Auto Shanghai 2015 (Part 1): European and U.S. OEMs unveil plug-in hybrids
World premieres of VW flagship sedan concept and Audi's new plug-in hybrid lineup
|Venue of the Auto Shanghai 2015.
Exhibition halls are laid out like a four-leaf clover around the central open space.
|Exhibition hall 1 with SAIC, GM and VW booths|
Auto Shanghai 2015 - The 16th Shanghai International Automobile Industry Exhibition - was held on April 20 through 29, 2015, at the National Exhibition and Convention Center (Shanghai). The newly built exhibition venue is located in the suburbs of Shanghai, only two metro stations away from the Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport. The exhibition halls were laid out like a four-leaf clover where the visitors could hop from booth to booth easily.
The Auto Shanghai 2015 drew 928,000 visitors (according to the organizer), up by approximately 14% from the same show held in 2013. Most crowded of all were the Ferrari and other booths where luxury sports cars were displayed, followed by German-brand booths such as Volkswagen, Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz.
A major highlight of the auto show was the plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs). PHVs are gaining importance in China because of the regulation on fuel efficiency that is expected to become more stringent and the preferential treatment program for new-energy vehicles including PHVs (see Note).
The Volkswagen Group exhibited a concept model of its flagship for Chinese market under the VW brand (C Coupe GTE) fitted with a plug-in hybrid powertrain. The VW Group had a world premiere of three PHVs under the Audi brand. A large number of PHVs were exhibited by Chinese automakers such as SAIC, FAW and BYD, as well as other European and American automakers such as BMW, Daimler and PSA.
Among the Japanese automakers, Mitsubishi exhibited two plug-in hybrid concept models. Toyota and Nissan did not exhibit PHVs. They only exhibited hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are not classified underthe new-energy vehicles in China.
This report focuses on the PHVs that were exhibited by European and American automakers at the Auto Shanghai 2015. The sequel of the report will focus on the PHVs and HVs that were exhibited by Japanese, Korean and Chinese automakers. The sales of sports utility vehicles (SUVs) are growing in China and many SUVs were exhibited by many automakers at the show. There will be an additional report on the SUVs, sedans and other vehicles as well.
Note: Preferential program for new-energy vehicles in China
|The "preferential program for new-energy vehicles" (referred to as "preferential program") is a financial incentive program aimed at saving energy, preventing air pollution and the market penetration of new-energy vehicles. The subsidy is paid by the central government, through the automaker, to the consumer who buys a specific model in a designated list of EVs, FCVs, and PHVs. A similar subsidy program is also provided by regional governments and the buyer can benefit from both the central and regional programs.|
|For instance, a consumer that buys a PHV in Shanghai in 2015 is eligible for a central government subsidy of CNY 31,500 and a regional government subsidy of CNY 30,000, a total of CNY 61,500. In addition, a license plate is issued free of charge at the time of purchase. Normally, license plates are auctioned on the Internet and are sold for CNY 73,000 in average as of 2014. The successful bid probability is 10% or less.|
|On April 29, the last day of the Auto Shanghai 2015, the Chinese government announced that the preferential program will continue in a smaller scale.|
▽Beijing Auto Show 2014:
- Gasoline/diesel models by European and American OEMs
- Japanese, European & American green vehicles
- Japanese and Korean gasoline-powered models
- "Big Five" state-owned Chinese OEMs
- Own-brand vehicles from seven Chinese OEMs
▽Shanghai Motor Show 2013:
VW Group: World premiere of four PHVs in second home market
China has become the largest market for VW Group, exceeding in scale the Western European market, and is positioned as the Group's second home market. The Group plans to launch a total of 60 models (including partially redesigned or derivative models) in 2015. The Group also plans to invest EUR 22 billion in China jointly with its partners, FAW and SAIC, to increase its local production capacity from 3 million units in 2014 to more than 5 million units by 2019.
The VW Group world premiered four models under the VW and Audi brand combined during the Auto Shanghai 2015. The Group announced its plan to produce 15 models of PHVs and EVs locally in China in the next four years.
VW: Flagship sedan for China
|C Coupe GTE||VW premiered the C Coupe GTE, a concept model of its flagship four-door sedan for China market, at the Auto Shanghai 2015. The concept model is 5 meters long and is slated for production in 2016.|
|The powertrain of the C Coupe GTE is a plug-in hybrid system. It is powered by TSI which is a four-cylinder direct-injection turbocharged gasoline engine (210ps maximum output), electric motor (124ps), 8-speed automatic transmission and lithium-ion battery. The entire system is capable of exerting maximum output of 180kW/245ps and maximum torque of 500Nm along with fuel economy of 2.3-liter/100km (NEDC's plug-in hybrid mode) and CO2 emission of 55g/km. It has an EV range of 50km and a total driving range of 800km.|
|C Coupe GTE||Inside the C Coupe GTE (courtesy of VW)|
Audi: World debut of three PHVs
|Audi prologue allroad concept||Audi premiered the prologue allroad, a new crossover concept based on a five-door wagon. The concept car is Audi's third design study model after the Prologue, a two-door coupe unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show in November 2014, and the Prologue Avant, a five-door wagon that was unveiled at the Geneva International Motor Show in March 2015.|
|Its powertrain is of a plug-in hybrid system that combines a 4.0-liter V8 twin-turbo gasoline engine with a motor. The system has maximum output of 734hp (540kW) and maximum torque of 900Nm along with fuel economy of 2.4-liter/100km and CO2 emission of 56g/km (NEDC's plug-in hybrid mode). The two-door coupe concept, Prologue, is fitted with a V8 twin-turbo engine. The five-door wagon, Prologue Avant, is fitted with a diesel hybrid system.|
|Audi prologue allroad concept||Inside the Audi prologue allroad concept (courtesy of Audi)|
|A6 L e-tron||Audi premiered the A6 L e-tron, its first China-made PHV. It will be produced, starting in early 2016, at the Changchun plant which is a joint venture with FAW. The car has fuel economy of 2.2-liter/100km and CO2 emission of 52g/km (PHEV measurement mode in China). It has an electric cruising range of 50km and a driving range of 880km.|
|The A6 L e-tron is fitted with a 2.0-liter four-cylinder TFSI gasoline engine with the maximum output of 155kW (211hp), an electric motor with maximum output of 91kW and 14.1kWh lithium-ion battery. The system has a total output of 180kW (245hp).|
|A6 L e-tron||Powertrain of the A3 Sportback e-tron PHV imported and launched by Audi in China. It is combined with a 1.4-liter gasoline engine.|
|Audi Q7 e-tron 2.0 TFSI quattro||The Q7 e-tron 2.0 TFSI quattro PHV was unveiled at the Auto Shanghai 2015. It is Audi's first plug-in hybrid systemthat combines the TFSI gasoline engine with Audi's all-wheel drive system, the quattro. The Q7 PHV fitted with a diesel engine was unveiled earlier at the 2015 Detroit Auto Show and other events. It is slated for launch in early 2016 in China, Singapore, Japan and other Asian countries.|
|The Audi Q7 is fitted with the 2.0-liter TFSI engine and an electric motor , withmaximum output of 270kW (367hp) and maximum torque of 700Nm. It has an average fuel economy of 2.5-liter/100km and CO2 emission less than 60g/km. It has EV cruising range of 53km maximum and a driving range of 1,020km when measured in Chinese measurement mode.|
|Audi Q7 e-tron 2.0 TFSI quattro||Powertrain of the Audi Q7 e-tron 2.0 TFSI quattro (courtesy of Audi)|
BMW: World premiere of X5 PHV
The BMW Group plans to launch a total of 10 additional models in China before the end of 2015. BMW also announced, at the Auto Shanghai 2015, plans to cooperate with the Chinese government and third parties in building a public charging network and other facilities. This represents BMW's strategy to fit all models with PHV systems based on its proprietary technologies that have been adopted in the BMW i series.
BMW: The X5 PHV unveiled
|X5 xDrive 40e||BMW unveiled the X5 eDrive 40e PHV at the show. Its external appearance has a close resemblance to the X5 series except for the charging plug located in the fender panel. The car will be produced at the Spartanburg Plant in the United States.|
|The powertrain is of a plug-in hybrid system that combines a 2.0-liter turbo engine with an electric motor. The system has maximum output of 308hp/230kW and maximum torque of 450Nm. It is fitted with the 8-speed Steptronic automatic transmission and accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in 6.8 seconds. It runs at 120km/h maximum in EV mode and has EV cruising range of 31km along with overall fuel economy of 3.3-3.4-liter/100km. It has total electric power consumption of 15.3-15.4kW/h and CO2 emission of 77-78g/km (measured by ECE, varies by the tire used).|
|X5 xDrive 40e||Charging plug in the fender panel (courtesy of BMW)|
BMW Brilliance Automotive: BMW 530 Le
|BMW 530 Le||The BMW 530 Le, unveiled at the Auto Guangzhou 2014 and released for sale in China on January 15, 2015, is the first new-energy vehicle produced by BMW Brilliance. It is a PHV model developed locally in China based on the plug-in hybrid technology adopted in the BMW i series under the support provided by the BMW headquarters in Germany.|
|The BMW 530 Le's external appearance and interior have close resemblance to the BMW 5 series except for the "530 Le" logo at the back of the car. The charging plug is located at the left side of the rear bumper.|
|The powertrain combines a 2.0-liter turbo engine having maximum output of 10hp/160kW and maximum torque of 310Nm with a 94hp/70kW electric motor along with an 8-speed automatic transmission. The BMW 530 Le has maximum electric range of 58km and top speed of 120km/h. It has overall fuel economy of 2.0-liter/100km and CO2 emission of 49g/km and accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in 7.1 seconds.|
|The "eDrive" logo in the C-pillar is a declaration of a PHV|
Daimler: GLE, S-Class, and C-Class PHVs
Daimler's passenger car division, Mercedes-Benz, falls behind Audi and BMW in sales volume in China. To correct the situation, Daimler is investing EUR 4 billion in three years ending in 2015 jointly with its Chinese partner, BAIC, to double its local production capacity to 200,000 units.
Daimler's main model unveiled at the Auto Shanghai 2015 was the Concept GLC Coupe (will be introduced in another report). The company also exhibited three plug-in hybrid models to compete with other automakers.
Mercedes-Benz PHVs at the auto show
|GLE 500 e||The midsize M-Class SUV was renewed significantly and named "GLE" according to the company's new nomenclature. Prior to the Auto Shanghai 2015, the SUV was unveiled at the New York Auto Show that opened on the first day of April, 2015. Its powertrains include gasoline engine and diesel engine as well as plug-n hybrid system.|
|The plug-in hybrid system combines a 3.0-liter V6 twin-turbo gasoline engine with an electric motor and 7-speed automatic transmission. The system has maximum output of 325 kW and fuel economy of 3.3-liter/100km (NEDC combined mode).|
|S 500 e L||This is a plug-in hybrid version of Daimler's flagship sedan, the S-Class. It was released for sale in Europe in September 2014 but has not been introduced in China. It uses the same plug-in hybrid system as the GLE 500 e and has fuel economy of 2.8-liter/100km (NEDC combined mode).|
|C 350 e L||This is a plug-in hybrid version of the C-Class that was unveiled at the 2015 Detroit Auto Show. Order-taking started in Europe in February 2015 but the car has not been launched in China.|
|The plug-in hybrid system combines a 2.0-liter inline four-cylinder turbo gasoline engine with an electric motor and 7-speed automatic transmission. The system has an output of 205kW and fuel economy of 2.1-liter/100km (NEDC combined mode).|
PSA: Plug-in hybrid concepts under Peugeot and Citroen brands
PSA unveiled PHVs under the Peugeot and Citroen brands. Peugeot exhibited a sports type PHV based on the 308 while Citroen world premiered the Aircross concept that commemorated the 95th anniversary of the brand and accumulated sales of 50 million vehicles in those years.
On April 19, 2015, PSA and Dongfeng Motor Group agreed to joint projects aimed at developing a Common Modular Platform (CMP) and establishing a joint R&D center carrying the name of "DPCT". They plan to launch more than 10 CMP-based models in the global markets from 2018 to 2020.
Peugeot: A hatchback sports car based on the Peugeot 308
|308R HYbrid||Peugeot announced the 308R HYbrid, a plug-in hybrid concept designed based on the 308. The exaggerated exterior design, such as the distinctive grille and large air inlets at both sides of the front bumper, clearly draws a line between the 308R HYbrid and the 308.|
|The 308R's powertrain combines front and rear motors (85kW/115hp×2) with a 1.6-liter THP turbo engine (270hp/201kw) to exert maximum output of 500hp/373kw and torque of 730Nm. It has a 6-speed automatic transmission and lithium-ion battery (3kWh) is placed under the rear seat. The 308R accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in 4 seconds and has a top speed of 250km/h.|
|The exhibited model boasts an exaggerated body exterior with blue front and matt black back contrast.||The wheel, too, emphasizes a sports car's image (tire size: 235/35R19)|
|Aircross||The Aircross is an SUV concept model unveiled under the Citroen brand. It is fitted with a powertrain based on a plug-in hybrid system.|
|The exterior is built with aerodynamically designed rear window, clamshell doors and LED headlamps and rear combinations lamps. The exhibited model was painted in orange. The interior features a multi-functional steering with handwriting processing function at both sides and a pair of 12-inch LCD displays by the center console with two-display merge function.|
|The powertrain combines an electric motor (maximum output of 95hp/71kw and maximum torque of 200Nm) with a 1.6-liter THP direct-injection turbo engine (218hp/163kw, 275Nm) and has maximum overall output of 313hp/233kw. It accelerates from standstill to 100km/h in 4.5 seconds and has fuel economy of 1.7-liter/100km and CO2 emission of 39g/km. It has EV cruising range of 50km.|
|Clamshell door that provides a large opening||Rear window that encloses from side to side|
Volvo brand: S60L and XC90 T8 PHVs
At the beginning of the year, Volvo Cars announced plans to launch 11 additional models in the Chinese market within 2015 as an important step in its growth strategy in China. On April 22, in the midst of the Auto Shanghai 2015, the company released for sale the S60L T6, its first PHV built locally. The company also exhibited the XC90 T8, a PHV version of the XC90, an all-new luxury SUV that is growing popular in China.
|Volvo S60L T6 Twin Engine PHV|
|Volvo S60L T6 Twin Engine PHV||This is a long-wheelbase plug-in hybrid version of the midsize sedan S 60. Its concept was disclosed at the Beijing Motor Show in 2014 and the production model was exhibited at the Auto Shanghai 2015. "Twin engine" is used as the name of a system in which the car is driven in collaboration between the front-mounted engine and the rear-mounted motor.|
|The Volvo S60L is fitted with the Drive-E 2.6-liter four-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine (maximum output 238hp, maximum torque 350Nm ), a front-mounted motor/generator with maximum output of 45hp and a rear-mounted 68hp motor, a 11.2kWh lithium-ion battery and an 8-speed automatic transmission. The car has a top speed of 230km/h and fuel economy of 2.1-liter/100km along with electric range of 53km.|
|The Volvo S60L is produced at the Chengdu plant in China and sold for CNY 505,900 (Zhi-yu grade) and CNY 559,900 (Zhi-yue grade) with a difference of approximately CNY 165,000 from the gasoline-fueled version.|
|Volvo XC90 T8 PHV||The Drive-E PHV system of the Volvo XC90 T8|
|Volvo XC90 T8 PHV||This is an all-wheel drive plug-in hybrid version of the all-new XC90 crossover SUV. It is fitted with Volvo's Drive-E plug-in hybrid system. The front wheels are driven by the front-mounted engine and the motor and the rear wheels by the rear-mounted motor. It is already sold in Europe and the United States. Its order-taking started in China during the Auto Shanghai 2015 with the starting price of CNY 828,000.|
|The XC90 T8 PHV is fitted with the Drive-E, a 2.0-liter four-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine with a supercharger (maximum output of 320hp), front and rear motors, 9.2kWh lithium-ion battery stowed under the center tunnel, and an 8-speed automatic transmission. The car has a top speed of 230km/h with electric driving range of 40km. It delivers 407hp of output in plug-in hybrid mode while the CO2 emission is kept to 49g/km.|
GM: Cadillac CT6 PHEV slated for production in 2016
GM's prestige division, Cadillac, announced a new strategy for Chinese market at the end of 2014. The company plans to launch nine additional models in the five-year period from 2014 to 2019. More than 95 percent of the Cadillac-brand vehicles sold in China will be produced locally by 2018. Cadillac will adopt high-speed telecommunication technology (4G LTE) on its production models in 2015.
Cadillac: CT6 PHEV
|CT6 PHEV||The CT6 PHEV made a world premiere on the eve of the Auto Shanghai 2015 in a special event titled "Night of Shanghai GM" held at the Pudong Cadillac plant in Shanghai. It was developed based on a lightweight body structure that was used in the CT6 and is Cadillac's flagship PHEV designed as a high-end new-energy vehicle. It is slated for production at Shanghai GM's Cadillac plant starting in 2016.|
|The CT6 PHEV's powertrain combines a 2.0-liter four-cylinder direct-injection turbo gasoline engine with twin motors and an 8-speed automated manual transmission with overall output of 335hp/250kw and torque of 586Nm. It has electric range of 60km and fuel economy of 2.0-liter/100km. The lithium-ion battery stack (18.4kWh) is stowed between the rear seat and the luggage room.|
|Cutaway models of the CT6 PHEV|
|Exterior appearance of the CT6 at the main stage (a gasoline model)|
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