Analysis Report by Component : Power Steering (Japanese Market)

2016/04/15

List of power steering suppliers

JTEKT NSK KYB SHOWA
Hitachi Automotive Systems TRW Automotive Robert Bosch Automotive Steering


I. Introduction

The basic functions of the automobiles are to run, turn and stop. Steering system turns the vehicle in a preferred direction, affecting how safely and easily the driver can control the vehicle's direction. The use of power steering as well as automatic transmissions and air conditioners has helped drive the car more easily and comfortably.
Initially, power steering was installed in a limited number of luxury models. Front-wheel drive (FWD) has become more common in passenger cars, making the steering feel heavier. So, power steering has more widely been used in FWD vehicles. Currently, most of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles in Japan come standard with power steering.



II. Outline

The Japanese market has been dominated by the country's unique "kei" mini vehicles and compact cars, which underperform midsize and large vehicles in terms of engine power. The small-car-oriented market in Japan has kept carmakers from employing engine-driven hydraulic power steering. Electric power steering, or EPS, was first adopted in mini vehicles. EPS uses a small electric motor instead of an engine-driven hydraulic pump to assist in steering. Since the Kyoto Protocol on global warming came into force in 2005, the auto industry has promoted the use of EPS as well as continuously variable transmissions, or CVTs, and start-stop system to improve fuel efficiency. EPS has thus become common even among midsize and large vehicles. EPS also plays an integral part in Advanced Driver's Assistance System (ADAS), including Lane Departure Warning System (LDW) / Lane Keeping Aid (LKA), and steering-linked functions for assisting in steering and preventing unintended shifting into reverse gear. Thus, EPS has become essential device which is integrated into ADAS, In addition, car OEMs have been paying much effort on research and development on Autonomous Driving in the recent years, and therefore, further innovation has been expected with EPS functionality/performance improvement. Furthermore, due to the recent rapid growth with its electronics design complexity with the EPS system, and with the requirements that passenger vehicles are expected to run safely without functional malfunction, it becomes necessary to comply with those requirements, and therefore, the functional safety concept defined in the international standards IEC61508 was carried over into the automotive industry in 2011, that is, ISO26262 which was entered into force in 2011 as the international standards for functional safety in the automotive industry. For example, steering system failure mode such as steering lock with the EPS system is classified into the most critical class ASIL D, and to comply with ISO26262, higher design quality is required in terms of functional safety and redundant design
Now, most vehicles feature power steering in Japan. Most of redesigned models switch from hydraulic pump-assisted power steering to electric motor-assisted power steering. Some commercial vehicles still use hydraulic pump-assisted power steering. Some luxury models and sports cars prefer hydraulic pump-assisted power steering to electric motor-assisted power steering, as they have enough engine power to drive a hydraulic pump and focus more on offering superb handling.

The following are the classification of the powering system as to assist type:

Hydraulic power steering:

There are two types of hydraulic power steering - conventional hydraulic power steering with an engine-driven hydraulic pump, and electro-hydraulic power steering with a motor-driven hydraulic pump. Electro-hydraulic power steering with a motor-driven hydraulic pump is used for some luxury models and sports cars.
Throughout the report, conventional hydraulic power steering with an engine-driven hydraulic pump is referred to as just "hydraulic power steering (HPS)", and electro-hydraulic power steering with a motor-driven hydraulic pump as just "electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS)".

Electric power steering:

Generally, there are three types of electric motor-assisted power steering, depending on where an electric motor is mounted.
Electric motor-assisted power steering is referred to as just "electric power steering", or "EPS", throughout the report.

    1. Column-assist type EPS (C-EPS): The EPS uses an electric motor attached to the steering column inside the cabin
Merits: In the EPS, the assist unit, which incorporates an electric motor and a reduction gear, is located inside the cabin. So, it can save space inside the engine compartment and requires no waterproofing. The EPS is mainly designed for mini vehicles and compact cars.
Demerits: A higher-power motor, which tends to be larger, is more difficult to use for column-assist type EPS.
The electric motor, positioned inside the passenger compartment, makes a whirring noise that could be heard in the cabin.
Column-assist type EPS often makes the steering feel less smooth.
    1. Rack-assist type EPS (R-EPS): The power assist unit of the EPS is connected to the steering gear rack inside the engine compartment. There are some types of R-EPS depending on motor layout, "rack coaxial type (RD-EPS)" is to place the motor on the rack gear coaxial, “rack cross-type (RC-EPS)” is to place the motor at an angle to the rack gear axis, and “rack parallel-type (belt drive type) RP-EPS” is to place the motor in paralle with the rack gear axis.
Merits: In the EPS, an electric motor drives the rack bar inside the steering rack, making steering feel more comfortable.
The whirring noise caused by the electric motor, positioned inside the engine compartment, could hardly be heard in the cabin.
Rack-assist type EPS could use a higher-power motor, which tends to be larger. So, the EPS is better suited for large passenger models and sports cars.
Demerits: The EPS costs more, occupies space inside the engine compartment and requires waterproofing.
    1. Pinion-assist type EPS (P-EPS/DP-EPS): The power assist unit of the EPS is attached to the steering gear's pinion shaft inside the engine compartment with the motor driving a pinion gear. (P-EPS has the power assist unit on the steering shaft axis) Meanwhile, DP-EPS has the power assist unit mounted on the second pinion gear which is independent from the steering shaft.
Merits: Pinion-assist type EPS makes the steering feel more comfortable than column-assist type EPS.
The whirring noise caused by the electric motor, positioned inside the engine compartment, could hardly be heard in the cabin.
Pinion-assist type EPS could use a higher-power motor, which tends to be larger. So, the EPS is better suited for large passenger models and sports cars.
Demerits: The EPS occupies space inside the engine compartment and requires waterproofing.
Pinion-assist type EPS puts heavier burden on the rack and pinion mechanism than rack-assist type EPS.

In the section IV, "Product installations by carmaker, model, supplier and product", the report classifies power steering into three categories, namely, hydraulic power steering, electro-hydraulic power steering and electric power steering. The report classifies electric power steering further into three assist types. Power steering consists of steering mechanism as well as other key components. Hydraulic power steering and electro-hydraulic power steering, for example, use a hydraulic pump. Electro-hydraulic power steering and electric power steering employ an electric motor and ECU. The suppliers of hydraulic pumps and ECUs are discussed in the section III, "Leading power steering suppliers and their products".
Recent years have seen the introduction of ECU-motor integration type power steering (Power Pack), and also, the trend is to utilize brushless motor in the EPS system instead of brush motor in order to meet the functional safety redundant design requirements due to the motor structure apart from the cost. Another innovation is, the Nissan Skyline, which went on sale on February 2014, offers optional use of the steer-by-wire Direct Adaptive Steering. Thus, EPS system has been evolving greatly.



III. Leading power steering suppliers and their products

JTEKT, NSK Steering Systems, Hitachi Automotive Systems, KYB and Showa are major Japanese suppliers of power steering for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles. Among non-Japanese suppliers, TRW Automotive Japan, headquartered in U.S., and Robert Bosch Automotive Steering, headquartered in Germany, supply power steering for some of the models produced in Japan.
Among them, JTEKT, Hitachi Automotive Systems, KYB and TRW Automotive Japan provide hydraulic power steering for Japanese OEMs in the Japanese market
As for EPS, to the Japanese OEMs' overseas production plants, Mando supplies Nissan with C-EPS from India. In recent years, Nexteer Automotive has been working on C-EPS (including power pack) for Suzuki, also, Mando has been working on C-EPS (including power pack) for Honda 18M Brio as the second C-EPS supplier in the region.

JTEKT Corporation

  • In January 2006, JTEKT was established through the merger of Koyo Seiko Co., Ltd. and Toyoda Machine Works, Ltd. JTEKT, a Toyota affiliate, holds the largest share of around 60% in the Japanese power steering market. Through a capital and business tie-up with Fuji Kiko, a steering column manufacturer and former Nissan keiretsu supplier, JTEKT supplies its products for other OEMs than Toyota. In 1988, JTEKT began the world's first mass production of electric power steering, which was used for the Suzuki Cervo. (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 69.3%, HPS 43%)
  • JTEKT produces hydraulic power steering, electro-hydraulic power steering and electric power steering. JTEKT's EPS comprises column-assist type (C-EPS) for mini vehicles, compact cars and midsize models, pinion-assist type (P-EPS/DP-EPS) and rack-assist type (RP-EPS/RD-EPS) for midsize and large passenger vehicles and sports cars.
  • JTEKT produced the total quantity of 100 million units of EPS by Apr 2015, currently, JTEKT has been supplying EPS to the car OEMs with more than 15 companies globally, JTEKT has secured the top share in the world and has world market share by more than 30 percent.
  • As for column-assist type (C-EPS), JTEKT has started the mass production of integrated motor / ECU for C-EPS at Hananozono plant from 2012.
  • JTEKT does not produce EPS ECUs and motors internally. Most of the ECUs and motors used in its power steering for Toyota, Daihatsu and Subaru are supplied by Denso, while most of the EPS ECUs and motors used in its power steering for Nissan and Mazda are supplied by Mitsubishi Electric. JTEKT produces many of the hydraulic pumps for its power steering internally, while some of the hydraulic pumps for its power steering are supplied by KYB and other manufacturers.

NSK Steering Systems Co., Ltd.

  • In 2001, NSK Ltd., a leading manufacturer of bearings, spun off its EPS division as NSK Steering Systems Co., Ltd. Since then, NSK Steering Systems has gained a stronger foothold in the Japanese power steering market.
  • NSK Steering Systems is Japan's second biggest supplier of power steering after JTEKT. NSK holds around 15% share in the Japanese power steering market, but NSK is still far behind JTEKT in terms of market share. (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 19.6%, HPS 0%)
  • EPS production plants are located in 6 countries with 8 plants, Japan (Soja, Akagi), the United States, Poland, India, Thailand, China (Dongguan, Hangzhou). As a recent move, NSK transferred its EPS production in the UK to Poland in order to centralize its European production, stared EPS production in Thailand in 2011, and implemented production capacity expansion in China and India.
  • NSK produces only electric power steering. NSK's EPS comprises column-assist type (C-EPS) for mini vehicles, compact cars and midsize models, and rack-assist type (R-EPS) and pinion-assist type (P-EPS) for large vehicles and sports cars. NSK has mass production experiences with C-EPS and P-EPS.
  • NSK Ltd. has developed the world's lightest column type electric power steering (EPS). Parts such as the torque sensor and reduction gear have been made more compact, which leads to a 13% reduction weight for the EPS unit as a whole. The torque sensor functions have also been improved, and safety has been enhanced through the addition of low power operation maintenance and a monitoring system. The EPS can be installed on a range of automobiles from mini vehicles to B-segment compact cars. NSK will begin mass production of the EPS in 2017 as a next-generation, environmentally-friendly product.
    • NSK Ltd. announced that it has developed "Active-on Centering Control," a new electric power steering (EPS) technology to improve driver comfort when returning the steering wheel to center. The strain the driver feels when returning the wheel can be reduced by constantly adjusting the steering wheel angle. These adjustments can be achieved by installing a steering angle sensor and regulating the EPS, with no specialized components required. The new technology provides a cost-effective solution to increase steering comfort, and NSK hopes to achieve practical application as soon as 2017.
  • NSK does not produce EPS ECUs internally. Depending on customer needs, NSK uses EPS ECUs supplied by Denso, Hitachi Automotive Systems, Nidec Elesys, Omron, Mitsubishi Electric and other electronic components manufacturers.
    NSK also uses EPS motors made by Nidec, Mitsubishi Electric, Hitachi Automotive Systems, Mitsuba and other electronic components manufacturers.

Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd.

  • Hitachi Automotive Systems is Japan's third largest supplier of power steering after NSK Steering Systems. Hitachi holds over 10% share in the Japanese power steering market. (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 6.6%, HPS 26.1%)
  • Hitachi, like JTEKT, produces hydraulic power steering, electro-hydraulic power steering and electric power steering. Electric power steering is dominant in Japan, but Hitachi sells more hydraulic power steering and electro-hydraulic power steering than electric power steering in the country. Hitachi supplies hydraulic power steering and electro-hydraulic power steering for Nissan, Mazda, Mitsubishi and other OEMs, while providing electric power steering only for Subaru and Mitsubishi. Hitachi is expected to sell more electric power steering to other OEMs than Subaru and Mitsubishi.
  • Hitachi Automotive Systems s feature of EHPS is to have less energy-loss by generating the hydraulic pressure by electric motor only at the timing of steering by the drinver, this was developped in collaboration with Nissan Motor, (Nissan Motor calls it “electro-hydraulic type electronic control power steering”. This new type of EHPS is used on Nissan's hybrid vehicle, "Fuga", "Cima".
    • The EyeSight version 3 active safety system, co-developed by Subaru and Hitachi, features the Active Lane Keep System, which uses EPS to keep the vehicle within a lane. The EyeSight Ver.3 is available as standard equipment on the all-new 2014 Subaru Levorg, except the cheapest version of the model.
      Subaru has announced that Subaru is going to launch the next generation EyeSight system which enables the driver to do partial autonomous driving on some designated motorway in 2017. There is no official name announced yet but it's likely to be named as EyeSight Ver. 4.
  • Hitachi produces EPS ECUs for its power steering internally, while using EPS ECUs made by Denso and other electronic components manufacturers for some of its power steering. Hitachi produces EPS motors for its power steering internally, while using EPS motors made by Mitsuba and other electronic components manufacturers. Hitachi produces hydraulic pumps for its power steering internally, while using hydraulic pumps made by KYB and other manufacturers for some of its power steering.

KYB Co., Ltd.

  • KYB announced its official company name as "KYB" on Oct.1st.2015.
  • KYB ranks fourth among Japanese power steering system supplier. KYB has just 3% share in the Japanese power steering market. KYB is a long-established major manufacturer of shock absorbers and other hydraulic products. (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 0.7%, HPS 29.2%)
  • 75% of its sales come from the shock absorber businesses, and the rest 30% accounts for the hydraulic equipment for the four-wheel vehicle, mainly the steering businesses (including HPS and EPS). HPS production sites are in Japan, Thailand, and Spain, and KYB has global supply capability with HPS is possible, however, the recent demand for EPS to replace HPS with is growing in the market, that means the demand for hydraulic pumps is decreasing, therefore, it has been an urgent task for KYB to expand the development and the production of EPS.
  • KYB produces hydraulic power steering and electric power steering. KYB, like Hitachi Automotive Systems, sells more hydraulic power steering than electric power steering in Japan. However, KYB began production of EPS ECUs in 2013, supplying EPS to the existing customers such as Mazda, Mitsubishi and Subaru as well as new customers such as Nissan.
  • KYB established the "Electronic Technology Center" (Sagamihara City, Kanagawa) in Apr 2012, focusing on the development of the EPS system including ECUs and sensors, to increase the number of EPS professional engineers, the development capabilities. KYB's intension is to grow the steering business as another pillar of revenue in the automotive division just like the shock absorber business, also, the next generation EPS system featuring "EV corresponding", "steer-by-wire" is in the scope.
  • Recently, KYB developed the world's first steer-by-wire technology with Nissan. The Nissan Skyline hybrid, rolled out in February 2014, is the first model equipped with the new unit called the Direct Adaptive Steering. It employs three independent ECUs and a steering angle actuator. The steering wheel input is received by the ECUs, which then send electric signals to the steering angle actuator that controls the front wheels. Direct Adaptive Steering as well as Active Lane Control, another feature of the Nissan Skyline hybrid, could be integral parts of autonomous driving technologies.
  • KYB has started developing a new technology to integrate control of a vehicle's steering system and shock absorbers. The new technology is based on steer-by-wire technology, which provides electronic control of steering systems. KYB was the first company to commercialize steer-by-wire technology. The new technology allows the coordinated control of an electronically controlled shock absorber and a steering system, thus improving driving comfort and stability. KYB will research and develop the new technology with plans to commercialize the technology, as it believes the new technology is vital for advanced driver assistance systems and future autonomous driving applications

SHOWA Corporation

  • Honda is the largest shareholder of Showa, the main products are chassis components such as shock absorbers not only for 4-wheel vehicles but for motor bikes, and also power steering system, the EPS development and production used to be a part of Honda business, and the EPS business was transferred to Showa from Honda, that's how Showa started EPS business. After the EPS business transfer, the 1st EPS mass production business was Honda 97M Accord RD-EPS, after that, Showa developed Pinion assist type. The latest EPS line-up by Showa is DP-EPS/P-EPS and R-EPS. Showa used to produce hydraulic power steering, but it ceased production of hydraulic power steering as the models equipped with the unit stopped selling. Now, Showa supplies hydraulic power steering just for after-sales, therefore, Showa supplies 100% EPS by now except for some HPS for some aftermarket businesses. As for C-EPS, Showa made a press announcement on Mar 30th 2012 that Showa was considering to make a strategic business agreement with TRW, and since then, it appears that TRW focuses on C-EPS while Showa focuses on DP-EPS.
  • Showa is in fifth place among Japanese power steering system supplier. Showa has just 1-2% share in the Japanese power steering market. This is due to the fact that Showa does not produce C-EPS, which is widely used in mini vehicles and compact cars, Japan's most popular segments. The Honda affiliate thus fails to provide C-EPS for mini vehicles and compact cars, including Honda's N-Series mini vehicles and Fit compact car. This is one of the main reasons why Showa has just a small share in the power steering market. (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 2.1%, HPS 1.7%)
  • Showa has 9 EPS production sites globally, Japan and China (3 sites), Thailand, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada (2011 production start), and Mexico (SOP=July 2015, investment of $20 million (JPY1.98 billion)).
  • Newly developed DP-EPS production was started at Gotenba production site in May 2015, which is adopted in Mazda's new “Roadstar” The DP-EPS features higher output torque better steering feel performance by having the assist unit away from the steering wheel. The reduction gear mechanism is laid on the 2nd pinion axis which is independent from the steering axis for the improved steering feeling, which also enables optimization of reduction gear ratio, that leads to higher output torque efficiently. It is also planned that DP-EPS will be adopted to “Civic Type R” which will be produced in the UK. Showa will export DP-EPS from Gotenba to Honda UK in Swindon. It appears that Showa has also been awarded Honda 16M Civic DP-EPS globally, and also Honda 17M CR-V DP-EPS globally. Showa is planning to utilize its Mexican plant with DP-EPS for the North American market. In order to cope with the growing demand of DP-EPS in the North America, Showa is planning to double the DP-EPS capacity by 2018 as 1million units p.a., which is twice as many DP-EPS as planned in 2016.

TRW Automotive Japan Co., Ltd.

  • TRW Automotive Japan is a wholly-owned Japanese subsidiary of U.S.-based TRW Automotive. Its major products include airbags, seatbelts, steering system, driver assistance system, brakes, ABS, ESC and electric parking brakes among others. TRW is a leading manufacturer in automotive safety products. TRW plans to develop more advanced driver assistance system that enables semi-autonomous driving.
  • Since entry into the Japanese market in the 1970s, TRW has provided steering components such as gears and ball joints for Japanese OEMs and components manufacturers. TRW supplies power steering for Mazda and Mitsubishi. (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 1.4%, HPS 0%)
  • TRW, like JTEKT and Hitachi Automotive Systems, supplies hydraulic power steering (HPS), electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) and electric power steering (EPS). TRW's power steering comprises column-assist type (C-EPS) and rack-assist type (R-EPS). TRW's rack-assist type power steering is belt drive EPS (RP-EPS), in which the assist power is applied directly to the rack with a belt drive and ball nut mechanism. In Japan, TRW supplies power steering only for Mazda and Mitsubishi, but TRW provides power steering for VW/Audi, Ford and Volvo in the global market. TRW started EPS production in 2001, shipping a total of 26 million units of C-EPS in the global market as of 2014.
  • TRW supplies C-EPS for Mazda 14M Gen6 Mazda Demio (Japan, Mexico, Thailand Mazda2) globally from TRW China. C-EPS for 15M Mazda CX-3 (Japan) is also supplied by TRW China.
  • TRW has 5 EPS production sites globally, Poland, Spain, Slovakia, China, and Brazil.
  • In 2014, TRW launched its third generation electrically powered steering column drive (EPS CD) technology for the European and Chinese markets. The new unit will be used for the VW Polo, up! and e-up!, Audi S1, Skoda Rapid, Fabia and Citigo and the Fiat 500L in Europe and the GAC Fiat Viaggio in China. The annual output of the new unit is expected to total more than one million units.
  • TRW is seeking out business alliance with Japanese suppliers in emerging markets that will enable them to supplement each other's production facilities and product development. TRW considers Brazil a high-priority area for proposing joint projects to Japanese suppliers. TRW has already started and expanded production in China and India, but TRW has been slow in expanding into the South America's largest country. TRW also expects to boost business in Japan through active cooperation with Japanese suppliers.
  • In November 2014, the acquisition of TRW by ZF was approved at a TRW's shareholders meeting. The acquisition amount is 12.4 billion dollars. The two companies are expected to close the transaction in the first half of 2015. The overwrapped steering business unit (ZFLS) was sold to Bosch.

Robert Bosch Automotive Steering GmbH

  • In January 2015, the Company sold its entire 50% stake in the steering systems joint venture ZF Lenksysteme (ZFLS) to the joint venture partner Robert Bosch. The former ZFLS is now called Robert Bosch Automotive Steering GmbH. The former ZFLS, based in Schwabisch Gmund, Germany, employs more than 13,000 associates in eight countries. It develops, produces, and sells steering systems for passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide. In 2013, it registered sales of approximately EUR 4.1 billion. With a total of 20 locations, the former ZFLS is active in the key automotive markets. Alongside locations in Europe, the U.S., and China, it also produces in India, Brazil, and Malaysia.
    (2014 market share in Japan: EPS 0.3%, HPS 0%)
  • Bosch has EPS businesses only with Honda in the Japan market as of April 2016, Honda Odyssey launched into the market in November 2013 has DP-EPS, and Honda Legend launched into market in February 2015 has R-EPS.
  • It also appears that Bosch is going to supply DP-EPS for Honda 18M Accord globally, North America and China will be supplied by Bosch North America and Bosch China respectively. (Thailand volume will be KD from Honda America)

Thyssenkrupp Presta AG

  • ThyssenKrupp is a steel and industrial products manufacturer from Germany, the group covers various kinds of metal products for Automotive, Sea Industry, Elevator, and large-size bearings. For automotive steering business, ThyssenKrupp Presta is in charge, and has both HPS and EPS.
  • The first EPS business for Thyssenkrupp Presta was BMW X3 launched into market in 2010. Although the late participation into the EPS market, Thyssenkrupp has been expanding its EPS businesses with BMW and Daimler D and E segment cars.
  • Thyssenkrupp Presta was producing only RP-EPS in 2013, (total EPS quantity produced by the end of 2012 was estimated at 450K units), and has started mass production of C-EPS by now.
  • Thyssenkrupp Presta has been attempting to penetrate Japanese car OEMs, and for example, it appears that Thyssenkrupp Presta China seems cost competitive and there might be a chance with C-EPS from China for Gen7 Mazda3 Japan volume.


IV. Global operating facilities by Japanese supplier

1) Global operating facilities

H: Regional Headquarters / M: Manufacturing facility / R: R&D and Technical center
JTEKT NSK KYB SHOWA Hitachi Automotive
Systems
TRW Automotive
Asia Pacific
Japan R&D
Production
R&D
Production
R&D
Production
R&D
Production
R&D
Production
R&D
Production
China R&D
Production
Production Production Production Production R&D
Production
India Production Production
Indonesia Production
Malaysia Production Production
Korea
Taiwan Production
Thailand Production Production Production Production Production
Vietnam
Americas
Argentina Production
Brazil Production
Canada Production
USA R&D
Production
R&D
Production
Production
Mexico Production
Europe
Germany
Czech Production
France R&D
Production
Poland Production Production
Slovakia Production
Spain Production Production
UK Production Production Production

2) Global operating facilities with detailed description of local suppliers, locations and main customers

3) Matrix of major collaborations and joint ventures among suppliers






V. List of leading power steering suppliers and their customers

Toyota Nissan Honda Mazda Mitsubishi Subaru Daihatsu Suzuki
JTEKT * * * * * * * *
NSK Steering Systems * * * * *
Hitachi Automotive Steering Systems * *
KYB * * * * * *
SHOWA * *
TRW Automotive *
Robert Bosch Automotive Steering *


VI. Product installations by carmaker, model, supplier and product

Carmaker Model Supplier Components
Toyota 86 JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Allion JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Alphard JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Aqua JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Auris JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota bB NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Toyota Belta JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Camry JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Century JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Coaster JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Corolla JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Crown JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Crown Comfort JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Crown Sedan JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Dyna JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Estima JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota FJ Cruiser JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Harrier JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Hiace Wagon JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota iQ NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Toyota Isis JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota ist JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Land Cruiser JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Mark X JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Noah JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Passo NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Toyota Porte JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Premio JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Prius JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Prius α JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Prius PHV JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Probox JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Ractis JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota RAV4 NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Toyota SAI JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Scion xB JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Scion tC JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Scion xD JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Sienta JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Spade JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Succeed JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Toyoace JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Toyota Vellfire JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Voxy JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Wish JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Lexus CT JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Lexus GS JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Lexus HS JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Lexus IS JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Lexus LS JTEKT Electric power steering
Toyota Lexus RX JTEKT Electric power steering
Daihatsu Atrai Wagon KYB Hydraulic power steering
Daihatsu Be-go JTEKT Electric power steering
Daihatsu Boon NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Daihatsu Hijet Cargo KYB Hydraulic power steering
Daihatsu Hijet Truck KYB Hydraulic power steering
Daihatsu Mira JTEKT Electric power steering
Daihatsu Move JTEKT Electric power steering
Daihatsu Tanto JTEKT Electric power steering
Daihatsu Terioskid NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Cube JTEKT Electric power steering
Nissan Dualis NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Elegrand JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Nissan Juke JTEKT Electric power steering
Nissan Leaf NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Note JTEKT Electric power steering
Nissan NV200 Vanette JTEKT Electric power steering
Nissan Rogue NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Serena NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Skyline KYB Electric power steering
Nissan Sylphy JTEKT Electric power steering
Nissan Teana NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Wingroad JTEKT Electric power steering
Nissan X-Trail NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Nissan Infiniti Q50 KYB Electric power steering
Honda Accord SHOWA Electric power steering
Honda Acty Truck NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Honda Acty Van NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Honda CR-Z NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Honda Fit JTEKT Electric power steering
Honda Fit Hybrid JTEKT Electric power steering
Honda Fit EV JTEKT Electric power steering
Honda Fit Shuttle SHOWA Electric power steering
Honda Life SHOWA Electric power steering
Honda N-BOX NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Honda N-ONE NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Honda N-WGN NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Honda Odyssey Robert Bosch Automotive Steering Electric power steering
Honda Vezel JTEKT Electric power steering
Honda Acura TSX SHOWA Electric power steering
Suzuki Alto JTEKT Electric power steering
Suzuki Escudo KYB Hydraulic power steering
Suzuki Every Wagon JTEKT Electric power steering
Suzuki Hustler NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Suzuki Jimny NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Suzuki Jimny Sierra JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Suzuki Kizashi NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Suzuki Lapin NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Suzuki MR Wagon JTEKT Electric power steering
Suzuki Solio JTEKT Electric power steering
Suzuki Spacia JTEKT Electric power steering
Suzuki Swift NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Suzuki SX4 JTEKT Electric power steering
Suzuki SX4 JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Suzuki Wagon R NSK Steering Systems Electric power steering
Mitsubishi Delica D:5 JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Mitsubishi eK Wagon JTEKT Electric power steering
Mitsubishi Galant Fortis JTEKT Electric power steering
Mitsubishi i KYB Electric power steering
Mitsubishi i-MiEV KYB Electric power steering
Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV KYB Electric power steering
Mitsubishi Outlander JTEKT Electric power steering
Mitsubishi Pajero JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Mitsubishi Pajero KYB Hydraulic power steering
Mazda Atenza JTEKT Electric power steering
Mazda Axela JTEKT Electric power steering
Mazda Biante JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Mazda Bongo KYB Hydraulic power steering
Mazda CX-5 JTEKT Electric power steering
Mazda CX-7 JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Mazda CX-9 Hitachi Automotive Systems Hydraulic power steering
Mazda Demio TRW Automotive Japan Electric power steering
Mazda MPV Hitachi Automotive Systems Hydraulic power steering
Mazda Premacy JTEKT Hydraulic power steering
Mazda Roadster Hitachi Automotive Systems Hydraulic power steering
Mazda Verisa KYB Electric power steering
Subaru BRZ JTEKT Electric power steering
Subaru Exiga Hitachi Automotive Systems Electric power steering
Subaru Forester Hitachi Automotive Systems Electric power steering
Subaru Impreza Hitachi Automotive Systems Electric power steering
Subaru Legacy KYB Electric power steering
Subaru XV Hitachi Automotive Systems Electric power steering

Sources: Company announcements, press releases, interview findings by MarkLines
(with part of the information provided here based on forecasts by MarkLines)



VII. Comparison in sales among leading power steering suppliers

Sales on a consolidated basis

(Million JPY) Mar. 2013 Mar. 2014 Mar. 2015
JTEKT 1,067,526 1,260,192 1,355,992
NSK 732,842 871,742 974,885
KYB 305,752 352,710 370,425
SHOWA 232,962 272,794 268,490
Hitachi Automotive 806,800 892,100 936,900

Source: Publicity materials by each company, interview findings by MarkLines, etc.



Global operating facilities (Detail)

H: Regional Headquarters /M: Manufacturing facility/ R: R&D and Technical center
Country Company Location Ope-
rations
Equity
ratio
JV partners/ Major shareholders Main customers Major products
(Remarks)
JTEKT Corporation
Asia
Japan JTEKT Corporation
Nara Plant
Kashihara (Nara) RM Electric power steering,
Motor-driven pumps for hydraulic power steering systems,
Hydraulic power steering,
Manual steering
JTEKT Corporation
Toyohashi Plant
Toyohashi (Aichi) M Hydraulic power steering,
Manual steering,
Safety steering columns
JTEKT Corporation
Hanazono Plant
Okazaki (Aichi) M Electric power steering,
Hydraulic power steering pumps,
ECU
JTEKT Corporation
JTECT Iga Proving Ground
Iga (Mie) R
Fuji Kiko Co., Ltd.
Arai Plant
Kosai (Shizuoka) M 33.6 Tachi-S Co.,Ltd. 24.4 Steering columns
Koyo Machine Industries Co., Ltd. Yao (Osaka) M 100 Intermediate shafts
CNK Co., Ltd. Kariya (Aichi) M 100 Power steering rack shafts,
Pinion shafts,
Shaft couplings
Houko Co., Ltd. Nukata-gun
(Aichi)
M Power steering reservoir tank caps
China JTEKT (China) Co., Ltd. Shanghai H 100 Regional headquarters
JTEKT Automotive (Tianjin) Co., Ltd. Tianjin M 95
(10)
(JTEKT (China) Co., Ltd.) 10,
Toyota Tsusho Corporation 5
Power steering pumps,
CVJs,
tank pipes
JTEKT Automotive Parts (Foshan) Co., Ltd. Foshan M 100 Power steering pipes
JTEKT steeringystems (Xiamen) Co., Ltd. Xiamen M 95
(66.5)
(JTEKT (China) Co., Ltd.) 66.5
Toyota Tsusho Corporation 5
Tianjin FAW Toyota,
Dongfeng Nissan Passenger Vehicle,
GAC Toyota
Electric power steering
JTEKT Automotive Science and Technology Center (Dalian) Co., Ltd. Dalian R 100
(10)
(JTEKT (China) Co., Ltd.) 10 Technical center
Koyo Joint (XIAMEN) Co., Ltd. Xiamen M Intermediate shafts
India JTEKT Sona Automotive India Ltd. Rewari, Haryana M 60.9
(9.9)
(Sona Koyo Steering Systems Ltd.) 49 Column-assist type electric power steering
Indonesia PT. JTEKT Indonesia Cikarang Barat,
Bekasi
M 100
(55)
(JTEKT (Thailand) Co., Ltd.) 55 steering,
Bearings,
Starter clutches
Malaysia JTEKT Automotive (Malaysia) SDN. BHD. Shah Alam,
Selangor Darul Ehsan
M 90 UMW Toyota Motor Sdn.Bhd. 10 Hydraulic power steering systems with motor-driven pumps,
Manual steering
Thailand JTEKT (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Amphur Bangpakong,
Chachoengsao
M 95.8 Toyota Tsusho(Thailand) Co., Ltd. 2.9 steering,
Universal joints,
Bearings,
CVJs
JTEKT Automotive (Thailand) Co., Ltd. A.Pluakdaeng Rayong M 95 Toyota Tsusho(Thailand) Co., Ltd. 5 Column-assist type power steering,
Hydraulic pumps,
Starter clutches
Koyo Joint (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Amphur Bangpakong,
Chachoengsao
M Intermediate shafts
Korea JTEKT Korea Co., Ltd. Seoul H Regional headquarters
Americas
Argentina JTEKT Automotive Argentina S.A. Buenos Aires M 100
(100)
(JTEKT Europe S.A.S.) 69.7
(JTEKT Automotive Brasil Ltda.) 30.3
Hydraulic power steering systems with motor-driven pumps,
Manual steering
Brazil JTEKT Automotive Brasil Ltda. José dos Pinhais,
Parana
MR 100
(30.5)
(JTEKT Europe S.A.S.) 30.5 Manual steering gears for column-assist type electric power steering,
Technical center
USA JTEKT North America, Inc. Plymouth (MI) HR 100
(100)
(Koyo Corp. of U.S.A.) 100 Regional headquarters (steering),
Technical Center
JTEKT Automotive Tennessee-Vonore Co. Vonore (TN) M 100
(100)
(JTEKT North America, Inc.) 100 Electric power steering,
Hydraulic power steering with motor-driven pumps,
Manual steering,
Hydraulic hoses
JTEKT Automotive Tennessee-Morristown, Inc. Morristown (TN) M 91.2
(91.2)
(JTEKT North America, Inc.) 91.2
Toyota Tsusho Corporation 8.8
Hydraulic pumps,
Oil pumps for ATs,
Castings
JTEKT Automotive Texas L.P. Ennis (TX) M 100
(100)
(JTEKT North America, Inc.) 95
(Koyo Machine Industries Co.,Ltd.) 5
Electric power steering,
Hydraulic power steering with motor-driven pumps,
Manual steering,
Hydraulic hoses, Intermediate shafts
Europe
Czech JTEKT Automotive Czech Plzan, s.r.o. Plzen-Skvrnany M 97.2
(97.2)
(JTEKT Europe S.A.S.) 100 Electric power steering,
Manual steering
France JTEKT Europe S.A.S. Irigny HR 97.2 Renault 2.8 Technical center
JTEKT HPI S.A.S. Chennevieres-Sur-Marne
Cedex
M 97.2
(97.2)
(JTEKT Europe S.A.S.) 100 Pumps for automobiles & industrial machinery
JTEKT Automotive Dijon Saint-Etienne S.A.S. Chevigny Saint Sauveur M 97.2
(97.2)
(JTEKT Europe S.A.S.) 100 Hydraulic power steering with engine-driven pumps
JTEKT Automotive Lyon S.A.S. Irigny M 97.2
(97.2)
(JTEKT Europe S.A.S.) 100 Electric power steering,
Hydraulic power steering with engine-driven motor,
Manual steering
UK JTEKT Automotive UK Ltd. Neath (West Glamorgan) M 100 Manual steering gears,
Hydraulic pump assembly,
Manufacturer of axle components
NSK Ltd. /NSK Steering Systems Co., Ltd.
Asia
Japan NSK Steering Systems Co., Ltd.
Soja Plant
Maebashi (Gunma) M 100 Electro-mechanical integrated column-type electric power steering,
Column-assist type electric power steering,
Electric tilt/telescopic steering columns,
Pinion-type electric power steering,
Slide-type intermediate shafts,
Ball roller slides
NSK Steering Systems Co., Ltd.
Akagi Plant
Maebashi (Gunma) M 100 Electro-mechanical integrated column-type electric power steering,
Column-assist type electric power steering,
Electric tilt/telescopic steering columns,
Pinion-type electric power steering,
Slide-type intermediate shafts,
Ball roller slides
ADTech Corporation Shinagawa (Tokyo) R 51 Toshiba Corporation
China NSK Steering Systems Dongguan Co., Ltd. Dongguan M 100
(89.5)
Manufacture of automotive components
NSK-WANDA Electric Power Assisted Steering Systems Co., Ltd. Hangzhou M 90 Zhejiang Wanda Autoparts Co., Ltd. 10 Manufacture of automotive components
NSK (China) Investment Co., Ltd. Kunshan H Regional headquarters in China
Kunshan NSK Co., Ltd. Kunshan M Manufacture of automotive components
India Rane NSK Steering Systems Ltd. Bawal (Haryana) M 51 Rane Group 49 Suzuki Manufacture of automotive components
Guduvancherry
(Tamil Nadu)
Thailand Siam NSK Steering Systems Co., Ltd. Bangpakong
(Chachoengsao)
M 74.9 Siam Motors 25.1 Manufacture of automotive components
Americas
USA NSK Steering Systems America, Inc. Bennington (VT) M 100
(100)
(NSK Corporation) 100 Manufacture of automotive components
NSK Steering Systems America, Inc.
Dyersburg Plant
Dyersburg (TN) M
NSK American Technology Center Ann Arbor (MI) R 100
NSK America, Inc. Ann Arbor (MI) H Regional headquarters
Europe
UK NSK Europe Ltd. Berkshire H Regional headquarters
NSK Steering Systems Europe Ltd. Berkshire M Manufacture of automotive components
Poland NSK Steering Systems Europe (Polska) Sp.Zo.O Walbrzych M 100
(100)
Manufacture of automotive components
KYB Corporation
Asia
Japan KYB Corporation
Gifukita Plant
Kani (Gifu) M Power steering,
Shock absorbers,
Hydraulic equipments
for automobiles
KYB Corporation
KYB development and testing center
Kawabe-cho,
Kamo-gun (Gifu)
R
KYB Kanayama Co., Ltd. Gero (Gifu) M Hydraulic vane pumps for power steering,
Vane pumps for CVTs,
Electric power steering components
China KYB Industrial Machinery (Zhenjiang) Co., Ltd. Zhenjiang M 100
(100)
(KYB Trading (Shanghai) Co., Ltd.) 100 Southeast (Fujian) Motor Industrial,
Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive
Manufacture & sales of automotive products
KYB (China) Investment Co., Ltd. Zhenjiang H Regional headquarters
Europe
Germany KYB Europe Headquarters GmbH Krefeld, Germany H Regional headquarters
SHOWA Corporation
Asia
Japan SHOWA Corporation
Gotemba No.1 Plant
Gotemba (Shizuoka) M Honda, Suzuki,
Mitsubishi, Subaru,
Mazda, Daihatsu,
Toyota, Nissan
Electric power steering systems
SHOWA Corporation
Gotemba No.2 Plant
Gotemba (Shizuoka) M Power steering parts,
Hydraulic power steering systems,
Hydraulic equipments
R&D Center (Tochigi) Haga-gun Haga-machi
(Tochigi)
R R&D
SHOWA Kyushu Corporation Uki (Kumamoto) M 100 Manufacture of sintered components
SHOWA Seiko Corporation Hadano (Kanagawa) M 100 Precision parts machining,
Titanium coating
China Guangzhou Showa Autoparts Co., Ltd. Guangzhou M 62.5 Guangzhou Automobile Group Component Co., Ltd. 31.4
Kanematsu Corporation 6.1
Shock absorbers for 4-wheeled vehicles,
Hydraulic & electric power steering systems
Guangzhou Showa Autoparts Co., Ltd.
Wuhan Plant
Wuhan M Shock absorbers for 4-wheeled vehicles,
Hydraulic power steering systems f
Chengdu Ningjiang Showa Autoparts Co., Ltd. Chengdu M 50 China South Industries Automobile 50 Shock absorbers for 2- & 4-wheeled vehicles,
Electric power steering systems
Thailand Showa Autoparts (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Ampur Sriracha
(Chonburi)
M 76 Hydraulic & electric power steering systems,
Shock absorbers for motorcycles
Americas
Canada Showa Canada, Inc. Schomberg (ON) M 100 Propeller shafts,
Hydraulic power steering pumps,
Electric power steering systems
USA American Showa, Inc.
SunburyPlant
Sunbury (OH) M 91.4 American Honda Motor Co., Inc. 8.6 Shock absorbers for 2- & 4-wheeled vehicles,
Hydraulic power steering parts
American Showa, Inc.
Blanchester Plant
Blanchester (OH) M Power steering parts,
Electric & hydraulic power steering systems
Mexico Showa Autoparts Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Estado de Guanajuato M 100 Electric power steering systems
Europe
UK Showa UK Ltd. Aberdare,
Mid Glamorgan
M 64.3 Nissin Kogyo Co., Ltd. 35.7 Toyota Manufacturing UK,
Honda UK Manufacturing
Shock absorbers for 4-wheeled vehicles,
Hydraulic & electric power steering systems
Hitachi Automotive Systems, Ltd. Hitachi Ltd. 100%
Asia
Japan Hitachi Automotive Systems Steering Co., Ltd.
Headquarters/Saitama plant
Hiki-gun
Namegawa-machi
(Saitama)
M Electric power steering systems,
Hydraulic power steering systems,
Power steering gears,
Power steering pumps
Hitachi Automotive Systems Steering Co., Ltd.
Akita plant
Yokote (Akita) M
Hitachi Automotive Systems Steering Co., Ltd.
Niigata plant
Tainai (Niigata) M
China Hitachi Automotive Systems Products (Guangzhou) Ltd. Guangzhou M 100 Power steering systems,
ABS
Taiwan TAMP Auto Parts Industrial Co., Ltd. Ping-chen
(Tao-Yuan)
M 62.1 Power steering systems,
Struts
Thailand Hitachi Automotive Systems Asia, Ltd. Ampur Plangyao
(Chachoengsao)
M 100 Nissan, Mitsubishi Power steering systems
TRW Automotive Japan Co., Ltd.
Japan TRW Automotive Japan Co., Ltd.
Engineering Center
Yokohama
(Kanagawa)
R Nissan, Mazda,
Honda, Mitsubishi,
Toyota, Y-Tec, Kawada
Engineering Center
TRW Automotive Japan Co., Ltd.
Miyoshi Plant
Miyoshi
(Hiroshima)
M Power steering



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