SAE 2013 World Congress (1): OEM Exhibits

Powertrain and hybrid advances lead the drive to achieve efficiency

2013/05/07

Summary

 The SAE 2013 World Congress in Detroit saw the return of the same six OEMs from the previous year (Chrysler, GM, Ford, Honda, Nissan and Hyundai). As this year's host company, Chrysler had the largest exhibit space among the North American OEMs.
 The theme of the Congress this year is "Achieving Efficiency." Efficiency is needed to reinvent the next generation of responsible vehicle propulsion. Automotive engineers have an important role in realizing this goal and being stewards of the planet's natural resources. Chrysler Vice President of Powertrain Transmission & Driveline Engineering and SAE 2013 General Chairman Dr. Mircea Gradu expressed this when he said, "As we strive to achieve efficiency, the resulting significant and exciting challenges are once again positioning the automobile industry as the industry of choice for the world's best and brightest engineering minds."
 This report highlights the technologies that were on display during the show on April 16-18, 2013 by the six participating OEMs.


Related Reports: SAE 2013 World Congress (2): Supplier Exhibits

          : North American International Auto Show 2013 (1)



Chrysler shares EcoDiesel, "Tigershark" engine details; displays Grand Cherokee powertrain

3.0L EcoDiesel V-6

 Chrysler was displaying the 3.0L EcoDiesel V-6 Engine which will be an available option on the Jeep Grand Cherokee. It includes Multijet II injector technology developed and patented by Fiat, water cooled exhaust-gas recirculation, and a diesel particulate filter. When combined to the 8 speed transmission, the company claims that this engine offers the following advantages:

* Anticipated 30 MPG best in class fuel economy
* Lowest CO2 emissions vs. leading diesel competitors
* New exhaust system with NOx conversion
* 10,000 mile Urea fill intervals, which can be done at the same time as regular oil change intervals


 A Chrysler spokesperson at the SAE show indicted that the one of the strengths of this engine is its excellent towing ability. He said that the engine will add about $3,000 to the cost of an engine over the standard V-8 gasoline engine. This makes the payback period approximately 2 years. Vehicles with this option should be available first in the New England region and California, but the company is hoping to ultimately have it available in all 50 states. It is currently being tested in the company's fleet to gain feedback on its performance.

EcoDiesel V-6
EcoDiesel V-6

 

3.0L EcoDiesel V-6 (Jeep Grand Cherokee)
Type and Description 60 degree V-type with Dual Over Head Camshafts (DOHC) and 4 valves per cylinder
Valvetrain System Finger-follower actuated valves with hydraulic lash adjusters
Construction Compacted graphite iron (CGI) block; aluminum head
Power 240 hp @ 3600 rpm
Torque 420 lb-ft (570 Nm) @ 2000 rpm
Fuel Type Ultra low sulfur diesel
Compliance Water-cooled exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) for Tier II, Bin 5, and ULEV II
Fuel Economy (best-in-class) 30 mpg (manufacturer's estimate)
Driving Range (best-in-class) More than 730 miles

 

2.4L "Tigershark" engine

 Chrysler also shared details about the 2.4L "Tigershark" inline 4-cylinder engine which is available on the 2013 Dodge Dart. A spokesperson at the exhibit indicated that the engine will probably be an available option on the 2014 Jeep Cherokee.

Tigershark engine features and specifications
* Chrysler's engine design will be available with a six-speed manual or an automatic transmission.
* The block is constructed from cast aluminum with cast iron bore liner. The forged steel crankshaft has forged powder metal connecting rods.
* MultiAir 2 technology, adopted from Fiat, provides power and fuel economy through electro hydraulic actuation of the intake valves for precise actuation, timing, and duration.
* The aluminum head features a single overhead camshaft (exhaust) with four valves per cylinder.
* Each cylinder has an oil squirter to maintain cylinder wall and piston temperatures for improved economy and performance.
* Performance is estimated at 184 hp @ 6250 rpm; 171 lb-ft of torque @ 4800 rpm.
Noise and vibration mitigation measures
* A balance shaft module minimizes vibration from piston forces.
* Noise from the engine is reduced with acoustic material between the inner and outer stamping of the oil pan.
* The exhaust manifold is located at the front of the engine to improve cabin quietness.
* Aluminum head / camshaft cover and aluminum front end cover helps dampen engine noise.

 

2.4L
2.4L "Tigershark" I-4 engine
2014 Jeep Cherokee
2014 Jeep Cherokee

 

2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain

 Chrysler also showed off the 2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain which features a 3.2L Pentastar V-6 engine matted to a 9-speed automatic AWD/FWD transmission. This transmission was developed for Chrysler by ZF Friedrichshafen at its South Carolina facility. For more information, please refer to the ZF Friedrichshafen section of the report "SAE 2013 World Congress (2): Supplier Exhibits."(will be ready soon)

2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain
2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain
2014 Jeep Cherokee powertrain details
2014 Jeep Cherokee powertrain details

 



Ford presents plug-in hybrid technology and EcoBoost engines

Ford C-MAX hybrid and C-MAX Energi

 The C-MAX hybrid took center stage at the Ford exhibit even though the company was promoting the C-MAX Energi plug-in vehicle. The C-MAX Energi combines a 2.0L Atkinson Cycle gasoline engine with a hybrid transmission (traction motor and generator). The vehicle range is approximately 20 miles in electric only mode and 550 miles in total. The battery pack assembly location is at the Ford Rawsonville Plant in Ypsilanti, MI with final assembly at the Michigan Assembly Plant in Wayne, MI.

Ford C-Max Hybrid
Ford C-Max Hybrid

 

1.6L and 1.0L EcoBoost engines

 Ford showed off two EcoBoost engines: a 1.6L I-4 (2013 Escape, 2013 Fusion, 2014 Fiesta ST, 2014 Transit Connect) and a 1.0L I-3 (2013 Europe Fiesta, B-MAX, Focus and C-MAX, 2014 NA Fiesta). Ford boasts 20% better fuel economy and 15% lower CO2 emissions than its conventional gasoline engines. The EcoBoost engines improve efficiency by utilizing three technologies:

* High Pressure Direct Injection: A fine mist of fuel is directly sprayed into each combustion chamber. This precise injection improves fuel economy, reduces cold-start emissions and lowers CO2 emissions.
* Turbo Power: The turbo spins up to 200,000 rpm for increased torque and uses exhaust energy to pressurize incoming air.
* Advanced Powertrain Control Module: The PCM continually monitors over 10,000 performance variables and automatically adjusts to improve efficiency.

1.6L EcoBoost I-4 engine
1.6L EcoBoost I-4 engine
1.0L EcoBoost I-3 engine
1.0L EcoBoost I-3 engine

 



General Motors displays Chevrolet Silverado and Corvette engines

 General Motors showed off the newly released 2014 Chevrolet Silverado, featuring refinements to make the vehicle quieter and more responsive. The company also displayed two engines: the 5.3L V-8 EcoTec3 engine available in the Silverado and the LT1 6.2L V-8 Gen 5 small block available in the Corvette Stingray.

Engine Specifications EcoTec3 5.3L V-8 Gen 5 Small Block Engine
(Chevrolet Silverado)
6.2L V-8 Gen 5 Small Block Engine
(Chevrolet Corvette Stingray)
Horsepower 355 hp / 265 kw @ 5600 rpm 450 hp / 335 kw @ 6000 rpm
Torque 383 lb-ft / 518 Nm @ 4200 rpm 450 lb-ft / 610 Nm @ 4200 rpm
Compression Ratio 11.0:1 11.5:1
Bore x Stroke 96.01 mm x 92 mm 103.25 mm x 92 mm

 

Sound dampening material in Silverado wheel well
Sound dampening material in Silverado wheel well
5.3L V-8 EcoTec3 engine
5.3L V-8 EcoTec3 engine
Chevrolet Corvette Stingray
Chevrolet Corvette Stingray
6.2L V-8 Gen 5 small block engine
6.2L V-8 Gen 5 small block engine

 



Honda's Accord showcases safety systems, hybrid technology, and engine efficiency

Visibility and Safety Systems

 Honda displayed the new 2013 Honda Accord Coupe equipped with visibility and safety technology. These systems are designed to protect pedestrians, Honda vehicle occupants and occupants of other vehicles

Honda safety and vision system overview
Forward Collision Warning
(FCW)
The forward collision warning system combines radar with a forward facing camera to track the vehicle in front. If the vehicle detects a potential forward crash, the system alerts the driver with audio and visual warnings.
Lane Departure Warning (LDW) The lane departure warning system uses a forward facing camera between the windshield and rear-view mirror that identifies the lane markings on the road. If the vehicle starts drifting without the driver engaging the turn indicator, the system provides a visual cues (flashing light) and an audio warning (beeps) to the driver.
LaneWatch The LaneWatch system is a camera based system embedded in the passenger side mirror. This system extends the view of the passenger-side from a 20 degree angle to 80 degrees, offering the driver a much better view of the blind spot. LaneWatch is activated automatically when the turn signal is engaged toward the passenger side, or manually though the push of a button. Once activated and image of the blind spot is displayed on the center console screen. LaneWatch is available on the EX-L trim level and above on the Accord.

 

Honda LaneWatch information board
Honda LaneWatch information board
Honda
Honda "Safety for Everyone" display
LaneWatch camera on passenger mirror
LaneWatch camera on passenger mirror
LaneWatch image display on center console
LaneWatch image display on center console

 

2.4L i-VTEC gasoline engine

 Honda's new 2.4L direct injection 4-cylinder i-VTEC engine promises higher power and lower CO2 emissions than the previous version. The new engine structure incorporates high pressure direct injection technology, air-fuel homogeneous premixed combustion, friction reduction technology and a light weight engine structure. These technologies combine to contribute to a 4% increase in maximum horsepower, a 12% increase in maximum torque, a 6% reduction in friction and a 3.5% reduction in weight.

2013 Honda Accord 2.4L i-VTEC Engine Specifications
Cylinder configuration Inline 4-cylinder
Bore x Stroke (mm) 87 x 99.1
Displacement (cm3) 2356
Compression ratio 11.0:1
Valve train DOHC i-VTEC 16-valve
Valve diameter (mm) IN/EX 36/30
Cylinder offset (mm) 8
Fuel injection Direct injection
Max. power (kW/rpm) 138/6400
Max. torque (Nm/rpm) 245/3900
CARB Emission Rating ULEV-2 /PZEV

 

i-VTEC engine
i-VTEC engine
i-VTEC engine close-up
i-VTEC engine close-up

 

Sport Hybrid Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) plug-in hybrid system

 The 2014 Accord hybrid on display at SAE 2013 incorporates a number of fuel-saving technologies. The vehicle features a 2.0L Atkinson Cycle engine specifically designed for hybrid systems, a compact power control unit that allows it to be fitted inside the engine compartment and an electric servo braking system that allows extended regenerative braking range and natural braking feel.

2014 Honda Accord plug-in hybrid engine compartment with i-MMD
2014 Honda Accord plug-in hybrid engine compartment
with i-MMD
2.0L Atkinson Cycle engine
2.0L Atkinson Cycle engine
Power Control Unit
Power Control Unit
Power Control Unit (PCU) details
Power Control Unit (PCU) details
Intelligent Power Module (IPM) configuration within PCU
Intelligent Power Module (IPM) configuration within PCU
Electric servo brake system structure
Electric servo brake system structure

 

 The Sport Hybrid i-MMD system combines the engine with a two motor hybrid system (electric coupled CVT), and a high capacity/high output Li-ion battery. Honda describes i-MMD as the most efficient two-motor hybrid system optimized for mid-size vehicles. This joins Honda's portfolio of hybrid drives that include the one-motor Intelligent Dual-clutch Drive (i-DCD) for small vehicles and the three-motor Super Handling All Wheel Drive (SH-AWD) for large vehicles.

2014 Honda Accord plug-in hybrid specifications
Engine type Inline 4-cylinder
Displacement (cc) 1993
Compression ratio 13.0:1
Horsepower @ rpm (SAE net) 141 @ 6200
Hybrid System 2-motor hybrid system
Battery 6.7kWh/Li-ion Battery
CARB Emission Rating SULEV20/TZEV
Fuel (gal) 12.2

 

Intelligent Multi Mode Drive plug-in system overview panel
Intelligent Multi Mode Drive plug-in system overview panel
Sport Hybrid i-MMD main features
Sport Hybrid i-MMD main features
Sport Hybrid i-MMD improved performance
Sport Hybrid i-MMD improved performance
Sport Hybrid i-MMD driving modes
Sport Hybrid i-MMD driving modes
Sport Hybrid i-MMD specifications
Sport Hybrid i-MMD specifications

 



Nissan improves Leaf powertrain; powers homes using a Leaf; exhibits Pathfinder hybrid powertrain

MY 2013 Leaf powertrain improvements

 Nissan was proud to display the powertrain improvements it has made in the MY 2013 Leaf over the previous generation powertrain. The vehicle boasts improved fuel economy and mileage through three factors: weight reduction, expanded regeneration, and improved efficiency for the electric powertrain.

e-PT Specifications
MY 11/12 MY 13
Mass --- -10%
Volume --- -30%
Max. Power 80 kW 80 kW
Max. Torque 280 Nm 254 Nm
Reduction gear ratio 7.938 8.194
DC/DC power 120 A 120 A
Charger power AC Lv2 3.6kW AC Lv2 3.6kW/6.6kW

 

2013 Nissan Leaf engine compartment
2013 Nissan Leaf engine compartment
Nissan Leaf e-PT size improvements
Nissan Leaf e-PT size improvements
Improvements to Leaf powertrain panel 1 MY 2013 vs. MY 2011/12
Improvements to Leaf powertrain panel 1
MY 2013 vs. MY 2011/12
Improvements to Leaf powertrain panel 2 MY 2013 vs. MY 2011/12
Improvements to Leaf powertrain panel 2
MY 2013 vs. MY 2011/12

 

"Leaf to Home" power supply system

 Nissan displayed its "Leaf to Home" power conversion system that allows the Leaf electric vehicle to act as a power source during a power outage or during times of high demand on the grid. The power control system connects to the Leaf and also to a power distribution panel inside the home.

Leaf to Home overview
Leaf to Home overview
Leaf to Home EV Power Station
Leaf to Home EV Power Station

 

2014 Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid powertrain

 Nissan also displayed the Pure Drive Hybrid System which is available on the 2014 Pathfinder Hybrid. This system uses a supercharged 2.5L I-4 engine with Nissan's next generation Xtronic CVT, paired with a one-motor, two clutch configuration. (Nissan's Dual Clutch Control System).

Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid motor
Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid motor
Close-up of supercharger on Pathfinder motor
Close-up of supercharger on Pathfinder motor

 



Hyundai features engine, transmission, and fuel cell technologies

U2 1.7L Diesel Engine

 Hyundai showed off details of the U2 1.7L inline 4-cylinder diesel engine. A Hyundai spokesperson indicated that this engine will be used in Hyundai and Kia models in Europe and Korea. Although not yet decided, the spokesperson also mentioned that this engine could possibly come to North America in 2 years or so: perhaps in a MY 2015 vehicle. It will likely be built in Korea and then exported to N.A. for final assembly.

U2 1.7L Diesel Engine: Features and Specifications
Fuel and Control 1600 bar common rail fuel system
Alternator management system and idle stop-start system (improved fuel economy)
High-efficiency EGR cooler with a bypass valve (reduced NOx, CO, and HC emissions)
Variable geometry turbocharging
Integrated diesel oxidation catalyst and closed coupled diesel particulate filter
Combustion Optimized air induction system: optimized swirl and charging port for uniform distribution of EGR
Ceramic glow plug: improved cold-start / warm-up for reduced CO and HC emissions
Optimized combustion parameter: optimized combustion chamber and head port design for improved performance and fuel economy
NVH Optimization Noise reduction: reduced piston slap noise, timing chain noise and turbocharger noise
Stiffness: Enhanced bed plate and oil pan stiffness; integrated engine support bracket and chain cover
Downsizing Previous I-4 2.0L engine downsized to I-4 1.7L engine with improved fuel economy and reduced weight while maintaining performance drivability

 

U2 1.7L I-4 diesel engine
U2 1.7L I-4 diesel engine
U2 1.7L I-4 diesel engine specifications
U2 1.7L I-4 diesel engine specifications

 

Nu CVVL 2.0L I-4 (Continuously Variable Valve Lift) gasoline engine

 Hyundai also showed highlights of its unique continuously variable valve lift technology. Performance, fuel economy and emissions are managed according to engine load and speed. At low speeds, performance is improved through optimal valve lift. At high speeds, performance is improved through maximum valve lift with increased charging efficiency. The CVVL engine controls intake air through the valve lift instead of the throttle valve in a typical engine. This improves fuel economy by reducing pumping loss.

Nu CVVL engine 2.0L I-4 gasoline engine
Nu CVVL engine 2.0L I-4 gasoline engine
Nu CVVL engine valve lift
Nu CVVL engine valve lift

 

Kappa Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

 Hyundai also showed its Kappa CVT which is intended to improve fuel economy for light and small cars. It consists of a 2 speed auxiliary transmission and a CVT variator (metal belt). The auxiliary transmission consists of 2 simple planetary gears and 1 clutch / 2 brakes. It offers a wider gear ratio with two forward speeds and one reverse speed.


 The CVT variator uses hydraulic pressure to continuously vary the CVT ratio by changing the belt contact radius. A new oil pump provides the hydraulic flow for CVT pressure control, lubrication and cooling. Hyundai claims a 9.5% improvement in fuel efficiency and 7.8 % performance improvement (0 →100 kph). According to a Hyundai spokesperson, the Kappa CVT is currently in use in the Kia Ray (Korea market).

Kappa CVT specifications
Kappa CVT specifications

 

Tucson fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV): ix35

 Hyundai showed the fuel cell electric vehicle based on the Tucson. The power generating unit is compactly designed and stored under the hood. The vehicle can operate in sub-zero temperatures. The Tucson body allows more space for passengers and cargo.

Tucson FCEV specifications
Vehicle weight 4,070 lbs
Max. driving range 365 miles
Fuel Hydrogen
Fuel tank capacity 12.4 lb at 10,000 psi
Exhaust emission Water vapor
Fuel efficiency 3.4 lb H2/100 miles
Operation pressure Near ambient
Motor 100 kW induction motor
Max. motor torque 221 lb-ft
Max. speed 100 mph
Fuel cell power 100 kW
Battery 24 kw Li-Polymer
Acceleration 12.5 sec (0-62 mph)

 

Hyundai fuel cell electric vehicle
Hyundai fuel cell electric vehicle
Hyundai fuel cell stack and components
Hyundai fuel cell stack and components

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