JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013: Parts Suppliers (2)
Various equipment and technologies improve fuel efficiency.
This report, Parts Suppliers (2) is an outline of exhibits addressing weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE), and other technologies introduced by automotive parts suppliers at the Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013 held in Yokohama on May 22-24, 2013.
Weight reduction materials that were exhibited included the applications of CFRP and ABS resins.
Various approaches were proposed focusing on the improvement of fuel efficiency. Exedy exhibited a low-fuel consumption torque converter. Univance introduced a compact DCT under development. The device uses the odd-numbered and even-numbered clutch plates concurrently when starting the engine to reduce the overall unit size. An electronically-controlled wastegate actuator (exhibited by Hella) and an electric supercharger (exhibited by Valeo) are being developed to achieve more elaborate control of the existing turbocharger and the supercharger. Yutaka Giken and T.Rad exhibited systems that use exhaust heat to increase fuel efficiency.
Please see "JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013: Parts Suppliers (1)" (posted in June 2013) about EV/HV system parts and technology, and
"JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013: OEMs" (posted in June 2013) about exhibits by automakers at the Exposition.
* Click on the photo for a larger image.
Applications of CFRP and other weight reduction materials
Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation and Toray exhibited auto-bodies, wheels, bumpers and other parts that are made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP).
Magna Steyr exhibited all-aluminum auto-body used on Mercedes-Benz vehicles.
|"MOMA" prototype car in which CFRP is used wherever applicable (exhibited by Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation )||CFRP-made wheel (exhibited by Toray)|
|CFRP-made monocoque body and door inner (exhibited by Toray)||Magna Steyr's aluminum body for Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG|
|ABS resin-made back-door garnishes and rear spoilers developed by Toray||Resin-made cylinder head cover with OCV (Oil Control Valve) exhibited by Toyota Boshoku|
|Resin-made sliding bearings "DryLin" exhibited by igus|
Applications of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP)
|Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Corporation||MOM concept car made of CFRP||The MOMA (CLO1-M) concept car measures 4450mm long, 1890mm wide and 1230mm tall and has a dry weight of 1030kg. CFRP is used wherever possible such as the monocoque body and door assemblies. The car is powered by a V6 engine and seats 2+2.|
|The CFRP components are made by a prepreg compression molding (PCM) process. The CF-woven sheet is impregnated with fast hardening resin and then finished by press molding. A molding cycle is approximately 10 minutes. A 200-ton press machine is currently used with a plan to switch to a 1000-ton machine in the near future.|
(Note) "MOMA" was developed by Challenge, a company engaged in the design and fabrication of racing cars, show cars, etc., and also in CFRP since the mid-80s. A Mitsubishi Chemical group company since November 2012.
|Toray||Wheel||Toray has developed a CFRP-made wheel that weighs 4.55kg (38% lighter than an aluminum wheel) and meets JWL standards (quality certification of aluminum wheels). Internal road tests are being conducted by Toray.|
|Front bumper||The exhibited CFRP-made front bumpers were used on the Honda Civic MUGEN RR car that was released for limited sale of 300 units in September 2007. The rear spoiler also has been replaced by CFRP.|
|Other parts||About ten CFRP-made components manufactured by Toray were exhibited including the CFRP monocoque body and crush box (crumple space) used on the "TEEWAVE" AR1 EV concept car, the hood used on Lexus LFA, and the trunk lid co-developed with Mercedes-Benz.|
|Kodaka Seimitsu||Seat frame made of CFRP||Production prototype of the seat frame is formed of a CFRP prepreg sheet impregnated in thermosetting epoxy resin. The high tensile material used in the conventional seat frame is unchanged but the total weight has been reduced from 12kg to 9kg.|
Other weight reducing materials
|Magna Steyr||Aluminum body||Magna Steyr exhibited the aluminum body from the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG (powered by aV8 6200cc engine).|
|Toray||ABS resin-made rear spoilers||Toray exhibited the ABS resin-made back-door garnishes (used on the Mitsubishi Outlander and the Lexus CT200h) and rear spoilers (used on the Toyota Ractis, the RAV4, the Wish, etc.).|
|ABS resin is easily moldable (by injection molding) but is prone to defective painting. Toray has conquered this problem and developed ABS resins of lower fraction defective and better painting quality. The ABS resins are supplied in pellets.|
|Kasai Kogyo||Nanocomposite polypropylene||Kasai Kogyo exhibited components made of nanocomposite polypropylene that is more scratch-resistant as well as concealing. The material is used in the lower exterior of B-pillar of Nissan Juke and has contributed to reducing the components weight by 15%.|
|Toyota Boshoku||Resin Cylinder head Cover with OCV||Working with the cylinder head cover fitted with the OCV (oil control valve) that controls the VVT (variable valve timing) system, Toyota Boshoku has successfully replaced the aluminum with resins in the cover other than the OCV area. This has resulted in 40% weight reduction from the conventional all-aluminum head cover.|
|The new head cover was co-developed with Toyota and Daihatsu and is used on the Toyota Ractis and other vehicles.|
|Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class Door trim||Toyota Boshoku supplies door trims for Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class. The components are made of natural material for environmental consideration and weight reduction. The skin is made of genuine leather to give a posh impression to the car.|
|Boshoku Automotive Europe supplies door trims, ceiling and other interior components to major European OEMs including Daimler, BMW and VW group.|
|igus||Resin-made bearings||igus is the Germany-headquartered manufacturer of "iglidur," resin-made bearings. igus had a spacious booth at the Exposition to display "DryLin" bearings for linear motion applications.|
|According to the exhibitor, the resin-made bearings may be used in the sliding roofs, sliding doors, etc. Their properties include low adhesion and low moisture absorption.|
(Note) For more details on igus please see "Automotive Weight Reduction Expo 2013" at http://www.marklines.com/en/report/rep1144_201302#2.
Powertrains and related components for improving fuel efficiency
Exedy exhibited the Daihatsu CVT, the torque converter supplied to the CVT of the Honda N BOX, and the low fuel consumption torque converter supplied for Mazda SKYACTIV-DRIVE (AT).
Univance exhibited the DCT in which the odd-numbered and even-numbered plates are engaged concurrently when the engine starts.
|Mazda's six-speed AT (for 2000cc class engines) fitted with Exedy's SUTC (Start-up Torque Converter) with a multi-plate-clutch shown in green (exhibited by Exedy)||The Dual Clutch Transmission being newly developed by Univance|
|Column type EPS for 1.5-liter class cars (the motor, right, is integrated with the ECU) (exhibited by JTEKT)||Turbocharger to be supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for Porsche V8 4800cc engines (single bank of the V8 engine is shown)|
|Turbocharger fitted with the electronically-controlled wastegate actuator (exhibited by Hella)||Electric supercharger exhibited by Valeo|
Powertrain-related technologies that contribute to higher fuel efficiency
|EXEDY||Squashed torque converter||Exedy has been striving to find a way to accommodate dampers and lockup clutches with enhanced functions in the length-critical transmission for front-wheel drive cars. To meet this requirement, Exedy had to shorten the axial dimension of the torus (by squashing the oil passage from the pump impeller at entrance to the turbine runner at exit). But a squashed torus would interfere with smooth oil flow and affect the transmission efficiency. Exedy relied on a computer analysis to develop highly efficient pump impeller, stator and turbine runner and optimize the oil flow.|
|Exedy exhibited the CVT manufactured by Daihatsu that uses Exedy's "squashed torque converter" (fitted in the Mira e:S after the model launched in September 2011).|
|Super squashed torque converter||Exedy exhibited components of the "super-squashed torque converter" with a shorter axial dimension used in the CVT on Honda N BOX.|
|Generally a roundish structure is preferred for efficient transmission of fluid power in torque converters. But Exedy is developing torque converters of a squashed torus based on the automaker's policy.|
|Low-speed Lock-up torque converter||The SKYACTIV-DRIVE automatic transmission, fitted in Mazda's Axela/CX-5 models driven by 2000cc engines, uses Exedy' low-speed lockup torque converter.|
|The low-speed lockup torque converter uses a super-thin torus positioned along the periphery. Since the torque converter in the SKYACTIV-DRIVE is used only at starting (hence called the SUTC: Start-up Torque Converter), the lockup range was extended from 49% of the conventional type to 82%. Multi-plate clutches and low torsional rigidity (softer) dampers are used to resist the severe environments introduced by the broader lockup range.|
|Univance||DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission)||Univance introduced a new type of DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission) under development (a reference exhibit). Conventionally only the odd-numbered plates are used at starting but the even-numbered clutch plates are also used concurrently in the new DCT to reduce the clutch size so that it will fit in the gearbox (the odd-numbered plates in the conventional torque converter are subject to a large starting load and had to be large in diameter and positioned outside of the gearbox). Univance is eyeing the commercial application of the new DCT in 2015.|
|The company intends to reduce the component size to allow accommodation in mini and compact-class vehicles. Univance also intends to transfer the expertise gained from the DCT development to the development of reduction gears and transmissions for electric vehicles.|
|Denso||The fourth-generation Common-rail system and Closed loop Injection control system||Denso's fourth-generation common-rail system is being developed as a super-high pressure (250 to 300MPa) fuel injection system that will realize the best atomization for combustion. The pressure is increased to up to 250MPa on passenger cars to make exhaust gases cleaner and up to the world-highest pressure of 300MPa on heavy-duty commercial vehicles to reduce the smoke emissions.|
|The system will adopt the world-first closed loop injection control system. A pressure sensor is built into the injector and the injection ratio is fed back to the injector to make the engine more fuel efficient and the exhaust emissions cleaner.|
|JTEKT||Column-type EPS||The conventionally separated motor and the ECU are integrated into a compact, lightweight unit. The ECU's volume was reduced by 40% and the motor torque efficiency increased by 10%. The EPS is designed for 1.5-liter class cars and is now used on Toyota Auris powered by a 1.5-liter engine.|
Turbochargers and superchargers
|Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Turbocharger for gasoline engine||The turbocharger used on Porsche's 4.8-liter class gasoline engine was exhibited as fitted on a V8 engine bank.|
|Turbocharger for diesel engine||The turbine volume varies according to the engine load on the VG (Variable Geometry) turbocharger on passenger cars powered by a 2.0-liter diesel engine.|
|Hella||Wastegate actuator for turbocharger||The wastegate in conventional turbochargers is a pneumatic valve that diverts exhaust gases away from the turbine to protect the turbocharger or the engine.|
|Hella is developing an electronically-controlled wastegate actuator. The actuator, along with the intake manifold, provides more precise control of the turbocharger. This increases the engine power which, in turn, increases the fuel efficiency. According to Hella, the actuator will also reduce the turbo lag.|
|Valeo||Electric supercharger||According to Valeo, an electrified control offers a number of advantages. It eliminates the turbo lag when the turbo engine is running at low speeds. The engine does not need to run at high rpm as a large torque is available from low ranges. This leads to less friction loss and higher engine efficiency. It also leaves room for further downsizing without affecting the low-speed drivability.|
Exhaust heat recovery systems to increase fuel efficiency
Yutaka Giken has heat exchanging technology used in the "ECOWILL" gas engine cogeneration units for home use, and automotive exhaust component technology acquired through many years of experience. The company proposed new products, the heat collector and the EGR cooler, resulting from the fusion of the two technologies.
T.Rad and Sango exhibited similar system called the exhaust heat recovery system.
|Heat collector developed by Yutaka Giken. The pipe running from left to right in the foreground is the exhaust passage. The passage switching valve is seen slightly to the right from the center. The component in the rear left is the heat exchange core where exhaust gases flow during the engine warm-up. The piping at the top is where the LLC (long life coolant) flows in and out.|
Exhaust heat recovery systems to increase fuel efficiency
|Yutaka Giken||Heat exchanger for gas and engine cogeneration||Yutaka Giken has been producing heat exchangers since 2011 for the "ECOWILL" gas engine cogeneration units for home use. The generation unit of ECOWILL was developed by Honda.|
|(Application for vehicle usage)||Yutaka Giken proposed new products, the heat collector and the EGR cooler, resulting from the fusion of the heat exchange technology and expertise and the automotive exhaust component technology acquired through many years of experience.|
|Heat collector||The heat collector is intended to shorten the engine warm-up time and increase fuel efficiency and also the heater performance in winter. The heat collector is positioned at a mid-point along the exhaust passage and the exhaust gas flows through the heat exchange core during warm-up to recover exhaust heat in the LLC (refrigerant). When the preset temperature is reached, the passage (valve) is switched and the exhaust gas is returned to the normal passage.|
|EGR cooler||Yutaka Giken decided to apply the heat exchange core to the EGR cooler as well. This has led to the development of a new product which is about half the size of the conventional EGR cooler.|
|T.RAD/SANGO||Waste heat recovery system||The system starts to recover heat from the exhaust gas immediately after the engine starts and uses it to warm the engine coolant (LLC) and automatic transmission fluid (ATF). This increases fuel efficiency and the passenger cabin gets warm faster. The exhibited system produced by Sango uses a heat exchanger manufactured by T.Rad.|
|The system works in both the gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles. It is more effective, however, on hybrid vehicles that are driven by the motor alone at starting and that require longer time for engine warm-up because of the frequent start/stop operations. The system is used in Toyota Aqua, etc.|
Systems and ceiling materials used for more efficient air-conditioning
|Thermal insulation roof trim supplied by Kasai Kogyo for Nissan Leaf (the side in the foreground faces the roof when installed)|
Systems and components that make air conditioning more efficient
|Denso||Driver's air conditioning system||Denso focused on the fact that the conventional air conditioner warms or cools the entire cabin although the driver is the only occupant for nearly 80% of the time. As a result, Denso has developed an A/C system that warms or cools only where it is needed. The system has five air outlets in total: two for the driver (leg space, dashboard), two for the front passenger (leg space, dashboard) and one in the back seat. Air conditioning may be used selectively for the driver alone or for the driver and the front passenger, etc.|
|The system measures the preset temperature, outside air temperature and cabin air temperature, and automatically chooses the air conditioning mode. The A/C power consumption was reduced by up to 40% and approximately 20% through the year (according to internal tests conducted by Denso on cars fitted with the system).|
|The A/C system is available on the Version L of the all-new Lexus GS 450h/350/250 released for sale in the spring of 2012.|
Ceiling materials on Leaf EV
|Kasai Kogyo||Thermal insulation roof trim||Kasai Kogyo exhibited the thermal insulation roof trim (thermal head lining) used on Nissan Leaf. The lining has six layers including a urethane core. One of the six layers, the aluminum-vapor deposited layer, reflects infrared rays. In comparison with the conventional lining, the new lining lowers the unconditioned cabin temperature by 2.7oC in summer and increases it by 2.3oC in winter. This reduces the air conditioning load effectively.|
New lighting equipment
|Adaptive driving beam LED headlamps used on Lexus LS600h (exhibited by Koito)|
New lighting equipment
|Koito Manufacturing||Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB)||Koito Manufacturing has developed Adaptive Driving Beam System (Toyota's trade name is Adaptive Hi-beam System). When in high-beam, the system camera detects the tail-light of the lead vehicle and the head-light of the oncoming vehicle and automatically blocks light as needed to protect other drivers from glare. This permits the driver to use high beams more often and increases visibility in night-time driving.|
|When a vehicle is spotted within the high-beam light range, the intelligent AFS function is activated to control light shade by optimally changing the light axis so that the high-beam light does not hit the lead or oncoming vehicle directly.|
|An LED type ADB headlamp was equipped on the new Lexus LS600h launched in October 2012. An HID headlamp type ADB was made available on all-new Toyota Crown Royal/Athlete launched in December 2012.|
|The fourth-generation LED headlamp||The fourth-generation LED headlamp with an LED lamp on each side (44W per vehicle) was mounted on the all-new Lexus IS launched in May 2013 (standard on IS300h, optional on IS350 and IS250).|
|The LED headlamp on Lexus LS600h launched in 2007 had five LED lamps on each side. The LED performance has improved since then and the new headlamp requires only a single LED per side.|
Sensing technologies for driving safety
Denso has a broad variety of sensors that detect the driver's condition, the vehicle's condition and external condition of the vehicle in support of driving safety. The company exhibited new sensors that are used in vehicles that were launched recently.
Sensors for driving safety
|Denso||New Image sensor||The image sensor detects lane markers and objects ahead of the vehicle. The new image sensor has been downsized by 50% in volume and has an adaptive high-beam control system (AHB) in addition to the conventional lane departure warning system (LDW) functions.|
|The black and white camera of the conventional image sensor has been replaced by a full-color camera. This makes it the first LDW system capable of recognizing road signs in any color used worldwide. As an AHB system, the new sensor is capable of recognizing the tail-light of the lead vehicle from other light sources.|
|The new image sensor is a factory option on the Lexus ES launched worldwide starting in China in July 2012.|
|New millimeter-wave radar||Denso has developed new millimeter-wave radar. The range was extended from 151m to 205m and the detection angle was increased from ±10 to ±18 degrees at 35m ahead. These changes contribute to an extended operational range of the collision damage mitigation and inter-vehicular distance control systems. The new radar is used on the all-new Mazda Atenza since November 2012.|
|New laser radar||Denso has developed new laser radar for the "Smart Assist" collision avoidance and impact lessening system. The all-new Daihatsu Move launched in December 2012 is the first mini vehicle with the system. The radar is restricted in terms of scanning range and distance while the car is running in low speeds as in urban streets and congested roads. This enabled simplification of the laser light emitting function and resulted in downsizing and cost reduction.|
|(Note) "Smart Assist" works when the car is running at speeds from 4km/h to 30km/h and helps avoid collision or reduce the damage of impact.|
|Pedestrian collision detection sensor for Pop-up hood system||Denso has developed high-precision collision sensors used in the pop-up hood system for pedestrian protection. The system is used on Toyota Crown Hybrid whose production started in January 2013 (the first Toyota car with the pop-up hood system).|
|Conventional pedestrian protection systems relied on the bumper-mounted acceleration sensors to detect an impact at the cost of accuracy as the impact measurement value inevitably varied by the actual point of contact with the pedestrian. The new sensors are contained in a core structure inside the bumper and detect a frontal impact by converting the structural deformation into a pressure. This enables stable detection of collision regardless of the point of contact and leads to higher precision of measurement.|
|Hella||24GHz radar||Hella's 24GHz radar for blind zone detection systems, lane change assist systems, etc., is used in the rear vehicle monitoring (RVM) system of Mazda's all-new Atenza launched in November 2012. The current sensors, referred to as second-generation sensors, were exhibited along with the third-generation sensors (under development) representing improvement in angle of detection, etc.|
|The RVM is designed to detect other vehicles in the neighboring lane or approaching from behind during a lane change maneuver and warns the driver as needed to avoid danger.|
|A schematic drawing of ITS-compatible onboard DSRC devices (exhibited by Denso)|
|Aisin AW||NAVIelite||A navigation app for smartphones fully incorporating Aisin AW's navigation expertise displays routes on the smartphone screen rather than on the normal-sized car navigation screen. It works with iPhone3GS, iPhone4, iPhone4S, and iPhone5 (after iOS4.1) for an annual fee of 3,800 yen (or 2,800 yen for the simplified mini app).|
|Designed under the "door to door" service slogan, the navigation app guides the driver accurately with voice instructions and enlarged map display to an area 30 meters from the visually-recognizable destination. It also provides a realistic 3D image of the oncoming intersection and guides the driver to the correct direction. The map data is updated every other month so the latest road information is available at all times.|
|The latest addition of the "one-click search" function makes destination setting simple using location-tagged photos taken by iPhone camera.|
|Denso||NaviCon||Conventional car navigation work with the built-in map and facilities information alone. The increasing market penetration of smartphones has enabled uninterrupted connection to the Internet and accumulation of fresh information.|
|NaviCon is an app that sends the destination searched by a smartphone app to the car navigation system. Once the destination is set, the navigation system will guide the driver to the destination. NaviCon is compatible with many other apps and car navigation systems including those offered by carmakers, Fujitsu Ten and JVC Kenwood.|
|NaviCon can be hooked up to iPhone and Android smartphones (downloadable for free of charge).|
|ARPEGGiO||ARPEGGiO is an onboard service for using a smartphone connected by Bluetooth to the car's navigation system. It enables downloading weather forecast, Internet radio and other apps for use while driving. The driver can use the car's voice commands, steering switches and other controls to safely enjoy the downloaded services.|
|<Compatible models> Navigation systems: Toyota 2012MY NHZD-W62G Smartphones (after iOS5), Android 2.3 or 4.0|
ITS spot-compatible onboard devices
|Denso||Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) system via smartphones for ITS-spot services||Denso has developed an onboard Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) device for ITS-spot services. The road traffic information captured by a DSRC device is delivered to the driver by visual and voice guidance. The ETC (Electric Toll Collection) service may be used as it uses the same DSRC although a new onboard ETC device must be purchased. The onboard DSRC device works with the Android smartphones.|
|To connect a smartphone to the onboard communication system, (1) the driver downloads the "ITS spot viewer" app (free of charge) from Google play, (2) places the smartphone in the car and starts the downloaded "ITS spot viewer," (3) inserts an ETC card in the onboard DSRC device for ITS-spot service and starts the engine, and (4) the smartphone responds automatically as soon as the onboard device catches information.|
|ITS spots have been established in 1600 locations mainly along expressways and toll roads in Japan as of March 2011. These ITS spots deliver the latest road traffic information in support of driving safety.|
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