HV/EV launch plans by Toyota, Subaru, Mazda and Daihatsu
HVs account for 40 percent of Toyota's sales in Japan in 1H 2012
Below is a summary of HV (hybrid electric vehicle), PHV (plug-in hybrid electric vehicle), and EV (electric vehicle) launch plans by Toyota and affiliated automakers (including Mazda licensed to use Toyota's HV technology).
Toyota's HV sales are increasing sharply thanks especially to the Prius α (Prius v/Prius+) that was released for sale in May 2011 and the Aqua (Prius c) released at the end of December. As a result, HVs now account for approximately 15 percent of Toyota's global sales and 40 percent of domestic sales in Japan in the first half of 2012 (as compared with 26.6 percent in 2011).
The Aqua's HV system is 42kg lighter than that of the third-generation Prius. According to Toyota, this represents evolution virtually equal to full remodeling of the hybrid system on the Prius. Toyota intends to further boost HV sales by developing smaller, lighter, more efficient and lower-cost hybrid systems.
Also, it is said that the next Prius model being launched in 2014 will feature the low center of gravity and emotional design of the NS4 concept exhibited at the 2012 Detroit motor show.
Exhibited by Toyota at the Geneva motor show in March 2012 as a model pursuing high efficiency was the B-segment FT-Bh Concept, powered by a two-cylinder 1.0-liter gasoline engine and a hybrid system with the curb vehicle weight of 786 kg and the fuel efficiency of 2.1 liter/100 km (47.6 km/L). Introduced as a future HV model likely to be prevailing in the latter half of the decade, the FT-Bh is very much meant for commercialization.
As for PHVs, Toyota launched the Prius PHV in January 2012. Toyota intends to promote PHV as an environmentally-conscious core technology, next to HV, and will increase the PHV lineup in the same way as the HV.
Regarding EVs, Toyota launched in 2012 the RAV4 EV, co-developed with Tesla Motors, in the state of California, United States. Lease sales of the iQ-based EV is planned to start in Japan, US and Europe.
Toyota will increase HV/EV production capacities outside of Japan to meet the growing demand in overseas markets. The company is currently producing HV/EV in eight countries other than Japan and an integrated local production including core components is slated to start in the United States and China in around 2015.
Fuji Heavy Industries is expected to launch HV versions of XV and Impreza G4 in 2013. Daihatsu has launched its HV called Altis (Toyota's Camry HV) under OEM arrangement with Toyota. Mazda will launch the Demio EV in October 2012 and an HV using the hybrid technology licensed by Toyota in 2013.
HVs account for 15% of Toyota's global sales and 40% of domestic sales in Japan in 1H 2012
Toyota currently sells 18 hybrid passenger cars in approximately 80 countries and areas. The HVs account for approximately 15 percent of its global sales and 40 percent of domestic sales in Japan in the first half of 2012.
Toyota's sales of hybrid passenger cars in Japan in January through June totaled 367,000 cars, more hybrid cars sold in six months than the total count sold in the full year of 2011 (316,000 units). The HV sales in the world in the six-month period also exceeded the total number sold in 2011.
Toyota's HV sales in the world topped three million units at the end of February 2011, and sold a million cars more in one year and two months reaching the four million cars mark at the end of April 2012. Toyota's global sales of HVs in 2012 are expected to top a million units.
Toyota's sales of hybrid cars in Japan
|2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||First half 2012|
|Total sales in Japan||1,682,272||1,580,232||1,455,355||1,365,660||1,556,205||1,185,858||908,353|
|Sales of HVs||72,371||81,055||103,266||250,680||391,993||315,782||366,690|
|Ratio of HVs||4.3%||5.1%||7.1%||18.4%||25.2%||26.6%||40.4%|
|(Notes) 1.||Total sales in Japan include 6,308 minivehicles in 2011 and 21,580 minivehicles in the first half of 2012.|
|2.||Toyota sold 181,630 units of Prius and 128,243 units of Aqua, a total of 309,873 units, in the first half (January through June) of 2012, accounting for 84.5 percent of Toyota's HV sales.|
Sales of HVs overseas and worldwide
|2006||2007||2008||2009||2010||2011||First half 2012|
Toyota: HV/PHV/EV launches and plans
The next-generation PHV Concept, NS4, exhibited by Toyota at the Detroit motor show in January 2012. The NS4 is said to signify the design of the next Prius model.
Toyota: HV/PHV/EV launches and plans
|(Those produced or expected to be produced outside of Japan exclusively are accounted for in a separate table "Overseas production of HV/EV" below)|
|HVs launched before 2010||Harrier||2005|
|Lexus GS450h||2006||New model|
|Lexus LS600h /LS600hL||2007|
|Highlander (overseas only)||2005||Production transferred to US|
|3rd-generation Prius||2009||4th-generation model|
|HVs launched after 2011||Lexus CT200h||Launch|
|Alphard/Vellfire ((1) in Table below)||Launch|
|Lexus ES300h (3)||Launch|
|FT-Bh Concept (4)||2nd half of the 2010s|
|PHV||Prius-based PHV (5)||Sold in Japan, US and Europe|
|Concept NS4 (6)||About 2015|
|EV||iQ-based EV (7)||Sold in Japan, US and Europe|
(Note) The year under "-2011" is the year the specific model was launched. Those models launched in 2011 are identified by "Launch."
|(1) Alphard||In November 2011, Toyota introduced the partially remodeled upscale minivans, Alphard/Vellfire, which included a hybrid version again. The Alphard HV was introduced for the first time in 2003 but the availability had been discontinued since 2008.|
|(2) Aqua||Toyota introduced the compact class Aqua HV at the end of December 2011. Powered by a 1.5-liter gasoline engine and a hybrid system, the Aqua HV achieves a world-leading fuel efficiency of 40 km/L under the 10-15 test cycle and 35.4 km/L under the JC08 test cycle. Its starting price of 1.69 million yen including tax is 480,000 yen lower than the price of the Prius (2.17 million yen). The monthly sale is targeted at 12,000 units but 128,243 units were sold in the first six months from January to June.|
|The car is fitted with a hybrid system newly designed for small cars and the amount of nickel-metal hydride batteries has been reduced to two thirds of that of the Prius but the car achieves far higher fuel efficiency than the Prius thanks to a new power control technology. The new hybrid system is 42 kg lighter than that of the third-generation Prius and the two-motor system weighs the same as a single-motor counterpart. It is said the production cost of the hybrid system has been reduced to around 300,000 yen with the Aqua from over a million yen quoted when the hybrid vehicles were first introduced.|
|Toyota plans to make the hybrid system used in the Aqua available on more models in the next ten years. It is used on the Yaris in Europe in mid-2012. The Aqua was released for sale in the United States under the name of Prius c (c standing for "city-centric") in the spring of 2012.|
|(3) ES300h||The Lexus ES300h, the first hybrid version in the front-wheel drive ES series, is produced at Toyota's Kyushu plant (with a monthly quantity of several thousand units) since July for exports mainly to North American markets (the ES is not sold in Japan).The car is fitted with the hybrid system of the same size as the one on the Camry.|
|(4) FT-Bh||The concept car exhibited at the 2012 Geneva motor show, expecting increased presence of hybrid vehicles in the market in the second half of the decade. The FT-Bh (Future Toyota B-segment hybrid) is a four-seat five-door hatchback with an overall length of 3,985 mm. It is said the concept car will most likely become a reality.|
|High-tensile steel is used generously in the FT-Bh (in place of carbon fiber and other costly materials) and has a curb weight of 786 kg. Powered by a two-cylinder 1.0-liter engine, lithium-ion battery and hybrid motor, the FT-Bh has an NEDC fuel efficiency of 2.1 liter/100km (47.62 km/L) and CO2 emission of 49 g/km.|
|In addition to the hybrid version, the FT-Bh is also available in natural gas (CNG) and PHV versions as well with CO2 emission of 38 g/km and 19 g/km, respectively.|
|(5) Prius PHV||Toyota launched the Prius PHV in Japan at the end of January 2012. The PHV is manufactured at the Tsutsumi plant (60,000 units a year) and Toyota plans to sell 35,000 to 40,000 units in Japan. The car is sold in Japan for 3.2 million to 4.2 million yen and for a subsidized price of 2.75 million yen. Only about 8,000 units were sold in the first six months (to the end of July) due in part to the tight subsidized sales race in the first half of the year and extra time required to convince potential customers about the advantage of the PHV. Toyota plans to reconstruct its sales structure after the fall to promote sales.|
|The Prius-based PHV is fitted with 4.4 kWh lithium-ion battery (supplied by the former Sanyo Electric) and has EV drive range of 26.4 km (JC08 test cycle) and maximum EV drive speed of 100 km/h. The car achieves PHV fuel efficiency of 61.0 km/liter combining EV and HV drive modes. Full charging takes approximately 90 minutes from a 200 V outlet, approximately 3 hours from a 100 V outlet (quick charge is not available).|
|(6) Concept NS4||The concept car, exhibited by Toyota at the 2012 Detroit motor show, is a mid-sized sedan type PHV developed for potential market introduction by 2015 (with the overall length of 4,650 mm, 170 mm longer than the Prius's 4,480 mm) and separate from the Prius family. It features an aerodynamic design with a sleek, low center of gravity proportion which is said to indicate the future design of the next Prius model.|
|The car comes with a pop-up hood and some other state-of-the-art safety features. It also has a two-screen display, mounted at the center of the instrument panel, which represents an "increased connectivity" between people, cars and infrastructure.|
|(7) iQ EV||The iQ-based EV is manufactured at Toyota's Takaoka plant for lease users starting in the fall of 2012. The EV uses a smaller number of lithium-ion batteries than the EVs already in the market by other automakers. The iQ EV gives a cruising range of 50 miles (80 km) which justifies a lower vehicle price. The lithium-ion batteries are supplied by the former Sanyo Electric.|
|The iQ EV will be leased to fleet users capable of installing their own charging facilities for using the vehicles within a limited area. According to Toyota, the iQ EV is also ideal for car sharing in large cities. Toyota will collect data on the use of the EV and use the data to develop mass-production EVs in the future.|
|(8) COMS||Toyota Auto Body launched in July the COMS, a one-seater electric vehicle. Fitted with a lead storage battery, the EV runs up to 50 km per charge. It is classified under the applicable road traffic law as "type 1 motorized bicycle (four-wheeled one-seater vehicle)" and may be driven on public roads by drivers carrying an ordinary driving license. The COMS is sold at 140 Toyota dealers with a starting price of 668,000 yen and is subject to up to 70,000 yen subsidy.|
|In June 2012, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism prepared a new guideline regarding a new vehicle classification that defines "one- to two-seater vehicles, more compact and with shorter-distance applications than conventional vehicles, that are more environmentally-friendly and contributing to short travels in local communities" as an ultra-compact mobility vehicle. The Ministry is currently working on new rules regarding driving license and taxation that will apply to the new category. The present law applicable to "type 1 motorized bicycle (four-wheeled one-seater vehicle)" prohibits manufacturing two-seater vehicles and such vehicles are not allowed on public roads in Japan.|
|Once the new category for ultra-compact mobility vehicle is established, it is expected to create new demand especially among senior drivers. Automakers including Nissan, Honda, Suzuki and Daihatsu are developing EVs falling under the new class.|
Toyota: Increasing overseas production of HV/EV, planning start-to-finish integrated production in the US and China
Toyota is currently manufacturing HV or EV in eight countries other than Japan. The company is operating under the policy of introducing HVs as the "key" for improving fuel efficiency. Toyota intends to increase overseas production to meet increasing sale of its HVs and growing local needs in overseas markets more promptly while minimizing the effect of the yen's high appreciation.
Toyota plans to double its HV sales in North America to 400,000 units by 2015. The next HV slated for market introduction in 2014 (fourth-generation Prius) will likely be manufactured in the United States, starting by 2015, using core components such as the batteries and motors that will be made locally.
Starting by 2015, Toyota also plans to manufacture China-only HVs in China using core components that will be developed and manufactured locally.
Toyota: Overseas production of HV/PHV/EV
|Full-sized pickup ((1) in Table below)||Prototype completed|
|Highlander (overseas only) (2)||US|
|Lexus RX450h (3)||Canada|
|Prius (4)||Thailand, 2010||US (4)|
|Auris (overseas only)||UK only, 2010|
|Yaris (5)||Produced in France only|
|China-only HV (6)||China|
|EV||RAV4 EV (7)||Canada|
|China-only EV (8)||Launch|
(Note) The column "-2011" indicates the country and the initial year of production.
|(1) Pickup||The prototype fitted with the hybrid system for full-sized pickup being co-developed by Toyota and Ford is said to be nearing completion in 2012. The hybrid system will be used on the Tundra being launched by Toyota in North America, and on a full-sized pickup by Ford.|
|(2) Highlander||Toyota will increase production capacity at the Indiana plant in the US from 280,000 to approximately 330,000 units in the second half of 2013. The additional capacity will be allocated to the Highlander for exports to Russia and other countries. At the same time, the plant will start producing the Highlander Hybrid.|
|(3) RX450h||Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada (TMMC) will invest 100 million dollars in the Cambridge plant where the RX350 is produced and increase the RX production capacity by 30,000 units to 104,000 units. The new facility will start operation in early 2014 and will also start producing the RX450h as well (15,000 units).|
|(4) Prius||FAW Toyota Motor, a joint venture company established by Toyota Motor and FAW Group, began producing the third-generation Prius at the Changchun plant. The Prius was introduced in the market in February 2012 with an initial target of selling 3,000 units a year. The plant will initially receive supplies of core components from Japan with plans to shift to locally-supplied parts in phases.|
|Regarding the next Prius model likely to reach the market around 2014, Toyota will produce them in the United States, including core components, as an increase in sale is expected and minimizing the effect of the yen's appreciation is required. The car is likely to be assembled at the Mississippi plant since many parts are shared by the Prius and the Corolla.|
|(5) Yaris||Production of the Yaris HV, fitted with the same hybrid system as the Aqua, began in April 2012 at Toyota's plant in France. This marks the first B-segment full-hybrid in Europe. Toyota plans to introduce the Yaris HV in markets outside of Europe as well if the need arises.|
|(6) China-only HV||Toyota's China-only concept hybrid, Yundong Shuangqing, made a world premiere at the 2012 Beijing Motor Show. The HV is slated for market launch by 2015 using hybrid components (including drive batteries) being developed by Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing (China) Co., Ltd. (TMEC) R&D Center in Changshu, China.|
|(7) RAV4 EV||The RAV4 EV, co-developed with Tesla Motors, is being launched in California, US, sometime after the summer of 2012. Fitted with Tesla's 18650-size battery pack (41.8 kWh), the RAV4 EV is expected to achieve a cruising range of 100 miles (160 km). The charging systems, motors and gear boxes will also be supplied by Tesla Motors. The RAV4 EV will be manufactured at Toyota's plant in Canada.|
|The price is set at $49,800, more than double the price of the 2.5-liter gasoline engine model ($22,650) but is eligible for $2,500 state and $7,500 federal subsidies. Toyota plans to sell 2,600 units in three years.|
|(8) Vios EV||Toyota is currently developing a Vios- (Vitz-) based EV in China under the FAW Toyota brand for market introduction in 2013 at the earliest.|
Toyota: Building a long-term strategic collaboration with BMW regarding environmental technologies
Agreements reached in December 2011
|Toyota and BMW reached agreement in December 2011 regarding a medium- to long-term cooperation for environmental technologies.|
|Supply of diesel engines||BMW to supply 1.6- and 2.0-liter diesel engines for Toyota vehicles to be introduced in Europe starting in 2014.|
|Joint research on next-generation lithium-ion battery cells||Joint research on the next-generation lithium-ion battery cell technology. An official agreement was concluded in March 2012 for joint research on cathode, anode and electrolyte materials.|
Agreements reached in June 2012
|Collaboration on powertrain electrification||Toyota to provide BMW with its next-generation HV technology being developed.|
|BMW was once involved in joint development of a two-mode hybrid system with GM and of a mild hybrid system for luxury cars with Daimler. It is said BMW was not satisfied with either of them and decided to seek hybrid technology from a Japanese source.|
|Joint development of a fuel cell system||Toyota to provide BMW with the fuel cell technology slated for commercial application in 2015, and the two companies to engage in joint development of next-generation technology by 2020.|
|Joint development of sports vehicles||Through jointly developing a sports car which is a "repository" of the state-of-the-art automotive technologies, Toyota will be able to take advantage of BMW's technical excellence and brand power. It is said the agreement may include the development of high-performance vehicles carrying the Lexus brand.|
|Joint development of lightweight technology||BMW to provide Toyota with its lightweight technology using the carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) being developed jointly with Mitsubishi Rayon.|
|(Notes) 1.||BMW and PSA established a joint venture company in November 2011 for joint development and production of hybrid system components. However, the BMW-PSA partnership is said to have fallen apart after another partnership was formed between PSA and GM in February 2012.|
|2.||In August 2011, Toyota and Ford concluded a memorandum of understanding regarding the joint development of a hybrid system for rear-wheel drive light trucks and SUVs. The hybrid system is to be used first on the next model of the rear-wheel drive light trucks in the mid-2010s. The first trial production model is expected in 2012.|
HV/EV launch plans by Subaru (Fuji Heavy Industries), Daihatsu and Mazda
Subaru: Launching HVs in 2013
|HV||XV (Note 1)||Launch|
|Impreza G4 (Note 1)||Launch|
|BRZ-based HV (Note 2)||Launch being considered|
|(Notes) 1-1.||Subaru (Fuji Heavy Industries) will introduce hybrid versions of the Impreza-based small-size SUV "XV" and Impreza G4 (sedan) in 2013 under licensing arrangements by Toyota.|
|1-2.||The Subaru vehicles are characterized by the "horizontally-opposed engine + longitudinal transmission" configuration. This prevents the direct use of the Prius's front-wheel drive hybrid system and it is said a modified system will be used on the Subaru vehicles.|
|2.||Subaru is eyeing the development of its hybrid system using the BRZ's low-center-of-gravity platform. This calls for developing a new vehicle having the seat height several tens of millimeters higher than that of the BRZ so that the hybrid system may be fitted in the extra space.|
Daihatsu: Launching the Altis (Toyota Camry HV)
|HV||Altis (Toyota Camry HV)||Launch|
(Note) Daihatsu exhibited the newly-envisaged two-seater electric vehicle, PICO, at the 2011 Tokyo motor show as a new type of mobility for the senior citizens, local areas, delivery businesses, etc. in the modern era. The PICO falls in the new category of "ultra-compact mobility vehicle" being worked on by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
Mazda: Launching the Demio EV in 2012, and the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine EV in 2013
|HV||Tribute HV||Discontinued in 2010|
|Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid||2009|
|Small car HV (Note 1)||Launch|
|EV||Demio EV (Note 2)||Lease|
|EV for US market (Note 3)||Launch in US by 2018|
|Hydrogen-fueled rotary engine EV (Note 4)||Lease|
|(Notes) 1.||Mazda plans to launch in Japan in 2013 a hybrid vehicle that will combine the Prius hybrid system licensed by Toyota and its new-generation SKYACTIV engine.|
|2-1.||Mazda has developed a Demio (Mazda2)-based electric vehicle. About a hundred units of the EV will be leased to local communities and fleet users in the Chugoku area from October 2012. Fitted with 20 kWh lithium-ion battery, the EV has a cruising range of 200 km (JC08 test cycle) and will be sold for 3,577,000 yen.|
|2-2.||The EV will be powered by the 18650-size lithium-ion battery, generally used for the notebook PCs, that was co-developed by Panasonic. The vehicle also uses the variable magnetic flux motor, co-developed with Yaskawa Electric, to achieve high driving performance in both low and high speed ranges. The inverters are also supplied by Yaskawa Electric.|
|3.||Mazda plans to launch electric vehicles in the United States by 2018 at the latest to meet the regulations governing the State of California, US.|
|4.||Mazda will launch electric vehicles in 2013 that will be fitted with an auxiliary generator consisting of a hydrogen rotary engine. The electric vehicle will have a cruising range twice as long as the existing electric vehicles.|
|5-1.||By adopting the SKYACTIV technology, Mazda will improve the "basic technology" for its powertrain, upon which the company plans to build electric devices in phases including (1) start/stop technology (already adopted as "i-stop"), (2) deceleration energy regeneration technology "i-ELOOP", and (3) HV/EV (the entire plan is called "building block strategy").|
|5-2.||The company's regenerative braking system "i-ELOOP" that uses a capacitor for the first time on passenger car in the world will be used on the new Atenza (Mazda6) being launched in the fall of 2012. The system also uses a 12-25V variable voltage alternator, a low-resistance electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) and DC/DC converter for even higher efficiency in recovering the electric power. As a result, the system is expected to improve fuel efficiency by approximately 10 percent in frequent "stop and go" traffic conditions.|
Source: Toyota Press Releases and media reports
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