.6%
(其中)可使用乙醇 523,326 814,896 1,245,210 960,609 12.9% 15.4% 17.9% 18.5%
(其中)柴油 221,334 177,229 436,929 309,774 5.5% 3.3% 6.3% 6.0%
(其中)混合动力 53,251 55,698 48,125 38,674 1.3% 1.1% 0.7% 0.7%
(注)
北美生产车占MY2011车型销量(北美生产车+进口车)1,421万辆中的81.2%%(1,154万辆)。


(2)北美生产车的发动机构成 MY2009-2012:乘用车中4缸发动机占3分之2

 

(参考)三大美国公司北美生产/美国量产车的发动机构成

(辆)

 汽缸数排量数量构成比例
MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2012MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2012






4缸-1.9L 21,973 11,598 360,798 411,295 0.5% 0.2% 5.4% 7.3%
2.0L-2.9L 1,135,698 1,183,725 1,180,813 1,308,146 24.6% 22.4% 17.5% 23.2%
小计 1,157,671 1,195,323 1,541,611 1,719,441 25.1% 22.7% 22.9% 30.4%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 0.8% 0.8% 0.4% 0.5%
小计 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 0.8% 0.8% 0.4% 0.5%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 38,592 32,109 1,000 0 0.8% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 1,402,696 1,915,867 2,543,779 2,289,531 30.4% 36.3% 37.8% 40.5%
4.0L-4.9L 269,107 235,145 140,739 32,379 5.8% 4.5% 2.1% 0.6%
5.0L- 31,378 41,720 64,793 114,244 0.7% 0.8% 1.0% 2.0%
小计 1,741,773 2,224,841 2,750,311 2,436,154 37.8% 42.2% 40.8% 43.1%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 489,899 609,810 342,684 136,802 10.6% 11.6% 5.1% 2.4%
5.0L- 1,175,611 1,189,559 2,067,851 1,326,918 25.5% 22.6% 30.7% 23.5%
小计 1,665,510 1,799,369 2,410,535 1,463,720 36.1% 34.1% 35.8% 25.9%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 11,639 12,328 6,938 3,470 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
小计 11,639 12,328 6,938 3,470 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
合计-1.9L 21,973 11,598 360,798 411,295 0.5% 0.2% 5.4% 7.3%
2.0L-2.9L 1,174,290 1,215,834 1,181,813 1,308,146 25.5% 23.1% 17.5% 23.2%
3.0L-3.9L 1,438,568 1,956,951 2,570,573 2,315,140 31.2% 37.1% 38.2% 41.0%
4.0L-4.9L 759,006 844,955 483,423 169,181 16.5% 16.0% 7.2% 3.0%
5.0L- 1,218,628 1,243,607 2,139,582 1,444,632 26.4% 23.6% 31.8% 25.6%
合计 4,612,465 5,272,945 6,736,189 5,648,394 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 221,525 190,627 782,776 616,667 4.8% 3.6% 11.6% 10.9%
(其中)可使用乙醇 776,185 1,069,203 1,598,865 999,745 16.8% 20.3% 23.7% 17.7%
(其中)柴油 211,723 163,087 427,563 294,583 4.6% 3.1% 6.3% 5.2%
(其中)混合动力 57,889 78,958 76,740 91,738 1.3% 1.5% 1.1% 1.6%


4缸-1.9L 21,973 11,598 360,798 411,295 1.3% 0.7% 18.0% 19.0%
2.0L-2.9L 804,224 702,692 550,839 839,767 47.5% 39.4% 27.5% 38.9%
小计 826,197 714,290 911,637 1,251,062 48.8% 40.1% 45.6% 57.9%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 38,592 29,961 0 0 2.3% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 602,979 745,405 836,870 773,174 35.6% 41.8% 41.8% 35.8%
4.0L-4.9L 32,330 32,640 0 0 1.9% 1.8% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 673,901 808,006 836,870 773,174 39.8% 45.3% 41.8% 35.8%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 127,075 132,011 113,582 0 7.5% 7.4% 5.7% 0.0%
5.0L- 64,248 128,122 139,240 137,167 3.8% 7.2% 7.0% 6.3%
小计 191,323 260,133 252,822 137,167 11.3% 14.6% 12.6% 6.3%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 575 374 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 575 374 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 21,973 11,598 360,798 411,295 1.3% 0.7% 18.0% 19.0%
2.0L-2.9L 842,816 732,653 550,839 839,767 49.8% 41.1% 27.5% 38.9%
3.0L-3.9L 602,979 745,405 836,870 773,174 35.6% 41.8% 41.8% 35.8%
4.0L-4.9L 159,405 164,651 113,582 0 9.4% 9.2% 5.7% 0.0%
5.0L- 64,823 128,496 139,240 137,167 3.8% 7.2% 7.0% 6.3%
合计 1,691,996 1,782,803 2,001,329 2,161,403 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 6,769 18,482 175,533 149,717 0.4% 1.0% 8.8% 6.9%
(其中)可使用乙醇 269,378 289,922 368,239 42,806 15.9% 16.3% 18.4% 2.0%
(其中)柴油 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)混合动力 5,496 29,622 30,514 53,064 0.3% 1.7% 1.5% 2.5%
轻卡4缸-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.0L-2.9L 331,474 481,033 629,974 468,379 11.4% 13.8% 13.3% 13.4%
小计 331,474 481,033 629,974 468,379 11.4% 13.8% 13.3% 13.4%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 1.2% 1.2% 0.6% 0.7%
小计 35,872 41,084 26,794 25,609 1.2% 1.2% 0.6% 0.7%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 0 2,148 1,000 0 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 799,717 1,170,462 1,706,909 1,516,357 27.4% 33.5% 36.0% 43.5%
4.0L-4.9L 236,777 202,505 140,739 32,379 8.1% 5.8% 3.0% 0.9%
5.0L- 31,378 41,720 64,793 114,244 1.1% 1.2% 1.4% 3.3%
小计 1,067,872 1,416,835 1,913,441 1,662,980 36.6% 40.6% 40.4% 47.7%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 362,824 477,799 229,102 136,802 12.4% 13.7% 4.8% 3.9%
5.0L- 1,111,363 1,061,437 1,928,611 1,189,751 38.1% 30.4% 40.7% 34.1%
小计 1,474,187 1,539,236 2,157,713 1,326,553 50.5% 44.1% 45.6% 38.0%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 11,064 11,954 6,938 3,470 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1%
小计 11,064 11,954 6,938 3,470 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1%
合计-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.0L-2.9L 331,474 483,181 630,974 468,379 11.4% 13.8% 13.3% 13.4%
3.0L-3.9L 835,589 1,211,546 1,733,703 1,541,966 28.6% 34.7% 36.6% 44.2%
4.0L-4.9L 599,601 680,304 369,841 169,181 20.5% 19.5% 7.8% 4.9%
5.0L- 1,153,805 1,115,111 2,000,342 1,307,465 39.5% 32.0% 42.2% 37.5%
合计 2,920,469 3,490,142 4,734,860 3,486,991 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 214,756 172,145 607,243 466,950 7.4% 4.9% 12.8% 13.4%
(其中)可使用乙醇 506,807 779,281 1,230,626 956,939 17.4% 22.3% 26.0% 27.4%
(其中)柴油 211,723 163,087 427,563 294,583 7.2% 4.7% 9.0% 8.4%
(其中)混合动力 52,393 49,336 46,226 38,674 1.8% 1.4% 1.0% 1.1%

 

(参考)7家日本公司北美生产/美国量产车的发动机构成

(辆)

 汽缸数排量数量构成比例
MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2012MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2012






4缸-1.9L 544,603 853,985 607,100 361,772 21.5% 23.1% 18.4% 14.6%
2.0L-2.9L 1,172,156 1,567,381 1,483,115 1,182,465 46.2% 42.3% 44.8% 47.7%
小计 1,716,759 2,421,366 2,090,215 1,544,237 67.7% 65.4% 63.2% 62.3%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 658,467 955,699 965,309 771,366 26.0% 25.8% 29.2% 31.1%
4.0L-4.9L 79,004 163,413 123,320 74,998 3.1% 4.4% 3.7% 3.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 737,471 1,119,112 1,088,629 846,364 29.1% 30.2% 32.9% 34.1%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 14,378 30,534 27,818 20,275 0.6% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8%
5.0L- 66,760 132,983 101,646 69,659 2.6% 3.6% 3.1% 2.8%
小计 81,138 163,517 129,464 89,934 3.2% 4.4% 3.9% 3.6%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 544,603 853,985 607,100 361,772 21.5% 23.1% 18.4% 14.6%
2.0L-2.9L 1,172,156 1,567,381 1,483,115 1,182,465 46.2% 42.3% 44.8% 47.7%
3.0L-3.9L 658,467 955,699 965,309 771,366 26.0% 25.8% 29.2% 31.1%
4.0L-4.9L 93,382 193,947 151,138 95,273 3.7% 5.2% 4.6% 3.8%
5.0L- 66,760 132,983 101,646 69,659 2.6% 3.6% 3.1% 2.8%
合计 2,535,368 3,703,995 3,308,308 2,480,535 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 20,092 11,724 32,100 23,158 0.8% 0.3% 1.0% 0.9%
(其中)可使用乙醇 16,519 35,615 14,584 3,670 0.7% 1.0% 0.4% 0.1%
(其中)柴油 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)混合动力 40,229 32,535 18,508 5,000 1.6% 0.9% 0.6% 0.2%


4缸-1.9L 544,603 853,985 607,100 361,772 32.2% 37.6% 33.4% 27.4%
2.0L-2.9L 903,796 1,111,207 966,243 761,653 53.4% 48.9% 53.1% 57.8%
小计 1,448,399 1,965,192 1,573,343 1,123,425 85.6% 86.5% 86.4% 85.2%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 242,828 306,756 246,975 195,451 14.4% 13.5% 13.6% 14.8%
4.0L-4.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 242,828 306,756 246,975 195,451 14.4% 13.5% 13.6% 14.8%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 544,603 853,985 607,100 361,772 32.2% 37.6% 33.4% 27.4%
2.0L-2.9L 903,796 1,111,207 966,243 761,653 53.4% 48.9% 53.1% 57.8%
3.0L-3.9L 242,828 306,756 246,975 195,451 14.4% 13.5% 13.6% 14.8%
4.0L-4.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计 1,691,227 2,271,948 1,820,318 1,318,876 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 13,002 8,106 12,528 9,984 0.8% 0.4% 0.7% 0.8%
(其中)可使用乙醇 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)柴油 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)混合动力 39,371 31,801 18,508 5,000 2.3% 1.4% 1.0% 0.4%
轻卡4缸-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.0L-2.9L 268,360 456,174 516,872 420,812 31.8% 31.9% 34.7% 36.2%
小计 268,360 456,174 516,872 420,812 31.8% 31.9% 34.7% 36.2%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 415,639 648,943 718,334 575,915 49.2% 45.3% 48.3% 49.6%
4.0L-4.9L 79,004 163,413 123,320 74,998 9.4% 11.4% 8.3% 6.5%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 494,643 812,356 841,654 650,913 58.6% 56.7% 56.6% 56.0%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 14,378 30,534 27,818 20,275 1.7% 2.1% 1.9% 1.7%
5.0L- 66,760 132,983 101,646 69,659 7.9% 9.3% 6.8% 6.0%
小计 81,138 163,517 129,464 89,934 9.6% 11.4% 8.7% 7.7%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2.0L-2.9L 268,360 456,174 516,872 420,812 31.8% 31.9% 34.7% 36.2%
3.0L-3.9L 415,639 648,943 718,334 575,915 49.2% 45.3% 48.3% 49.6%
4.0L-4.9L 93,382 193,947 151,138 95,273 11.1% 13.5% 10.2% 8.2%
5.0L- 66,760 132,983 101,646 69,659 7.9% 9.3% 6.8% 6.0%
合计 844,141 1,432,047 1,487,990 1,161,659 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 7,090 3,618 19,572 13,174 0.8% 0.3% 1.3% 1.1%
(其中)可使用乙醇 16,519 35,615 14,584 3,670 2.0% 2.5% 1.0% 0.3%
(其中)柴油 0 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)混合动力 858 734 0 0 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0%

 



美国量产车(北美生产车+进口车)的发动机构成 MY2009-2011

 MY2011北美生产车和进口车加起来的美国量产车的发动机构成比如下。4缸发动机所占比例为40.7%(北美生产车:35.5%)、6缸发动机的比例为36.7%(同:38.5%)、8缸发动机的比例为20.0%(同:23.0%)。由于进口车主要搭载少气缸数发动机(4缸发动机的比例MY2011为63.2%),因此包括进口车在内的美国量产车整体较北美生产车汽缸数较少,与北美生产车同样呈现出小型化趋

 另外,美国量产车中混合动力车所占比例MY2011为2.0%,高于北美生产车(0.6%)。进口车的MY2011混合动力车比例为7.0%(日本厂家为13.8%)。

美国量产车(北美生产车+进口车)的发动机构成

(辆)

 汽缸数排量数量构成比例
MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2009MY2010MY2011
美国量产车合计4缸-1.9L 1,073,346 1,346,746 1,560,223 10.4% 10.9% 11.0%
2.0L-2.9L 3,363,367 4,030,133 4,221,726 32.6% 32.6% 29.7%
小计 4,436,713 5,376,879 5,781,949 43.0% 43.4% 40.7%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 254,732 243,488 338,547 2.5% 2.0% 2.4%
3.0L-3.9L 35,872 41,084 26,794 0.3% 0.3% 0.2%
小计 290,604 284,572 365,341 2.8% 2.3% 2.6%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 116,313 77,494 30,562 1.1% 0.6% 0.2%
3.0L-3.9L 3,033,087 3,890,016 4,791,196 29.4% 31.4% 33.7%
4.0L-4.9L 393,368 454,422 323,973 3.8% 3.7% 2.3%
5.0L- 31,378 41,720 64,793 0.3% 0.3% 0.5%
小计 3,574,146 4,463,652 5,210,524 34.7% 36.1% 36.7%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 651,855 814,337 512,493 6.3% 6.6% 3.6%
5.0L- 1,343,765 1,419,375 2,328,800 13.0% 11.5% 16.4%
小计 1,995,620 2,233,712 2,841,293 19.3% 18.0% 20.0%
其他-1.9L 2,100 1,448 940 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 14,374 16,402 11,054 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
小计 16,474 17,850 11,994 0.2% 0.1% 0.1%
合计-1.9L 1,075,446 1,348,194 1,561,163 10.4% 10.9% 11.0%
2.0L-2.9L 3,734,412 4,351,115 4,590,835 36.2% 35.2% 32.3%
3.0L-3.9L 3,068,959 3,931,100 4,817,990 29.8% 31.8% 33.9%
4.0L-4.9L 1,045,223 1,268,759 836,466 10.1% 10.3% 5.9%
5.0L- 1,389,517 1,477,497 2,404,647 13.5% 11.9% 16.9%
合计 10,313,557 12,376,665 14,211,101 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 655,247 634,605 1,614,340 6.4% 5.1% 11.4%
(其中)可使用乙醇 792,704 1,104,818 1,613,449 7.7% 8.9% 11.4%
(其中)柴油 380,325 336,943 533,692 3.7% 2.7% 3.8%
(其中)混合动力 272,727 306,882 283,259 2.6% 2.5% 2.0%
乘用车4缸-1.9L 1,073,346 1,346,746 1,514,911 19.6% 21.4% 23.8%
2.0L-2.9L 2,465,214 2,710,742 2,580,023 45.0% 43.1% 40.6%
小计 3,538,560 4,057,488 4,094,934 64.5% 64.5% 64.4%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 254,732 243,488 338,547 4.6% 3.9% 5.3%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 254,732 243,488 338,547 4.6% 3.9% 5.3%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 73,625 58,632 26,402 1.3% 0.9% 0.4%
3.0L-3.9L 1,276,455 1,509,374 1,525,800 23.3% 24.0% 24.0%
4.0L-4.9L 32,330 32,640 0 0.6% 0.5% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 1,382,410 1,600,646 1,552,202 25.2% 25.5% 24.4%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 183,837 198,542 167,951 3.4% 3.2% 2.6%
5.0L- 117,733 182,821 196,879 2.1% 2.9% 3.1%
小计 301,570 381,363 364,830 5.5% 6.1% 5.7%
其他-1.9L 2,100 1,448 940 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 3,310 4,448 4,116 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
小计 5,410 5,896 5,056 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
合计-1.9L 1,075,446 1,348,194 1,515,851 19.6% 21.4% 23.9%
2.0L-2.9L 2,793,571 3,012,862 2,944,972 51.0% 47.9% 46.3%
3.0L-3.9L 1,276,455 1,509,374 1,525,800 23.3% 24.0% 24.0%
4.0L-4.9L 216,167 231,182 167,951 3.9% 3.7% 2.6%
5.0L- 121,043 187,269 200,995 2.2% 3.0% 3.2%
合计 5,482,682 6,288,881 6,355,569 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 396,820 371,728 629,865 7.2% 5.9% 9.9%
(其中)可使用乙醇 269,378 289,922 368,239 4.9% 4.6% 5.8%
(其中)柴油 158,521 133,247 89,640 2.9% 2.1% 1.4%
(其中)混合动力 196,399 226,802 216,681 3.6% 3.6% 3.4%
轻卡4缸-1.9L 0 0 45,312 0.0% 0.0% 0.6%
2.0L-2.9L 898,153 1,319,391 1,641,703 18.6% 21.7% 20.9%
小计 898,153 1,319,391 1,687,015 18.6% 21.7% 21.5%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 35,872 41,084 26,794 0.7% 0.7% 0.3%
小计 35,872 41,084 26,794 0.7% 0.7% 0.3%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 42,688 18,862 4,160 0.9% 0.3% 0.1%
3.0L-3.9L 1,756,632 2,380,644 3,265,396 36.4% 39.1% 41.6%
4.0L-4.9L 361,038 421,782 323,973 7.5% 6.9% 4.1%
5.0L- 31,378 41,720 64,793 0.6% 0.7% 0.8%
小计 2,191,736 2,863,008 3,658,322 45.4% 47.0% 46.6%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 468,018 615,795 344,542 9.7% 10.1% 4.4%
5.0L- 1,226,032 1,236,552 2,131,921 25.4% 20.3% 27.1%
小计 1,694,050 1,852,347 2,476,463 35.1% 30.4% 31.5%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 11,064 11,954 6,938 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
小计 11,064 11,954 6,938 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
合计-1.9L 0 0 45,312 0.0% 0.0% 0.6%
2.0L-2.9L 940,841 1,338,253 1,645,863 19.5% 22.0% 21.0%
3.0L-3.9L 1,792,504 2,421,728 3,292,190 37.1% 39.8% 41.9%
4.0L-4.9L 829,056 1,037,577 668,515 17.2% 17.0% 8.5%
5.0L- 1,268,474 1,290,226 2,203,652 26.3% 21.2% 28.1%
合计 4,830,875 6,087,784 7,855,532 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 258,427 262,877 984,475 5.3% 4.3% 12.5%
(其中)可使用乙醇 523,326 814,896 1,245,210 10.8% 13.4% 15.9%
(其中)柴油 221,804 203,696 444,052 4.6% 3.3% 5.7%
(其中)混合动力 76,328 80,080 66,578 1.6% 1.3% 0.8%
资料:WARD'S Automotive Yearbook 各年版
(注)1.
进口车中除上述14家公司外,还包含Jaguar/Land Rover、Porsche、Saab、Volvo品牌车。

 

 

(参考)进口车的发动机构成(MY2009-2011)

(辆)

 汽缸数排量数量构成比例
MY2009MY2010MY2011MY2009MY2010MY2011
进口车合计4缸-1.9L 506,770 481,163 592,325 21.4% 19.2% 22.1%
2.0L-2.9L 791,291 1,003,211 1,097,743 33.4% 40.1% 41.0%
小计 1,298,061 1,484,374 1,690,068 54.8% 59.3% 63.2%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 33,787 22,211 22,229 1.4% 0.9% 0.8%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 33,787 22,211 22,229 1.4% 0.9% 0.8%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 56,584 45,385 29,562 2.4% 1.8% 1.1%
3.0L-3.9L 758,012 706,214 682,111 32.0% 28.2% 25.5%
4.0L-4.9L 38,341 52,925 59,914 1.6% 2.1% 2.2%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 852,937 804,524 771,587 36.0% 32.1% 28.8%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 110,748 125,252 76,819 4.7% 5.0% 2.9%
5.0L- 69,860 60,670 110,053 2.9% 2.4% 4.1%
小计 180,608 185,922 186,872 7.6% 7.4% 7.0%
其他-1.9L 2,100 1,448 940 0.1% 0.1% 0.0%
5.0L- 2,735 4,074 4,116 0.1% 0.2% 0.2%
小计 4,835 5,522 5,056 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
合计-1.9L 508,870 482,611 593,265 21.5% 19.3% 22.2%
2.0L-2.9L 881,662 1,070,807 1,149,534 37.2% 42.8% 43.0%
3.0L-3.9L 758,012 706,214 682,111 32.0% 28.2% 25.5%
4.0L-4.9L 149,089 178,177 136,733 6.3% 7.1% 5.1%
5.0L- 72,595 64,744 114,169 3.1% 2.6% 4.3%
合计 2,370,228 2,502,553 2,675,812 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 231,633 226,219 381,999 9.8% 9.0% 14.3%
(其中)可使用乙醇 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)柴油 6,698 34,072 24,773 0.3% 1.4% 0.9%
(其中)混合动力 174,609 189,761 186,112 7.4% 7.6% 7.0%
乘用车4缸-1.9L 506,770 481,163 547,013 31.8% 28.2% 30.9%
2.0L-2.9L 492,972 623,380 615,358 31.0% 36.5% 34.8%
小计 999,742 1,104,543 1,162,371 62.8% 64.7% 65.7%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 33,787 22,211 22,229 2.1% 1.3% 1.3%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 33,787 22,211 22,229 2.1% 1.3% 1.3%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 35,033 28,671 26,402 2.2% 1.7% 1.5%
3.0L-3.9L 409,125 425,453 441,955 25.7% 24.9% 25.0%
4.0L-4.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 444,158 454,124 468,357 27.9% 26.6% 26.5%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 56,762 66,531 54,369 3.6% 3.9% 3.1%
5.0L- 53,485 54,699 57,639 3.4% 3.2% 3.3%
小计 110,247 121,230 112,008 6.9% 7.1% 6.3%
其他-1.9L 2,100 1,448 940 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
5.0L- 2,735 4,074 4,116 0.2% 0.2% 0.2%
小计 4,835 5,522 5,056 0.3% 0.3% 0.3%
合计-1.9L 508,870 482,611 547,953 31.9% 28.3% 31.0%
2.0L-2.9L 561,792 674,262 663,989 35.3% 39.5% 37.5%
3.0L-3.9L 409,125 425,453 441,955 25.7% 24.9% 25.0%
4.0L-4.9L 56,762 66,531 54,369 3.6% 3.9% 3.1%
5.0L- 56,220 58,773 61,755 3.5% 3.4% 3.5%
合计 1,592,769 1,707,630 1,770,021 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 211,543 198,717 278,086 13.3% 11.6% 15.7%
(其中)可使用乙醇 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)柴油 6,228 7,605 17,650 0.4% 0.4% 1.0%
(其中)混合动力 151,532 165,379 167,659 9.5% 9.7% 9.5%
轻卡4缸-1.9L 0 0 45,312 0.0% 0.0% 5.0%
2.0L-2.9L 298,319 379,831 482,385 38.4% 47.8% 53.3%
小计 298,319 379,831 527,697 38.4% 47.8% 58.3%
5缸2.0L-2.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
3.0L-3.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
6缸2.0L-2.9L 21,551 16,714 3,160 2.8% 2.1% 0.3%
3.0L-3.9L 348,887 280,761 240,156 44.9% 35.3% 26.5%
4.0L-4.9L 38,341 52,925 59,914 4.9% 6.7% 6.6%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 408,779 350,400 303,230 52.6% 44.1% 33.5%
8缸4.0L-4.9L 53,986 58,721 22,450 6.9% 7.4% 2.5%
5.0L- 16,375 5,971 52,414 2.1% 0.8% 5.8%
小计 70,361 64,692 74,864 9.1% 8.1% 8.3%
其他-1.9L 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
5.0L- 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
小计 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
合计-1.9L 0 0 45,312 0.0% 0.0% 5.0%
2.0L-2.9L 319,870 396,545 485,545 41.1% 49.9% 53.6%
3.0L-3.9L 348,887 280,761 240,156 44.9% 35.3% 26.5%
4.0L-4.9L 92,327 111,646 82,364 11.9% 14.0% 9.1%
5.0L- 16,375 5,971 52,414 2.1% 0.8% 5.8%
合计 777,459 794,923 905,791 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
(其中)带涡轮增压 20,090 27,502 103,913 2.6% 3.5% 11.5%
(其中)可使用乙醇 0 0 0 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
(其中)柴油 470 26,467 7,123 0.1% 3.3% 0.8%
(其中)混合动力 23,077 24,382 18,453 3.0% 3.1% 2.0%

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