Mazda, Subaru, Suzuki and Daihatsu adopt updated active safety systems
Mazda introduces Adaptive LED Headlight and Driver Attention Monitoring
Four sensors used in Mazda's i-Activsense system
(photo: courtesy of Mazda)
Mazda's Adaptive LED Headlights (high-beam lighting mode with lights reaching the oncoming vehicle turned off) (photo: courtesy of Mazda)
This report focuses on the automatic braking and other active safety systems available on Mazda, Fuji Heavy Industries (hearafter Subaru as it is the parent company of Subaru), Suzuki and Daihatsu vehicles.
The automakers are expanding the availability of such systems and incorporating new technologies in their active safety systems. Mazda and Daihatsu launched improved versions in only two years after their first systems were introduced in the market. Subaru launched third version of the EyeSight about four years after the second version reached markets.
Mazda's i-Activsense is a generic term covering a series of advanced safety technologies that use four sensors (millimeter-wave radar, quasi-millimeter-wave radar, near-infrared laser, and camera). Starting with the improved version that was introduced in January 2015, the i-Activsense features the Adaptive LED Headlight that maintains high-beam lighting but blocks portions of lights that otherwise reach preceding or oncoming vehicles. It also features Driver Attention Alert that monitors the driver's attentiveness and warns the driver to take a rest if necessary.
Subaru's EyeSight offers Pre-Collision Braking and Active Lane Keep that use a stereo camera. The third version that was introduced in June 2014 features Pre-Collision Steering Assist that assists the driver's steering to avoid collision. In an emergency event the driver operates the steering wheel, the system uses the Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC: FHI's trade-name for Electronic Stability Control) to control the vehicle's behavior as needed for avoiding collision.
Laser radar-based collision damage mitigation brake system is adopted in many mini cars manufactured by Suzuki (sold as Radar Brake Support system) and Daihatsu (sold as Smart Assist system). Starting in December 2014, the system is available on Suzuki's commercial mini vehicles as well. In December 2014, the sonar sensor-based Pre-Collision Throttle Management function was added to Daihatsu's Smart Assist system. Models supplied to the four automakers by other OEMs are not included in the report.
Nissan and Honda expand and improve active safety systems (March 2015)
Toyota: Introduction of active safety packages on all cars in three years (February 2015)
Mazda: i-Activsense safety technologies based on four sensors
Mazda has developed i-Activsense, a series of advanced safety technologies based on its safety philosophy, Mazda Proactive Safety, which aims to minimize the risk of accidents. It was first adopted in the all-new Atenza that was launched in November 2011. The safety system on the Atenza uses four sensors; millimeter-wave radar (76GHz), quasi-millimeter-wave radar (24GHz), near-infrared laser and camera. The system on the Demio uses three sensors excluding the millimeter-wave radar.
The all-new Atenza and CX-5 were significantly redesigned in January 2015 and are fitted with a more advanced i-Activsense with improved rear and side safety performance. The Adaptive LED Headlight is also available that emits high-beam lighting without blurring the eyes of the driver in the preceding or oncoming vehicle.
Mazda: Functions of the i-Activsense active safety system
|(Functions in blue are the new ones adopted in the Atenza and CX-5 that were significantly redesigned in January 2015.)|
Forward safety features
|Mazda Radar Cruise Control (MRCC)||The MRCC uses millimeter-wave radar to detect the relative speed with and distance to another vehicle ahead. It automatically maintains an appropriate distance within a programmed speed to reduce the driver's burden during a long-distance driving.|
|Smart Brake Support (SBS)||When traveling at 15km/h or faster, the SBS uses millimeter-wave radar to detect another vehicle ahead. The Distance Recognition Support System (DRSS) displays the distance with a preceding vehicle in five steps in the instrument cluster to support the driver in maintaining an appropriate distance to the car ahead.|
|When the distance falls below a programmed value, the system warns the driver while collision can be avoided by normal braking. If the distance gets shorter, the system automatically applies partial braking. When collision is judged unavoidable, the system applies a larger braking force to support the driver in avoiding collision or reducing the damage of collision.|
|Smart City Brake Support||When a vehicle is traveling at 4 to 30km/h, the near-infrared laser radar mounted on the windshield will detect a vehicle ahead. When an impending collision is detected, the system automatically controls the brakes.|
|Acceleration Control for Automatic Transmission||When a vehicle is traveling at 10km/h or less, or when a vehicle is stopped, and if the accelerator pedal is pressed to a certain programmed level while there is an obstacle in front of the car, the system warns the driver and controls the engine power to prevent hazardous acceleration.|
Forward lighting features
|High-beam Control System (HBC)||The HBC detects preceding or oncoming vehicles and automatically switches the headlamps between low- and high-beam modes. The car normally travels in high-beam mode and automatically switches to low-beam when the taillight of the preceding vehicle or headlights of the oncoming vehicle is detected.|
|Adaptive LED Headlight(ALH) (Note)||The ALH is the first system in Japan that features LED array type glare-free high-beam lighting (LED array is a light source that consists of multiple light-emitting diodes). The LED high-beam light source consists of four blocks that can be turned on and off separately. When the headlight of the oncoming vehicle or the taillight of the preceding vehicle is detected by the camera, the system maintains high-beam lighting but turns off the block of lights that otherwise reach the other vehicle. The system also has the Highway Mode function for high-speed driving in which the light axis is automatically switched upward.|
|The Wide Light Distribution Low Beam is a new addition to the ALH. An LED light source is added to the side of the headlight to increase the scope of lighting to the roadsides that are not illuminated by conventional headlights. This increases night vision for recognizing pedestrians at intersections.|
Side safety features
|Lane Keep Assist System (LAS)||The driver can choose between Lane Departure Avoidance Support and Line Trace options. Both functions at vehicle speed of 60km/h or faster. When a lane departure is detected, the Lane Departure Avoidance Support applies counter-steering force to bring the vehicle on course. The Line Trace assists steering by applying counter-steering torque to keep the vehicle at the center of the lane.|
|Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS)||When the system detects unintended lane departure, it alerts the driver with vibration on the steering wheel and sound. When the lane change is accompanied by a turn signal operations, the system recognizes it as intentional and cancels the alert.|
|Rear vehicle Monitoring System (RVM)||When a vehicle is traveling at 15km/h or faster, the system uses the quasi-millimeter-wave radar mounted inside the rear bumper to detect other vehicles approaching from behind in neighboring lanes. When a vehicle is detected, the system alerts the driver by activating the lamp located in the door mirror on the same side as the detected vehicle. The radar is capable of detecting other vehicles within 50 meters behind. When the driver activates the turn signal carelessly, it alerts the driver by flashing the lamp in the door mirror and an alarm to stop lane changing maneuver.|
|Blind Spot Monitoring (BSM)||The BSM increases the detection range of the RVM described above. It is capable of detecting other vehicles approaching not only from behind but from either side as well.|
|Rear Cross Traffic Alert||When backing up from a garage, for instance, the BSM described above functions as a Rear Cross Traffic Alert. It assists the driver in ensuring safety by detecting other vehicles approaching from right or left.|
Rear safety features
|Rear Smart City Brake Support||This is a new function introduced in the Atenza and CX-5 launched in January 2015. When a vehicle moves backward at low speeds between 2 and 8km/h, the system uses two ultrasonic sensors mounted at the center of the rear bumper to detect obstacles. When danger of a collision is detected, it automatically applies brakes to reduce the damage of collision.|
|Rear Acceleration Control for Automatic Transmission||The Acceleration Control for Automatic Transmission (for backward move) was also adopted.|
|Rear parking Sensor||The system uses the ultrasonic sensor mounted in the rear bumper to detect a motionless object within a close range. When an object is detected, the system alerts the driver with an audible alarm and visual display in the instrument cluster.|
|Driver Attention Alert (DAA)||The system monitors the driver's attentiveness to prevent an accident resulting from fatigue or poor attentiveness. It operates when traveling at 65km/h or faster and learns the movements of the vehicle and the driver before the driver is affected by fatigue. When the system detects substantial difference between the learned data and actual driving conditions, a mark is displayed along with a sound prompting the driver to stop and rest.|
Source: Mazda's press releases and technology materials (Note) In November 2014, Toyota announced that the company had developed the LED array Adaptive High Beam System (AHS) based on the same principle and will start adopting it in all-new models that will be launched in 2015.
Availability of active safety systems on major Mazda models
|(Functions in blue are the new ones adopted in the significantly redesigned Atenza and CX-5 that were launched in January 2015)|
|(S: Standard on all grades, A: Standard on some grades, O: Optional, Blank: Not available)|
|Mid-sized sedan||SUV||Small SUV||Small sedan||Compact car|
|Launch timing||Jan. 2015||Jan. 2015||Feb. 2015||Nov. 2013||Sep. 2014|
|Mazda Radar Cruise Control||AO||AO||AO||A|
|Smart Brake Support||AO||AO||AO||A|
|Smart City Brake Support||S||S||S||AO||A|
|Acceleration Control for Automatic Transmission||S||S||S||AO||A|
|Adaptive LED Headlight||A||A|
|Lane Keep Assist||A||A|
|Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS)||A||A||AO||AO||O|
|Rear vehicle Monitoring System||AO|
|Blind Spot Monitoring (BSM)||A||A||AO||O|
|Rear Cross Traffic Alert||A||A||AO||O|
|Rear Smart City Brake Support||AO||AO|
|Rear Acceleration Control for Automatic Transmission||AO||AO|
|Rear Parking Sensor||AO||AO|
|Driver Attention Alert||AO||AO|
Source: Mazda's press releases and online catalogs
Subaru: Pre-Collision Steering Assist function adopted in EyeSight ver. 3
The EyeSight is a stereo camera-based driver assist technology implemented in the form of a collision avoidance and damage mitigation braking system. It is capable of detecting not only vehicles but lane markers, guard rails, pedestrians and bicycles as well.
The EyeSight was first adopted in June 2008 and the second version in May 2010. The latest third version, adopted in the Levorg launched in June 2014, uses a fully renovated stereo camera with approximately 40% wider view angle and extended range. The system uses color images and is capable of recognizing the brake lamp of the preceding vehicle and recognizing pedestrians and bicycles in intersections as early as possible. New functions have been added such as the Pre-Collision Steering Assist that stabilizes steering in collision avoidance maneuver, and the rear Pre-Collision Throttle Management that prevents unintended acceleration when a vehicle is moving backward.
|Subaru's Levorg with EyeSight ver. 3 (launched in June 2014) (photo: courtesy of Fuji Heavy Industries)||The EyeSight is capable of recognizing pedestrians and bicycles as well as vehicles|
Subaru: Functions of the EyeSight active safety system
|(Functions in blue are the new funtions adopted in the EyeSight ver. 3)|
|Pre-Collision Braking System||The system warns the driver of a potential collision. If collision avoidance maneuver is not taken by the driver, the system controls the brakes to automatically decelerate or stop the vehicle. The EyeSight ver. 3 operates at relative speed of 50km/h or less (second version works at 30km/h or less) to avoid collision or reduce damage of collision.|
|Pre-Collision Steering Assist||When the Pre-Collision Braking system is activated and the driver operates the steering wheel to avoid collision, the Pre-Collision Steering Assist helps the driver avoid collision by using vehicle dynamics management of VDC (or ESC) to prompt vehicle behavior according to the steering wheel operation.|
|Active Lane Keep||This system is designed to prevent the vehicle from deviating from a lane to substantially reduce the driver's stress. When driving on a highway or motorway, the stereo camera recognizes the lane markings on both sides of the vehicle. The system assists the driver's steering operations to prevent deviation from the lane. It operates when driving at 65km/h or faster.|
|Pre-Collision Throttle Management||When the system detects obstacles such as walls and hedges in front of the vehicle and judges the situation as an unintended move by the driver, it provides audio and visual warnings and restricts engine output to start off slowly.|
|Rear Pre-Collision Throttle Management||The system described above also operates when a vehicle moves backward in R range. It features "reversing speed limiter" that automatically limits the reversing speed.|
|Lane Sway and Departure Warning/Lead vehicle Start Alert||When the vehicle is swaying (when the vehicle is traveling at 60km/h or faster) or deviating from the lane (when traveling at 40km/h or faster), the system gives audio and visual warnings to the driver. It also alerts the driver with sound and display when the driver is unaware that the preceding vehicle had started off.|
|Adaptive Cruise Control||When traveling at speeds between 0 and 100km/h on a highway or motorway, the system maintains a set distance from the preceding vehicle. When there is no vehicle ahead, the vehicle will keep cruising at a set speed between 0 and 100km/h. When a preceding vehicle is detected, the vehicle keeps a set distance from that vehicle.|
Source: Subaru's press releases and technology materials (Note) The Legacy B4, Outback and WRX S4 in which the EyeSight ver. 3 is incorporated and the Levorg fitted with EyeSight are also fitted with the Electric Parking Brakes. They maintain brake control after the vehicle comes to an automatic stop under the Pre-Collision Brake and Adaptive Cruise Control. On all other vehicles, the driver must press the brake pedal because the brake control is cancelled.
Availability of active safety systems (EyeSight ver. 3) on major Subaru models
|(Functions in blue are the new functions adopted in EyeSight ver. 3.)|
|(S: Standard on all grades, A: Standard on some grades, Blank: Not available)|
|Legacy Outback||Legacy B4||Levorg||WRX S4||XV||Impreza G4||Impreza Sport|
|Touring wagon||Mid-sized sedan||Sport Tourer||Sport sedan||Small CUV||Small sedan||Hatch-back|
|Launch timing||Oct. 2014||Oct. 2014||Jun. 2014||Aug. 2014||Nov. 2014||Nov. 2014||Nov. 2014|
|Pre-Collision Steering Assist||S||S||A||S|
|Active Lane Keep||S||S||A||S||A||A||A|
|Pre-collision Throttle Management||S||S||A||S||A||A||A|
|Rear Pre-collision Throttle Management||S||S||A||S||A||A||A|
|Warning & Alert||S||S||A||S||A||A||A|
|Adaptive Cruise Control||S||S||A||S||A||A||A|
Source: Subaru's press releases and online catalogs (Note) The Forester and the Exiga are fitted with EyeSight ver. 2 as of late-March 2015.
Suzuki: Radar Brake Support available on commercial mini vehicles
|The all-new Every Wagon fitted with the Radar Brake Support System (launched in February 2015) (photo: courtesy of Suzuki)|
In July 2013, Suzuki launched the partially redesigned Wagon R fitted with Radar Brake Support, a laser radar-based collision damage mitigation braking system. The system is now available on a broad range of its mini vehicles. It was made available on commercial mini vehicles as well in December 2014.
The Kizashi and the Solio, Suzuki's non-mini vehicles, are fitted with a millimeter-wave radar-based collision damage litigation braking system.
Suzuki: Functions of the active safety system (Radar Brake Support System)
|Radar Brake Support System||When a vehicle is traveling at 5 to 30km/h, the system uses laser radar to detect vehicles ahead. When it detects an impending collision, it automatically applies brakes to avoid rear-end collision or reduce the damage of collision. Collision can be avoided if the relative speed with the preceding vehicle is about 15km/h or less. Damage of collision can be reduced if the relative speed is about 30km/h or less.|
|Pre-Collision Throttle management||When a vehicle is stopped or traveling at about 10km/h or slower and laser radar detects an obstacle within 4 meters in front of the vehicle, and if the driver steps on the accelerator pedal with the gear in D or L range, the system automatically restricts the engine power to prevent rapid starting or acceleration. This helps avoid collision in parking, etc.|
|Pre-Collision Safety System||The millimeter-wave radar-based brake system is designed to help avoid collision and reduce damage of collision. It is available as a set with the Active Cruise Control (ACC) on the Kizashi.|
|Radar Brake Support System II||The millimeter-wave radar-based system is designed to help avoid collision and reduce damage of collision. (1) Forward collision alert: When the system detects a potential collision with another vehicle ahead, it prompts the driver with a buzzer and display in the instrument cluster to apply brakes; (2) Brake assist: When the system detects an impending collision and the driver steps on the brake pedal, the brake assist function is activated to help avoid collision or reduce damage; (3) Automatic braking: When the system judges that collision is unavoidable, it automatically applies a stronger braking force to help avoid collision or reduce damage.|
|According to Suzuki, this is the first millimeter-wave radar-based collision damage mitigation system on compact tall wagons as of February 2014 when it was made available on the Solio.|
Source: Suzuki's press releases and technology materials
Availability of active safety systems on major Suzuki models
|(S: Standard on all grades, A: Standard on some grades, O: Optional, Blank: Not available)|
|Solio||Wagon R||Spacia||Hustler||Alto||Every wagon||Every||Alto van|
|Compact car||Mini passenger car||Mini Commercial vehicle|
|Launch timing||Aug. 2014||Jul. 2013||Sep. 2013||Dec. 2013||Dec. 2014||Feb. 2015||Feb. 2015||Dec. 2014|
|Radar Brake Support System||AO||AO||AO||AO||S||O||AO|
|Pre-collision Throttle Management||AO||AO||AO||AO||S||O||AO|
|Radar Brake Support II||A|
Source: Suzuki's press releases and online catalogs (Note) Other than those listed above, the millimeter-wave radar-based Pre-Collision Safety System is available as a set with the ACC since 2011 on the midsize sedan Kizashi.
Daihatsu: Smart Assist available on four mini vehicles with throttle management function
|Daihatsu Wake fitted with the Smart Assist (launched in November 2014) (photo: courtesy of Daihatsu)|
Daihatsu's mini vehicle Move, redesigned in December 2012, became the first mini vehicle fitted with the Smart Assist collision avoidance support system. The system is now available on four major models including the Move and the Wake.
The system features (1) low-speed collision avoidance support braking, (2) throttle management and (3) lead vehicle start alert functions. A new function, sonar-based rear-end pre-collision throttle management, was added to the system on the all-new Move that was launched in December 2014. This also marks the first application of the function on mini vehicles.
Daihatsu: Functions of the active safety system (Smart Assist)
|Low-speed pre-collision braking system||When the system detects an impending collision with another vehicle ahead, it applies emergency braking to decelerate to avoid collision or reduce damage of collision. It operates when a vehicle is traveling at about 4km/h to 30km/h and the laser radar detects another vehicle within 20 meters ahead.|
|The system is capable of avoiding collision when traveling at relative speed of about 20km/h or less with another vehicle ahead. It is capable of reducing damage if travelling at relative speed of 20 to 30km/h. According to Daihatsu, approximately 60% of collisions occur when traveling at low speeds slower than 30km/h.|
|Pre-Collision Throttle Management||When laser radar detects an obstacle within 4 meters ahead and the system judges that the driver has stepped on the accelerator pedal carelessly, the system restricts the engine power to prevent sudden starting.|
|Rear Pre-Collision Throttle Management||A sonar sensor is used to detect walls or other obstacles behind the vehicle. When the driver steps on the accelerator pedal in R range, the system restricts the engine power to prevent sudden starting. According to Daihatsu, this system was first adopted in mini vehicle when the all-new Move was launched in December 2014.|
|Lead Vehicle Start Alert||When the preceding vehicle within 10 meters ahead has moved away more than 3 meters on green lights but the car remains stopped, the system prompts the driver with a buzzer and a visual display in the instrument cluster.|
Source: Daihatsu's press release and technical brochures
Availability of active safety systems on Daihatsu's major models
|(A: Standard on some grades, Blank: Not available)|
|Move||Wake||Mira e: S||Tanto|
|Mini passenger car|
|Launch timing||Dec. 2014||Nov. 2014||May 2014||Oct. 2013|
|Low-speed pre-collision braking system||A||A||A||A|
|Pre-collision Throttle Management||A||A||A||A|
|Rear Pre-Collision Throttle Management||A|
|Lead Vehicle Start Alert||A||A||A||A|
Source: Daihatsu's press releases and online catalogs (Note) The Smart Assist is not available, as of late March 2015, on Daihatsu's mini vehicles such as Mira、Mira Cocoa, Move Conte, Copen and Atrai Wagon, and on commercial mini vehicles.
<Automotive Industry Portal MarkLines>