SAE China 2018 ：Intelligent and Connected Cars
Information security related to intelligent and connected vehicles of the future
The SAE-China Congress & Exhibition（SAECCE)2018 was held from November 6th to 8th at the Shanghai Automobile Exhibition Center. MarkLines attended many of the conferences at this annual event and will summarize seven of these conferences across three reports.
It is commonly understood globally that in the future, automobiles will become more intelligent and connected. Likewise, there is much attention focused on the various new technologies that will emerge as a result of this development. This report focuses on automotive intelligent connectivity and safety from the viewpoint of the event’s participants from industry and academia.
The Society of Automotive Engineers of China（SAE-China）was independently founded in 1963 by members of automotive technology-related industries. It is a nationwide, corporate organization with strong academic presence. SAE-China is part of the China Association for Science and Technology, which is a non-profit organization. It’s also a member of The International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies（FISITA）and was one of the founding organizations during the establishment of the International Pacific Conference on Automotive Engineering（IPC）（currently known as the Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference（APAC））. The China-SAE Congress & Exhibition（SAECCE) has been held for 24 sessions and involves a variety of conferences and activities ranging from general meetings, technical sub-committees, themed sub-committees, technical exhibitions, corporate tours, and test-ride events, acting as the most supported platform in the automobile industry for technological exchanges and exhibitions.
CES Asia 2018: Electric, intelligent, and connected vehicles（Jul.2018）
Electrification, Intelligence, and Drivetrains of China's NEV Market（Nov.2018）
Seeking opportunities for commercialization with intelligent and connected cars
|Company/Organization||Brief introduction of the company/organization||Panelist （Honorifics Omitted)||Department and position|
|Tsinghua University, FISITA||One of China’s leading universities. The U.K.’s international automotive engineering association||Dr. Fuquan Zhao （Hereafter referred to as Zhao）||Director of the Automotive Industry and Technology Strategy Research Institute. Chairman and host from 2018-2020.|
|Tsinghua University, China Intelligent and Connected Vehicle Research Institute Co., Ltd., and China Industry Innovation Alliance for the Intelligent and Connected Vehicles||One of China's leading universities. A research facility established by the China Industry Innovation Alliance for the Intelligent and Connected Vehicles and led by SAE-China and CAAM. SAE-China and CAAM have formed an alliance with affiliated businesses such as automakers, telecommunications companies, transportation companies, and IT companies, as well as universities and other research institutions. Together, they act as a body of advisors for the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.||Professor Keqiang Li （Hereafter referred to as Ke）||
Professor, leading scientist and head of specialized committees
|Dongfeng Motor Corporation, Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Company Limited||A leading own brand automaker and its subsidiary, a commercial vehicle automaker.||Xuefeng Jiang （Hereafter referred to as Xue）||Vice chief engineer and deputy general manager|
|Society of Automotive Engineers||Shortened to SAE. An academic body with considerable influence over the global automobile industry.||Dr. Mircea Gradu （Hereafter referred to as M）||President of the SAE|
|China Mobile, China Mobile Intelligent Mobility Network Co.,Ltd （CMIM)||A customer service subsidiary for China Mobile that specializes in the IoV geared towards the telecommunications industry.||Maosheng Yan （Hereafter referred to as Yan）||Deputy general manager|
|Bosch Automotive Products （Suzhou) Co., Ltd||Major German automotive parts supplier||Jingfang Jiang （Hereafter referred to as Jing）||Vice president of chassis systems operations in the China region|
|Qualcomm||Major U.S. telecommunications technology developer||Weixing Li （Hereafter referred to as Wei）||Technical vice president|
The development stages, challenges, and opportunities of intelligent and connected cars
|A discussion between the host and panelists|
Zhao：To what extent have intelligent and connected cars evolved? What are the areas that still present challenges and what are the areas that provide opportunities? What about the direction of development?
Ke：While the current intelligent and connected car industry is filled with both excitement and confusion, it is also an industry full of promise. It represents the fusion of advanced technologies from different fields with traditional vehicles. This allows problems to be solved that were thought to be out of reach until now and ultimately puts intelligent and connected vehicles in extremely high demand. However, there is one challenging aspect to all of this, and that is the confusion arising from advanced technology and just where it belongs in today’s society.
Xue：From a commercial standpoint, the ideal situation would be to reduce the number of people and increase the amount of cargo to optimize usage to the highest extent possible. Additionally, commercial vehicles are closely tied to the purpose for which they are used, making it a sector where unmanned vehicles and autonomous driving are likely to be realized as early as possible. As for ADAS, the development of autonomous control has already been completed, with autonomous driving and commercialization set for completion in 2019. From a safety and work efficiency perspective, there is a high possibility that fully unmanned vehicles will first being realized in closed-off construction sites. Next, would be in semi-restricted and limited areas such as harbors, piers, and distribution centers. The step that follows this is even more intricate, but vehicles that drive in urban areas at low speeds on designated routes, such as environmental hygiene vehicles, also have the potential to become autonomous. Autonomous operation needs to progress sequentially under a variety of different driving conditions, where issues arise when considering how best to create criteria for experiment and measurement standards, as well as how best to apply these standards to different conditions.
M：Establishing criteria for testing and measurement standards is extremely important. Companies have developed methods to share large volumes of data and resources without being impacted by competitors. Measurement methods and interfaces will be a deciding factor as to whether intelligent and connected cars truly become commonplace in the future.
Yan：The field of intelligent and connected cars can be seen as one great experiment. Whether it be with China Mobile or the 5G Alliance（which includes the former）, everyone sees the industry as having great potential, and is keen to actively define it. In 2017, the majority of the technology which was used in presentations was still in the draft stage. However, this year, many products are already being road tested. Despite this, many issues still exist, such as the lack of criteria standards, or the difference in the pace of development among regions. For example, license plate management for public road testing is different for each city and, as a result, license plate validity for field testing is incompatible among regions. Such issues incur increased costs for related companies, which in turn raises the hurdles for the development of autonomous driving technologies. While we will continue to raise testing standards, it is our hope that testing certification will reach a common, unified criteria nationwide.
Jing：Bosch has divided autonomous driving technologies into a number of areas in its core technology roadmap, which it calls the “tri-colored world.” Mobility-sharing based on 4G/5G is referred to as the “green world,” while 3G-based technologies for highway driving is referred to as the “blue world.” Parking and other low-speed situations are known as the “purple world.” I’ve personally been involved with the long-term development of autonomous vehicles designed for driving on highways. Level 2 autonomous technologies that can handle single-lane highway driving is already a reality and is featured in models from Geely, Changan, Great Wall Motor, SAIC, and GAC. Level 2.5, which includes lane-changing support functionality, isn’t that difficult to achieve either. The technology plan for Level 3 has already been established, but to implement it we have to wait for the laws and regulations to catch up. We hope that this can be achieved in 2021. With regard to Level 4 and above, Bosch is currently working with Daimler and aims to launch the technology in 2022. However, this plan isn’t necessarily going to be used in China as-is, because China is currently contemplating a V2I communications plan that includes characteristics unique to China. This makes China’s upcoming plans in this field difficult to gauge
Wei：Reflecting back on the past 30 years of development in the communications industry, it would be only natural to expect that human-vehicle connectivity and V2I communications will become a reality. Computing power continues to improve, whether it be in the form of mobile devices or cloud services, and development in these two areas make it possible to solve many of the problems that once eluded us. Qualcomm saw the tremendous potential of data mobility used in smart phones, and that’s where they’ve been focusing their efforts. To use the analogy that a canal can be built wherever there is water, the company believes that it is positioning itself so that it can potentially become rich with technological innovation and just like “water” this innovation will appear in the near future, opening the way forward.
Diversity and the pre-mass production stages of intelligent and connected cars
Zhao：What are the current challenges of mass-producing intelligent and connected commercial vehicles, and when are these difficulties likely to be resolved?
Xue：For OEMs, diverse intelligent and connected vehicle development patterns are becoming increasingly important and requires more collaboration with different partners. The development of intelligent and connected commercial vehicles also requires planning for a variety of different driving situations and routes. While some situations are ideal for ADAS technologies, other situations may be more suited to skipping Level 3 completely and directly employing Level 4 capability. Many OEMs including Dongfeng have completed construction of Level 4 prototype vehicles that are currently undergoing testing in a variety of situations. These will be ready to enter the public road testing phase next year. China’s development of autonomous driving is said to be on par with Europe’s, however this also means that like Europe, it requires its own standards.
Zhao：What would be the best way to utilize the different partner technologies in the intelligent and connected car industry to achieve the optimal results?
Xue：The importance of cooperation between partners cannot be underestimated. For example, sensing technology requires partnerships with an increasingly large number of suppliers. With regard to V2I communications, partnering with communications providers such as Huawei and China Mobile is also important. OEMs are primarily responsible for manufacturing automobiles, but in terms of key infrastructure such as roads, governmental support is also required. In this way, many industries must work together and formulate common standards.
Technology and standards
Zhao：What are the core technologies underpinning the intelligent and connected car industry? What are the core technologies of OEMs and other communications technology companies?
Jing：If we’re talking about TJP（Traffic Jam Pilot), the next technology that needs to be developed is a 5 radar, 1 camera + 1 pre-controller system with redundant manual braking and steering systems. If we are to continue developing lane change assist features, we will need to equip vehicles with more than 15 sensors, which greatly increases the costs for OEMs. V2I communications is essential for the realization of truly advanced autonomous driving vehicles, and would also help lower vehicle costs. The development of V2X technology demands that we continue involving telecommunications companies such as Huawei and China Mobile as well as communication equipment companies. Bosch’s future core technologies provides fundamental support required for advanced driving systems, primarily in the areas of pre-sensing and actuators. We will also continue to partner with domestic companies in the fields of AI, high-precision mapping, and V2X.
Zhao：What factors should we consider when deciding the standards for intelligent and connected cars? What actions can we expect from the government and industry organizations?
M：Conventional automobiles are very regionally-based products that are designed to be sold in specific countries or regions. However, the intelligent and connected cars of the future should focus on breaking away from these geographical restrictions. To achieve this, further research and development is required, supporting infrastructures should be established, and global product standards must be realized. While it is important to strengthen international cooperation and streamline work efforts, there also needs to be a way to ensure world-class product quality. The formulation of standards for intelligent and connected cars requires the involvement of various parties, and entails great complexity. Cooperation needs to be cultivated in a number of areas among players such as OEMs and infrastructure equipment suppliers. Starting with the infrastructure is extremely beneficial to the industrialization of commercialized V2X technology. Without improvements to the public infrastructure, V2I communications cannot be achieved. Through cooperation between cooperating companies and local governments, regional policies have the potential to develop into global policies.
Intelligent and connected cars and 5G communication
Zhao：While 5G communication speeds are important, not all vehicle parts require such high speeds for the development of autonomous driving. Only some parts of the vehicle and some parts of the road infrastructure require these high processing speeds. It all comes down to the question of how to balance safety and economy.
Yan：In 2018, a common understanding came to life in the V2I communications industry. Compared to manned vehicles, the systems of automated vehicles need to be more vigilant. This is because in manned driving, if the system detects other vehicles on the road, it takes more time to react to decelerate. In this sort of situation, everyone thinks that the road-vehicle cooperation should be strengthened by placing a larger number of sensors in the road infrastructure. However, the problem is that currently road infrastructure equipment cannot predict the movement of people or vehicles. When considering that systems must make decisions in an extremely short amount of time, event reaction times need to occur within at least 0.01 seconds. This is where the fast communication speeds of 5G becomes necessary. In the future, development of the software environment for roads, including 5G equipment, must be integrated into the road infrastructure.
Zhao：What points need to be overcome for intelligent and connected cars to quickly gain acceptance in society?
Ke：Firstly, there needs to be a common awareness within the industry. This is a new and confusing field, and because there is no consolidated opinion on how to progress, it is essential that we first establish a common set of opinions. Intelligent and connected cars are an issue for society as a whole, and we must utilize our strengths to create a more defined structure.
Intelligent and connected cars in China
Zhao：What position does China’s intelligent and connected cars occupy in the world? To what extent will they contribute to humanity in the future?
Ke：China is currently trails the rest of the world with regards to fundamental technologies such as sensors and actuators. However, China’s intelligent and connected car industry offers extremely high potential, because it is a new and intricate industry, whose architecture and system integration capability requires some form of cohesive alignment. China’s transport environment is unique, with complex and dense traffic conditions that generate a significant amount of demand, and these very conditions have the potential to benefit the development of technology.
Zhao：Simply put, what are the issues that intelligent and connected cars need to overcome?
Ke：First of all, the fundamental traffic issues relating to safety, energy conservation, and environmental protection need to be addressed. Once this is complete, the Chinese automotive industry has the potential to overtake the world in terms of intelligent and connected cars. Ultimately, as part of the country’s national strategy, emerging industries in the field of intelligent and connected cars will benefit the development of the industry.
Development trends in intelligent and connected car technology
|Organization||Brief introduction of the organization||Panelist
||Department and position|
|East China Normal University, Chinese Academy of Sciences||A prestigious Chinese university. One of the top Chinese educational institutions for the natural sciences, and one of the top consulting organizations for science and technology. A comprehensive R&D center for technology and the natural sciences, which is under direct supervision of the Chinese State Council.||Professor Jifeng He||Professor, and member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences|
|Presentation by Prof. Jifeng He|
Since its birth in the 1900s, the automobile has continuously improved in performance, with the automotive industry undergoing several significant changes during this period. These changes started with the mechanical era, progressed to the electronic and software eras, and continue all the way up to the present era of intelligent and connected cars. Areas that typify the present era include cloud computing, big data, and new business models. The current era’s intelligent functionality is most apparent in autonomous driving, and IoV（Internet of Vehicles）technologies can be found in connected cars. The unification of these two technologies and the development of smart cities will become indispensable tools to contribute to the nation’s competiveness.
The strategic significance of intelligent and connected cars and related systems
Intelligent and connected cars have important strategic significance. In terms of industry and the economy, they provide an opportunity for the Chinese automotive industry to use its size to its advantage to assist in promoting the development of related industries, such as communications, transportation, and electronics. Additionally, the industry can help to establish sectors worth several CNY trillion, sectors such as AI, big data, robotics, internet in the manufacturing industry（IoT), and smart cities. As a result, issues relating to energy, environmental protection, safety, and traffic cannot only be resolved, but they can lead to the construction of novel social transportation systems and smart cities. Other foreseeable developments resulting from this evolution include the establishment of a green, sharing-based automotive society and, as part of China’s national strategy, new information technologies such as AI will act to raise the nation’s overall competitiveness. Moreover, it can guarantee a greater degree of security for national information.
When looking at current international（mainly in Japan and Western countries) trends for connected cars, in 2016, the U.S. government announced the Federal Automated Vehicles Policy, and various state governments established policies to encourage the development of autonomous vehicles. Automakers such as Tesla and GM have already realized the mass-production vehicles with Level 2 autonomous driving capability. In 2017, Japanese automakers realized partial autonomous driving systems with plans to release autonomous driving services in preparation for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. Furthermore, in the 2020s, Japan plans to bring fully autonomous driving systems to market. The EU has formulated a detailed development roadmap for intelligent and connected cars and plans to mass-produce leading level autonomous vehicles in 2025. Germany has also established regulations that allows autonomous driving vehicles to be operated on public roads.
The development of intelligent and connected cars and associated systems are related to the two concepts of cyber-physical systems（CPS) and transport cyber-physical systems（T-CPS). The latter refers to the transmission of information from physical systems（traffic lights and sensors etc.), and the system status to an information system（cyber). 3C technology is then employed to help bridge the gap between traffic information（cyber) and actual traffic conditions（physical) via computer communication control. Through the interaction and feedback of information systems with physical systems, the status of traffic systems can be detected, paving the way to realize information communications, system coordination, and optimize decision making.
① Safety: Realization of V2I communications and V2V communications. This allows the in-vehicle intelligent systems to monitor the environment, reduce traffic accidents, and ensure safety throughout a vehicle’s lifecycle.
② Low costs: Reduces manpower costs and increases autonomous capability levels. Decreases maintenance management costs for the vehicle while conducting precise car insurance evaluations and accident damage assessments.
③ Economic stimulation: Promotes the development of a new data industry and new developments in conventional industries. Also stimulates new developments in the high-end service industry.
④ Traffic support: Manages traffic, alleviates traffic congestion, reduces energy consumption, realizes environmental protection measures, and improves the flow of vehicles. It also transforms individual mobility styles.
① Status detection: Related to various devices, such as mobile terminals, traffic sensors and in-vehicle hardware. Furthermore, there are high expectations for status detection technologies to realize continued acquisition and communication capabilities, as well as a wider range of data.
② Data sharing: Makes frequent use of cloud storage and data distribution centers to achieve larger throughput. Existence of numerous data types requires the use of real-time processing. There is an extremely high demand for data and personal information security.
③ Cooperative control: Requires cooperative control and optimization of a wide-range multidimensional traffic system. This in turn demands unified resource management and effective control over physical systems.
④ Intelligent analysis: Realizes data decision-making and visualization, as well as large scale data optimization. Also covers other technological topics such as cloud computing, AI, and big data analytics.
① Vehicle-related key technologies: Includes environment detection, decision making, execution control, man-machine interaction, and electronic architectures.
② Information interaction technology: Includes V2X, data platforms, and information security.
③ Fundamental technology: Includes high-precision maps and location information, regulatory standards, and IoV technology. Using these three key fundamental technologies, self-driving cars will be able to be operated on public roads, in limited areas, and for carsharing.
Intelligent and connected cars require a variety of common technologies such as complex system architectures, a reliable and lag-free in-vehicle network, industrial grade chips and software, embedded electronics, and AI support technology. They also require fundamental technologies for man-machine interaction and joint driver-vehicle performance, autonomous driving test scenario libraries, and testing technology. Furthermore, because intelligent and connected cars differ from conventional automobiles, the issue of information security becomes even more essential . To improve safety efficiency and strategically control risks, information security evaluations and automaker information security standards must be implemented. In addition, integrated management, assessment, and early warning and tracking systems should also be established.
Intelligent and connected car chips
Moreover, the processor chips found in intelligent and connected cars will play a key role in transforming and upgrading the industry. It is predicted that in 2020, a single vehicle will have roughly 2,000 chips for equipment and functions such as sensors, communications, navigation, computing, control, and power. Automotive chips make up 10% of the global chip industry, which means it the fastest growing field today. In spite of this fact, China still primarily relies on imported automotive chips. The automotive chip industry is characterized by its high degree of integration both upstream and downstream, its development centered on vertically integrated device manufacturers, its long recovery cycle (at least 5 years) in comparison to general purpose chips, and high demand for safety. The key to this are chips for power devices as well as equipment and functions such as sensors, communication, navigation, processors, controllers, and power management.
Electrification, increased safety, connectivity, and intelligentization are already areas that the automotive industry commonly recognizes. Specifically, the industry is targeting to achieve energy conservation and the utilization of new energy sources, position safety features and information security as core technologies, represent the interests of interactivity and interconnectivity, and symbolize the sharing of environmental information between people and automobiles, as well as autonomous driving. Such trends demand the intelligent and connected car industry to make breakthroughs in fundamental technologies in the upstream, midstream, and downstream value chain, formulate standards, and successfully realize complete system technologies, as well as research and development, and testing.
Honda’s security measures for the information society
|Company||Brief introduction of the company||Panelist
||Department and position|
|Honda Motor Co., Ltd., Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.||Famous Japanese global company, with businesses in manufacturing and sales of automobiles, motorcycles, general-purpose products, and transportation machinery and equipment. The company is an independent technology development company funded with Japanese capital.||Toshihiro Mibe||Managing Executive Officer|
Changes in the automotive industry as recognized by Honda and its goals for connectivity
|Presentation by Toshihiro Mibe|
Toshihiro Mibe stated Honda is aiming to “provide the pleasure of expanding life’s possibilities to people all over the world." Mr. Mibe believes there are three changes currently occurring in the automotive industry. First, the value of automobiles is becoming more diversified, with car sharing and autonomous vehicles as representative examples. Second, as urbanization increases, so do problems such as aging populations, global warming, and the threat of other environmental issues. Third, are the changes occurring in industrial structure, including AI and the Internet of Things (IoT). These innovations have encouraged companies that are not traditionally considered automakers, such as Google, Tesla, Baidu, and Alibaba, to enter the automotive industry.
With respect to connectivity and connected cars, Mr. Mibe commented that Honda is targeting to leverage connected cars to create a safer and more convenient unified society of mobility. This goal has two key components: first is safety, which includes V2V communication and V2I communication, including stolen vehicle tracking and vehicle monitoring, via V2X technology. The second is convenience, including remote controls, in-vehicle payment, and usage-based insurance. He also commented that the development of new functionalities will bring new value to automobiles, and that he looks forward to helping usher in a time when vehicles will stop being "objects" and instead start to become "experiences". The path to that change includes linking vehicles with smartphones, the use of IVI systems such as 5G and Bluetooth systems in vehicles, and offering services to customers via smartphone apps.
Measures for connectedness and safety
Mr. Mibe elaborated that Honda has partnered with many Chinese companies in the field of connectivity. The current Honda CONNECT 1.0 system is linked with the AutoNavi map service, offering free navigation, news, weather, and emergency road information to users. They also offer paid services with the first year for free, and ten years of free internet. In the future, plans call for version 2.0 of the system to add WeChat functionality, along with voice recognition, in-vehicle payments for parking, Alipay, and in-vehicle wifi.
With respect to safety, Honda has introduced V2X technology, traffic light prediction systems, and CMC technology. CMC is the acronym for the "Connected Motorcycle Consortium", which aims to standardize cross-manufacturer standards for automobiles, pedestrians, and motorcycles. The Traffic Signal Prediction System (TSPS) is already equipped in the current Accord model. Mr. Mibe then gave a video presentation of its Smart Intersection technology, which showed a mobility environment where pedestrians and vehicles were passing through a blind spot on a street corner. The vehicles, pedestrians, and motorcyclists each received warnings about the blind spot, helping to avoid an accident. Honda is working to eventually create a fusion of unmanned sensor technology and telecommunications technology to foster a harmonious and safe mobility ecosystem. Such a mobility environment would ensure safe lane changing on highways, prevent traffic jams, and provide predictive accident alarms.
Participation in U.S. test program, and alliances in Japan and China
Honda participated in demonstrations in an area connecting the Ohio cities of Columbus, Cleveland, and Toledo. The demonstrations part of the "Smart Columbus" project and the "U.S. 33 Smart Mobility Corridor" project. The former saw Honda working with the U.S. Department of Transportation, from which it received a USD 140 million grant for a number of issues such as EV testing, connected autonomous vehicles, infrastructure facilities, and data analysis. The latter revolves around a 35-mile long highway corridor that has been equipped with the infrastructure required to develop connected cars and V2X technology. The U.S. federal and state governments, along with a number of companies, have invested up to USD 20 million into the project.
Additionally, Honda is developing coordination functions for high precision dynamic maps, which it has designated as digitized infrastructure equipment. Honda has also partnered with Baidu, participating in the development of autonomous vehicle technology with Baidu’s Apollo intelligent and connected cars platform. Mr. Mibe emphasized the necessity of unifying communication standards for V2X, a critical technology. In particular, with the advent of the 5G era, simply increasing communication speeds will not inadequate, as a global standard will also be necessary to make everything operate smoothly. With regard to 5G, Honda has already reached out to communications companies in Japan to help jointly develop this technology.
Thoughts on information security
With respect to information security, many issues currently exist relating to in-vehicle internet connectivity. Major countries and regions around the world are eager to establish the appropriate regulations, and organizations are working to strengthen information security. Positive development will only truly begin for the automotive industry when it establishes an inter-operable and shared network. Starting with the creation of ISO and SAE international standards for, the expectation for issues related to information security is expected to be extremely high.
The connected cars of the future will see intelligentization through AI, increased safety through safety support systems, lag-free real time information through the use of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications) and 5G technology, increased accuracy through high precision dynamic maps, and increased convenience through autonomous driving.
Keyword： SAE China, SAE, Intelligent, connected, safety, security, Dongfeng Motor, Bosch, Qualcomm, Honda
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