Tokyo Motor Show 2011: Parts Suppliers (1)
EV/HV, start-stop systems and future driving technologies
The following is an outline of technologies related to electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles, start-stop systems, smart house systems and futuristic driving technologies exhibited by automotive suppliers at the Tokyo Motor Show 2011 (December 3 to 11, 2011).
Toyota Industries Corporation and two other parts suppliers exhibited their EV concept cars while NSK and NTN presented their in-wheel motor-driven EV system proposals. The motor show was characterized by technologies and components such as lithium-ion batteries, motors, brake systems and various types of pumps that go into electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles. All exhibitors appealed the broad range and high integrity of their technologies in anticipation of the fast market growth of EVs and HVs.
The start-stop systems present a challenge common to EV/HV technologies. As the car stops and restarts engine frequently, the engine-driven functions must be performed in some other way. In reply to such a need, the suppliers exhibited brakes, electric power steering, DC-DC converters and other components and technologies that would support the start-stop systems.
Denso and two other suppliers presented futuristic driving technologies in their interactive demonstration booths. Introduced there was convenient and safe driving conditions realized by further evolved human-machine interface (HMI) that connects people and cars, and the cars communicating with other cars and transport infrastructure, etc.
EV concept cars
NTN exhibited the "Q'mo" EV driven by in-wheel motors and Toyota Industries Corporation displayed a minicar-sized commercial EV dubbed "e-Porter" while Toyota Boshoku exhibited its EV named "T-Bridge."
NTN's tandem electric mobility named "Q'mo" driven by four in-wheel motors
Toyota Boshoku's "T-Bridge" automobile interior space model
EV concept cars
|NTN||Two-seat Electric Mobility "Q'mo"||NTN demonstrated a two-seater electric mobility concept (the demonstration vehicle was named "Q'mo) characterized by an in-wheel motor in all four wheels and the newly-developed compact four-wheel independent drive and steering system. The vehicle is capable of moving sideways and pivoting and measures 1,780 (L) by 1,500 (W) by 2,300 mm (H).|
|According to NTN, the Q'mo is ideal especially for grocery shopping by women and the aged, for use in tourist sites, or local mobility in airports and hospitals.|
|Toyota Industries||e-Porter||The e-Porter, built on a special platform, is a next-generation minicar-sized (measuring 3400 by 1470 by 1765 mm) commercial van with a greater ease of entry and loading. The single-seat van has a 350 kg payload, 17.5 kWh electric power and 120 km range (in 10-15 mode tests with A/C turned off).|
|The vehicle uses an original EV powertrain developed by Toyota Industries integrating the inverter and the drive motor. The integration of the functional components has led to a compact, lightweight design. The powertrain serves a wide variety of EVs from mini to standard cars.|
|TOYOTA BOSHOKU||Automobile Interior Space Model "T-Bridge"||With the "Compact vehicle. Multiple possibilities" theme addressing maximum freedom of interior layout, three seats may be folded up to create enough space for a bicycle. The vehicle communicates with a smartphone for the driver identification and automated seat adjustment.|
Source: Suppliers' brochures and exhibits at the Tokyo Motor Show 2011 (this applies to the above-mentioned suppliers and all others in this report)
NSK and NTN exhibited their respective in-wheel motor-driven EVs and the drive systems for the currently prevailing single-motor drive EVs. Both suppliers equally appealed that their product lineup will help automobile manufacturers with their electric vehicle development challenges.
JATCO exhibited the newly-developed Jatco CVT8 HYBRID slated for market launch in 2013 with Nissan's one motor/two clutch hybrid system built into it. Aisin Seiki exhibited its hybrid AT system used in Hino Motors' Dutro HV developed for non-Japanese markets.
Bosch had a special corner for the visitors to experience the Axle Split Hybrid System adopted in Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4.
NSK's wheel hub motor system
Hybrid transmission used on Toyota Prius (exhibited by Aisin AW, also used on Toyota Aqua)
JATCO's transmission (Jatco CVT8 HYBRID) for FWD hybrid vehicles
Bosch's Axle Split Hybrid System (used on Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4)
New EV systems
|NSK||Wheel Hub Motors||Synonymous with in-wheel motors. NSK proposed a system with higher efficiency incorporating two motors, two planetary gears and a reduction gear in each wheel.|
|EV Drive System||An ordinary one-motor EV system of more compact and lightweight design and higher efficiency with a 4.0 reduction gear, a two-speed transmission and a maximum 40,000 rpm motor.|
|NTN||One Motor Type EV Drive System||In addition to the in-wheel motor used in the Q'mo, NTN is also proposing a new concept of the one-motor type EV drive system which is the prevailing direction of the EV development. NTN has exhibited a "one motor type EV drive system" that incorporates an automatic two-speed transmission instead of the conventional transmission with a fixed reduction ratio, a compact and lightweight drive motor, a differential gear, and an inverter.|
|NTN also proposed a steer-by-wire system and an electric brake system preferred for electric vehicles.|
(Note) NTN is proposing a variety of EV drive systems to automotive manufacturers in Japan and overseas. The volume production of the in-wheel motor system, in particular, is expected to start in two to three years.
Existing HV systems or new systems with identified customers
|Aisin AW||Small Hybrid Transmission||The hybrid transmission used on Toyota's third-generation Prius. A similar HV system is likely to be used on the Aqua being launched by Toyota in late December. The motors and a few other components will be smaller in size. (According to Aisin, the entire HV system can be reduced in size but the common use of certain components with the Prius contributes to higher volume efficiency.)|
|Aisin Seiki||Hybrid Automatic Transmission for CV||The hybrid system, co-developed by Hino Motors, incorporates automatic transmission for the Dutro Hybrid specified for North American markets (Japanese version uses a dedicated five-speed AMT). The motors and torque converters are also manufactured by Aisin Seiki.|
|A clutch is located between the engine and the motor generator to increase efficiency of deceleration energy regeneration.|
|Jatco||Jatco CVT8 HYBRID||The CVT8 hybrid system for FWD HV was co-developed with Nissan based on the CVT8 for the new medium to large size vehicle models to be introduced in 2012. The "one motor/two clutch hybrid system" is built into the CVT8 Hybrid as in Nissan's RWD Hybrid. The system also incorporates a clutch between the engine and the motor to achieve efficient motor drive and regenerative energy recovery.|
|The system will be produced in Japan and Mexico starting in early 2012 for Nissan's new HV models being launched in North America in 2013.|
|Bosch||Axle Split Hybrid System||The Axle Split Hybrid System was exhibited for hands-on experience by the visitors. The full hybrid system uses the engine to drive the front wheels and the motor to drive the rear wheels. The demonstration system had a simulator table for the visitor to experience the EV drive, motor and engine drive and engine only drive while watching the road images (CG) in the screen.|
|The system, used on the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4 being launched by PSA in 2011, is powered by a diesel engine, motor and Ni-MH battery supplied by Panasonic (Sanyo).|
Lithium-ion batteries, motors, on-board chargers, brake systems, electric water pumps, air conditioning and other technologies and components that support EV/HV systems were exhibited.
Denso introduced a broad range of products such as power control units, lithium-ion battery monitoring units, etc.
Torque-limiting damper for HVs (exhibited by Aisin Seiki)
Products for EV/HV use exhibited by Denso (from left to right, electric compressor, power control unit, ECU for HV use, DC-DC converter, battery monitoring relay and battery current sensor)
Electric compressors for A/C use (ES27 used on Prius α, right, ES14 used on the Prius, left, exhibited by Toyota Industries)
|Mitsubishi Electric||Motor & Charger||Mitsubishi Electric produces motors for electric power steering and other components but is still in the process of developing motors for EV/HV application. The company exhibited inverter-integrated motors and chargers for on-board use.|
|Aisin Seiki||Damper with Torque Limiter||The torque-limiting damper prevents excess torque, as caused by engine starting vibration, etc, from reaching the motor or transmission while transmitting necessary torque. Used on all of Toyota's HVs and Nissan's Altima HV (the size varies by the specific model).|
|Starting the cold engine does not present problems since it is not connected to the transmission. On HVs, however, the engine starts while running in EV mode and a large shock is transmitted to the entire powertrain which may sometimes cause troubles.|
|Electric Water Pump for Cooling the Engine||The electric water pump for HV use regulates the flow rate and the temperature only as needed to achieve power saving to increase the engine's thermal efficiency while achieving a 2% reduction in fuel consumption compared to the conventional belt driven pumps. Aisin Seiki supplies the 160W motor type for Toyota's Prius and Lexus CT200h, and the 200W motor type for Camry HV.|
|Hitachi Automotive Systems||Brake System Coordinated with Regenerative Braking||The system has built-in high precision motor and a computer in the space where the booster used to be for optimal control of the friction brakes and regenerative brakes. This allows maximum use of the regenerative braking energy while keeping the natural braking feel. The system is used on Nissan Fuga Hybrid.|
|ADVICS||Electronically Controlled Brake System||Hydraulic brakes and regenerative brakes work in concert on hybrid vehicles. This electronically controlled brake system controls the hydraulic brake precisely according to change in the regenerative brake force. This maximizes the regenerative energy recovery while supplying the necessary braking force.|
|Denso||Products for EVs/HVs||Denso exhibited a lineup of its products for EV/HV use which included the power control unit, DC-DC converter, battery monitoring unit, system main relay, battery current sensor, ECU for HVs, and electric compressor.|
|Ejector Cycle Car Air Conditioning System||In the conventional air conditioning cycle, the expansion energy is lost in the form of a whirl by the expansion valve. Denso's new system produces a suction force from the expansion energy that is otherwise wasted. The suction force plays the role of the pump that circulates the refrigerant in the air conditioning cycle. This contributes to reducing the compressor drive power (load to the engine and the motor) that normally plays that role, which, in turn, increases fuel efficiency. The new system is used on Toyota's third-generation Prius.|
|Efficiency of the air conditioning system is one of the critical issues in EV/HV technologies and it also affects the EV range. Denso sees high potential for its new system.|
|Toyota Industries||Electric Compressor For Car Air Conditioning||The compressor remains activated whether the engine is running or not. This ensures passenger comfort while reducing fuel consumption at the same time on HV, PHV or EV. Toyota Industries exhibited its lineup consisting of three compressor models; (1) ES14 for Prius, (2) ES27 for Prius α, Prius PHV, Lexus CT200h, and (3) ES34 for Lexus LS600h.|
|Bosch||Lithium-ion Batteries||Bosch exhibited lithium-ion batteries for PHV. The batteries are produced by SB LiMotive, a joint venture company established by Bosch and Samsung SDI.|
|Toyota Industries||On-board Charger||The on-board charger, used on Toyota Prius PHV, converts alternating current at home to direct current to charge the high-voltage batteries on PHV/EV. It was introduced for the first time in the world.|
Hitachi Vehicle Energy's Lithium-ion battery lineup
|(for HV) LIB-III||(for HV) IB-IV||For PHV & EV|
|Announced in January 2010||Announced in November 2011|
|Specific Power (W/kg)||3,000||4,500||2,400||2,100|
|Specific Energy (Wh/kg)||61||72||120||130|
|(Notes) 1.||LIB-III is supplied for the "eAssist" mild HV system launched by GM in 2011.|
|2.||High specific power is important for batteries used on HVs. High specific energy is critical for batteries on PHV/EV.|
|3.||Battery specs for PHV & EV announced in November 2011 are taken from Hitachi Vehicle Energy's press release on November 21.|
Start-stop systems-related technologies
A start-stop system contributes to around 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Since not many other systems are as effective, its demand is increasing very rapidly.
Denso exhibited the Tandem Solenoid Starter that allows meshing between the pinion gear and the ring gear while the engine is turning by inertia.
A number of technologies were also exhibited that support the frequent engine start and stop operation to ensure smooth operation of the vehicle equipped with a start-stop system.
Tandem Solenoid Starter exhibited by Denso (the pinion gear and the ring gear may be engaged while the engine is still turning by inertia)
Starter for start-stop systems (exhibited by Mitsubishi Electric)
Start-stop systems technologies
|Denso||Tandem Solenoid Starter||Conventional starters thrust the pinion gear (the gear on their front end) forward to engage the ring gear (the mating gear on the engine) to transmit the rotation of the motor to the engine via the pinion gear in order to start the engine. This means the pinion gear cannot be meshed with the ring gear until the engine (ring gear) stops completely.|
|The new system adopts a world-first structure in which the pinion gear push-out and the motor energizing are controlled independently so that the two gears can mesh with each other after the engine stops but is still turning by inertia. The system is supplied for Daihatsu's new eco-IDLE.|
|The new start-stop system, eco-IDLE, launched in the fall of 2011 by Daihatsu stops the engine when the vehicle speed falls below 7 km/h. Since the engine stop lasts longer, the starter contributes to further increasing fuel efficiency.|
|Mitsubishi Electric||Starter for Idling Stop System||Mitsubishi Electric exhibited its starter for the start-stop system supplied for Nissan March. The starter is designed for extended use to withstand 300,000 operational cycles instead of only about 30,000 cycles required with conventional starters. Its startability also has been improved.|
Technologies and components to support start-stop systems
|ADVICS||Brake Control cooperative with Idle Reduction||The stability control system maintains the braking pressure while the engine is inactive with start-stop system. This prevents the car from creeping downhill and also from jerky start when the engine starts. The control system is supplied for Daihatsu and Suzuki minicars.|
|Toyota Industries||Voltage Stabilizer (DC-DC Converter)||A large current sometimes causes voltage drop when the engine is restarted by a start-stop system, and this causes meter and car navigation interruptions. The DC-DC converter prevents voltage drop to keep stable voltage supply.|
|JTEKT||Small, Column-type Electric Power Steering System (EPS)||Simplified and downsized structure has achieved 12% reduction in weight. The motor spec was changed from 65A to 45A to reduce power consumption. The system is used on Nissan March/Micra.|
|The system is deactivated when the engine stops to reduce power consumption. (Because EPS consumes a large amount of electricity and is not needed in engine stop condition, according to the exhibitor. In another system, the engine restarts when the steering wheel is operated. This system is available when required by automakers.)|
|Aisin Seiki||Electric Oil Pump for Idling Stop||The small electric oil pump is added to a start-stop system to feed oil to the transmission for a smooth start when the engine restarts. The system is used on Toyota Vitz, Nissan Serena/March, Suzuki Wagon R, Mitsubishi RVR/Galant Fortis, etc.|
|These cars also have the conventional engine-driven pumps. According to the exhibitor, an engine-driven unit is more efficient than electric units on automotive devices, such as oil pumps, that are activated constantly.|
|SHIN-KOBE DENKI||Lithium-ion Capacitor||The lithium-ion capacitor is suitable for power regeneration and power assistance. The exhibitor has presented the capacitor to automakers for application tests on start-stop systems and its effectiveness has been verified. But it has not been accepted because of the high cost and automakers are hesitant to increase the price of their cars because of the start-stop system. According to the exhibitor, the cost will be lowered once volume production starts.|
|(Notes) 1.||Mazda has developed and exhibited the world-first deceleration energy regeneration system for passenger cars, i-ELOOP, that uses electric double-layer capacitor, 12-25V variable voltage alternator, and DC-DC converter. The system will be used on vehicles reaching the market in 2012. Mazda has developed a highly efficient deceleration energy regeneration system that may be used on conventional vehicles without special motors or batteries as on hybrid vehicles. According to Mazda, the system will improve fuel efficiency by approximately 10% during frequent acceleration and deceleration.|
|2.||Denso is developing a next-generation start-stop system using high-performance battery capable of storing reusable energy recovered during deceleration as electricity, and supplying it to on-board electric components. Denso plans to put the system to commercial application in 2015 if all goes as planned. It is said Denso will propose a new system that will improve fuel consumption of a fleet of gasoline-fueled vehicles by 20% by combining EGR and other technologies addressing low fuel consumption. This is expected to raise fuel efficiency of gasoline-fueled vehicles to nearly as high as that of mild hybrid cars.|
The Toyota group is building a smart-house system, in cooperation with its group companies including a homebuilding company, as part of a smart grid of the future. Related technologies were exhibited by Denso, Toyota Industries and Tokai Rika.
Toyota plans to launch PHVs and EVs in 2012. According to Toyota, a closer coordination between automobiles and homes will contribute to the realization of a cleaner society.
|Denso||HEMS||The HEMS (Home Energy Management System), jointly developed by Denso, Toyota Home and Misawa Homes, consists of a control system and a 7-inch touch panel type monitor. Slated for market launch after February 2012.|
|The HEMS represents the core technology of smart house initiative that provides optimal control of electricity by connecting homes and cars. It may be connected to a charger for timed charging of PHV and EV, or used to start air conditioning before entering an automobile.|
|Household Storage Battery||The lithium-ion storage battery for home use was co-developed by four companies including Denso, Toyota Home, Misawa Homes and Shin-Kobe Denki. It has 8.4 kWh capacity (storage capacity of 5 kWh when in use), measures 1500 mm (W) by 345 mm (D) and 1430 mm (H) and weighs approximately 520 kg. The battery may be connected to the HEMS to ease electric loads during daytime peak hours, or supply power after power failure (for about 10 hours).|
|Toyota Industries||Charger for Home use||The wall-mounted charger for home use, co-developed with Nitto Kogyo, was introduced to public for the first time (chargers for industrial use are already in the market). The charger for home use will be sold by Toyota Home.|
|TOKAI RIKA||LA LOCK||The electric lock may be integrated with the HEMS for locking and unlocking the home door by flipping the key. The smart key for Toyota vehicles may be registered for the same purpose.|
Future driving technologies
"Connect" and "Get connected" are the keywords common to all three. Their goal is to connect people with cars by means of a more advanced HMI (Human Machine Interface) to realize more convenient and safe driving, to connect cars with other cars and transport infrastructure by means of information and telecommunications systems to assist safe and clean driving, and to connect cars with information about the community to provide convenient and pleasant driving.
A near-future concept car EMIRAI exhibited by Mitsubishi Electric
"Advanced steering switches" exhibited by Tokai Rika (the round switches in the right and left arms of the steering wheel)
Future driving concepts
|Mitsubishi Electric||Estimation of destination||The system remembers the driver's usual driving route and estimates the destination without the driver setting it on the car navigation system. It also provides information about stores and other spots of interest along the way.|
|Approaching car alert||When EV or HV is running on motor, the system gives an engine-like sound to alert the pedestrian.|
|Traffic signal communication||The system interacts with traffic signals and displays the best speed to avoid red lights ahead.|
|Safety, comfort||An iPhone-based driver identification system, measurement of the driver's heart rate with warning when abnormality is detected, a naked-eye 3D rear-seat entertainment, etc.|
|3D curved rear-projection touch panel||A touchable display of a curved, touch-sensitive rear projection display with a slightly protruding center designed for the best ease of operation. The driver can scroll, upscale and downscale a map with two fingers.|
|The display accepts handwritten letters as well. When "A" is written, the system displays a list of places that start with A for the driver to choose.|
|Denso||Resonance 2021||Demonstration of the fun, comfort and safety of driving that can be realized by connecting cars, roads and town that are likely to be seen in ten years from now.|
|The system establishes connection between the car, other cars and transport infrastructure to assist the driver in avoiding an impending danger (even steering the car away from it), gathering local information, searching for the best route, and providing local information at the destination that may be of interest to the driver.|
|Synchronized Cockpit (Note)||The "partner-eye" located on the instrument panel monitors the driver and alerts when drowsiness is detected. The "eco-meter" displays the best speed to avoid stop lights at the next signal. The partner-eye alerts if the car is running at a faster or a slower speed.|
|Vehicle- Infrastructure Cooperative Systems||The system establishes communication between cars and between the car and road infrastructure to ensure smoother traffic and reduce traffic accidents. It also has other functions such as preventing an accident at a crossing of poor visibility, alerting of an obstacle in blind area when changing lanes, emergency braking of another car ahead, and alerting traffic congestion. Denso also exhibited an on-board radio system assuming the use of 700 MHz wave in Japan and 5.9 GHz in other countries abroad.|
|TOKAI RIKA||Advanced Steering Switch||The advanced steering switch was demonstrated for the visitors to experience the fun of accessing a variety of information without removing their hands from the steering wheel. The round-shaped switches located in the right and left arms are turned, pushed down or pushed back to display audio, map, restaurant guide, etc, on the meter.|
(Note) Denso is reportedly developing monitoring technology addressing the aging population that will monitor the driver's physical conditions and the quality of concentration on driving and, if necessary, alert the driver to take appropriate cautions.
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