SAE 2013 World Congress (1): OEM Exhibits
Powertrain and hybrid advances lead the drive to achieve efficiency
The SAE 2013 World Congress in Detroit saw the return of the same six OEMs from the previous year (Chrysler, GM, Ford, Honda, Nissan and Hyundai). As this year's host company, Chrysler had the largest exhibit space among the North American OEMs.
The theme of the Congress this year is "Achieving Efficiency." Efficiency is needed to reinvent the next generation of responsible vehicle propulsion. Automotive engineers have an important role in realizing this goal and being stewards of the planet's natural resources. Chrysler Vice President of Powertrain Transmission & Driveline Engineering and SAE 2013 General Chairman Dr. Mircea Gradu expressed this when he said, "As we strive to achieve efficiency, the resulting significant and exciting challenges are once again positioning the automobile industry as the industry of choice for the world's best and brightest engineering minds."
This report highlights the technologies that were on display during the show on April 16-18, 2013 by the six participating OEMs.
Related Reports: SAE 2013 World Congress (2): Supplier Exhibits
Chrysler shares EcoDiesel, "Tigershark" engine details; displays Grand Cherokee powertrain
3.0L EcoDiesel V-6
Chrysler was displaying the 3.0L EcoDiesel V-6 Engine which will be an available option on the Jeep Grand Cherokee. It includes Multijet II injector technology developed and patented by Fiat, water cooled exhaust-gas recirculation, and a diesel particulate filter. When combined to the 8 speed transmission, the company claims that this engine offers the following advantages:
* Anticipated 30 MPG best in class fuel economy * Lowest CO2 emissions vs. leading diesel competitors * New exhaust system with NOx conversion * 10,000 mile Urea fill intervals, which can be done at the same time as regular oil change intervals
A Chrysler spokesperson at the SAE show indicted that the one of the strengths of this engine is its excellent towing ability. He said that the engine will add about $3,000 to the cost of an engine over the standard V-8 gasoline engine. This makes the payback period approximately 2 years. Vehicles with this option should be available first in the New England region and California, but the company is hoping to ultimately have it available in all 50 states. It is currently being tested in the company's fleet to gain feedback on its performance.
|3.0L EcoDiesel V-6 (Jeep Grand Cherokee)|
|Type and Description||60 degree V-type with Dual Over Head Camshafts (DOHC) and 4 valves per cylinder|
|Valvetrain System||Finger-follower actuated valves with hydraulic lash adjusters|
|Construction||Compacted graphite iron (CGI) block; aluminum head|
|Power||240 hp @ 3600 rpm|
|Torque||420 lb-ft (570 Nm) @ 2000 rpm|
|Fuel Type||Ultra low sulfur diesel|
|Compliance||Water-cooled exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) for Tier II, Bin 5, and ULEV II|
|Fuel Economy (best-in-class)||30 mpg (manufacturer's estimate)|
|Driving Range (best-in-class)||More than 730 miles|
2.4L "Tigershark" engine
Chrysler also shared details about the 2.4L "Tigershark" inline 4-cylinder engine which is available on the 2013 Dodge Dart. A spokesperson at the exhibit indicated that the engine will probably be an available option on the 2014 Jeep Cherokee.
|Tigershark engine features and specifications|
|* Chrysler's engine design will be available with a six-speed manual or an automatic transmission. * The block is constructed from cast aluminum with cast iron bore liner. The forged steel crankshaft has forged powder metal connecting rods. * MultiAir 2 technology, adopted from Fiat, provides power and fuel economy through electro hydraulic actuation of the intake valves for precise actuation, timing, and duration. * The aluminum head features a single overhead camshaft (exhaust) with four valves per cylinder. * Each cylinder has an oil squirter to maintain cylinder wall and piston temperatures for improved economy and performance. * Performance is estimated at 184 hp @ 6250 rpm; 171 lb-ft of torque @ 4800 rpm.|
|Noise and vibration mitigation measures|
|* A balance shaft module minimizes vibration from piston forces. * Noise from the engine is reduced with acoustic material between the inner and outer stamping of the oil pan. * The exhaust manifold is located at the front of the engine to improve cabin quietness. * Aluminum head / camshaft cover and aluminum front end cover helps dampen engine noise.|
|2.4L "Tigershark" I-4 engine||2014 Jeep Cherokee|
2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain
Chrysler also showed off the 2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain which features a 3.2L Pentastar V-6 engine matted to a 9-speed automatic AWD/FWD transmission. This transmission was developed for Chrysler by ZF Friedrichshafen at its South Carolina facility. For more information, please refer to the ZF Friedrichshafen section of the report "SAE 2013 World Congress (2): Supplier Exhibits."(will be ready soon)
|2014 Jeep Cherokee Powertrain||2014 Jeep Cherokee powertrain details|
Ford presents plug-in hybrid technology and EcoBoost engines
Ford C-MAX hybrid and C-MAX Energi
The C-MAX hybrid took center stage at the Ford exhibit even though the company was promoting the C-MAX Energi plug-in vehicle. The C-MAX Energi combines a 2.0L Atkinson Cycle gasoline engine with a hybrid transmission (traction motor and generator). The vehicle range is approximately 20 miles in electric only mode and 550 miles in total. The battery pack assembly location is at the Ford Rawsonville Plant in Ypsilanti, MI with final assembly at the Michigan Assembly Plant in Wayne, MI.
|Ford C-Max Hybrid|
1.6L and 1.0L EcoBoost engines
Ford showed off two EcoBoost engines: a 1.6L I-4 (2013 Escape, 2013 Fusion, 2014 Fiesta ST, 2014 Transit Connect) and a 1.0L I-3 (2013 Europe Fiesta, B-MAX, Focus and C-MAX, 2014 NA Fiesta). Ford boasts 20% better fuel economy and 15% lower CO2 emissions than its conventional gasoline engines. The EcoBoost engines improve efficiency by utilizing three technologies:
* High Pressure Direct Injection: A fine mist of fuel is directly sprayed into each combustion chamber. This precise injection improves fuel economy, reduces cold-start emissions and lowers CO2 emissions. * Turbo Power: The turbo spins up to 200,000 rpm for increased torque and uses exhaust energy to pressurize incoming air. * Advanced Powertrain Control Module: The PCM continually monitors over 10,000 performance variables and automatically adjusts to improve efficiency.
|1.6L EcoBoost I-4 engine||1.0L EcoBoost I-3 engine|
General Motors displays Chevrolet Silverado and Corvette engines
General Motors showed off the newly released 2014 Chevrolet Silverado, featuring refinements to make the vehicle quieter and more responsive. The company also displayed two engines: the 5.3L V-8 EcoTec3 engine available in the Silverado and the LT1 6.2L V-8 Gen 5 small block available in the Corvette Stingray.
|Engine Specifications||EcoTec3 5.3L V-8 Gen 5 Small Block Engine (Chevrolet Silverado)||6.2L V-8 Gen 5 Small Block Engine (Chevrolet Corvette Stingray)|
|Horsepower||355 hp / 265 kw @ 5600 rpm||450 hp / 335 kw @ 6000 rpm|
|Torque||383 lb-ft / 518 Nm @ 4200 rpm||450 lb-ft / 610 Nm @ 4200 rpm|
|Bore x Stroke||96.01 mm x 92 mm||103.25 mm x 92 mm|
|Sound dampening material in Silverado wheel well||5.3L V-8 EcoTec3 engine|
|Chevrolet Corvette Stingray||6.2L V-8 Gen 5 small block engine|
Honda's Accord showcases safety systems, hybrid technology, and engine efficiency
Visibility and Safety Systems
Honda displayed the new 2013 Honda Accord Coupe equipped with visibility and safety technology. These systems are designed to protect pedestrians, Honda vehicle occupants and occupants of other vehicles
|Honda safety and vision system overview|
|Forward Collision Warning (FCW)||The forward collision warning system combines radar with a forward facing camera to track the vehicle in front. If the vehicle detects a potential forward crash, the system alerts the driver with audio and visual warnings.|
|Lane Departure Warning (LDW)||The lane departure warning system uses a forward facing camera between the windshield and rear-view mirror that identifies the lane markings on the road. If the vehicle starts drifting without the driver engaging the turn indicator, the system provides a visual cues (flashing light) and an audio warning (beeps) to the driver.|
|LaneWatch||The LaneWatch system is a camera based system embedded in the passenger side mirror. This system extends the view of the passenger-side from a 20 degree angle to 80 degrees, offering the driver a much better view of the blind spot. LaneWatch is activated automatically when the turn signal is engaged toward the passenger side, or manually though the push of a button. Once activated and image of the blind spot is displayed on the center console screen. LaneWatch is available on the EX-L trim level and above on the Accord.|
|Honda LaneWatch information board||Honda "Safety for Everyone" display|
|LaneWatch camera on passenger mirror||LaneWatch image display on center console|
2.4L i-VTEC gasoline engine
Honda's new 2.4L direct injection 4-cylinder i-VTEC engine promises higher power and lower CO2 emissions than the previous version. The new engine structure incorporates high pressure direct injection technology, air-fuel homogeneous premixed combustion, friction reduction technology and a light weight engine structure. These technologies combine to contribute to a 4% increase in maximum horsepower, a 12% increase in maximum torque, a 6% reduction in friction and a 3.5% reduction in weight.
|2013 Honda Accord 2.4L i-VTEC Engine Specifications|
|Cylinder configuration||Inline 4-cylinder|
|Bore x Stroke (mm)||87 x 99.1|
|Valve train||DOHC i-VTEC 16-valve|
|Valve diameter (mm)||IN/EX 36/30|
|Cylinder offset (mm)||8|
|Fuel injection||Direct injection|
|Max. power (kW/rpm)||138/6400|
|Max. torque (Nm/rpm)||245/3900|
|CARB Emission Rating||ULEV-2 /PZEV|
|i-VTEC engine||i-VTEC engine close-up|
Sport Hybrid Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) plug-in hybrid system
The 2014 Accord hybrid on display at SAE 2013 incorporates a number of fuel-saving technologies. The vehicle features a 2.0L Atkinson Cycle engine specifically designed for hybrid systems, a compact power control unit that allows it to be fitted inside the engine compartment and an electric servo braking system that allows extended regenerative braking range and natural braking feel.
|2014 Honda Accord plug-in hybrid engine compartment with i-MMD||2.0L Atkinson Cycle engine|
|Power Control Unit||Power Control Unit (PCU) details|
|Intelligent Power Module (IPM) configuration within PCU||Electric servo brake system structure|
The Sport Hybrid i-MMD system combines the engine with a two motor hybrid system (electric coupled CVT), and a high capacity/high output Li-ion battery. Honda describes i-MMD as the most efficient two-motor hybrid system optimized for mid-size vehicles. This joins Honda's portfolio of hybrid drives that include the one-motor Intelligent Dual-clutch Drive (i-DCD) for small vehicles and the three-motor Super Handling All Wheel Drive (SH-AWD) for large vehicles.
|2014 Honda Accord plug-in hybrid specifications|
|Engine type||Inline 4-cylinder|
|Horsepower @ rpm (SAE net)||141 @ 6200|
|Hybrid System||2-motor hybrid system|
|CARB Emission Rating||SULEV20/TZEV|
|Intelligent Multi Mode Drive plug-in system overview panel|
|Sport Hybrid i-MMD main features||Sport Hybrid i-MMD improved performance|
|Sport Hybrid i-MMD driving modes||Sport Hybrid i-MMD specifications|
Nissan improves Leaf powertrain; powers homes using a Leaf; exhibits Pathfinder hybrid powertrain
MY 2013 Leaf powertrain improvements
Nissan was proud to display the powertrain improvements it has made in the MY 2013 Leaf over the previous generation powertrain. The vehicle boasts improved fuel economy and mileage through three factors: weight reduction, expanded regeneration, and improved efficiency for the electric powertrain.
|MY 11/12||MY 13|
|Max. Power||80 kW||80 kW|
|Max. Torque||280 Nm||254 Nm|
|Reduction gear ratio||7.938||8.194|
|DC/DC power||120 A||120 A|
|Charger power||AC Lv2 3.6kW||AC Lv2 3.6kW/6.6kW|
|2013 Nissan Leaf engine compartment||Nissan Leaf e-PT size improvements|
|Improvements to Leaf powertrain panel 1 MY 2013 vs. MY 2011/12||Improvements to Leaf powertrain panel 2 MY 2013 vs. MY 2011/12|
"Leaf to Home" power supply system
Nissan displayed its "Leaf to Home" power conversion system that allows the Leaf electric vehicle to act as a power source during a power outage or during times of high demand on the grid. The power control system connects to the Leaf and also to a power distribution panel inside the home.
|Leaf to Home overview||Leaf to Home EV Power Station|
2014 Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid powertrain
Nissan also displayed the Pure Drive Hybrid System which is available on the 2014 Pathfinder Hybrid. This system uses a supercharged 2.5L I-4 engine with Nissan's next generation Xtronic CVT, paired with a one-motor, two clutch configuration. (Nissan's Dual Clutch Control System).
|Nissan Pathfinder Hybrid motor||Close-up of supercharger on Pathfinder motor|
Hyundai features engine, transmission, and fuel cell technologies
U2 1.7L Diesel Engine
Hyundai showed off details of the U2 1.7L inline 4-cylinder diesel engine. A Hyundai spokesperson indicated that this engine will be used in Hyundai and Kia models in Europe and Korea. Although not yet decided, the spokesperson also mentioned that this engine could possibly come to North America in 2 years or so: perhaps in a MY 2015 vehicle. It will likely be built in Korea and then exported to N.A. for final assembly.
|U2 1.7L Diesel Engine: Features and Specifications|
|Fuel and Control||1600 bar common rail fuel system|
|Alternator management system and idle stop-start system (improved fuel economy)|
|High-efficiency EGR cooler with a bypass valve (reduced NOx, CO, and HC emissions)|
|Variable geometry turbocharging|
|Integrated diesel oxidation catalyst and closed coupled diesel particulate filter|
|Combustion||Optimized air induction system: optimized swirl and charging port for uniform distribution of EGR|
|Ceramic glow plug: improved cold-start / warm-up for reduced CO and HC emissions|
|Optimized combustion parameter: optimized combustion chamber and head port design for improved performance and fuel economy|
|NVH Optimization||Noise reduction: reduced piston slap noise, timing chain noise and turbocharger noise|
|Stiffness: Enhanced bed plate and oil pan stiffness; integrated engine support bracket and chain cover|
|Downsizing||Previous I-4 2.0L engine downsized to I-4 1.7L engine with improved fuel economy and reduced weight while maintaining performance drivability|
|U2 1.7L I-4 diesel engine||U2 1.7L I-4 diesel engine specifications|
Nu CVVL 2.0L I-4 (Continuously Variable Valve Lift) gasoline engine
Hyundai also showed highlights of its unique continuously variable valve lift technology. Performance, fuel economy and emissions are managed according to engine load and speed. At low speeds, performance is improved through optimal valve lift. At high speeds, performance is improved through maximum valve lift with increased charging efficiency. The CVVL engine controls intake air through the valve lift instead of the throttle valve in a typical engine. This improves fuel economy by reducing pumping loss.
|Nu CVVL engine 2.0L I-4 gasoline engine||Nu CVVL engine valve lift|
Kappa Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
Hyundai also showed its Kappa CVT which is intended to improve fuel economy for light and small cars. It consists of a 2 speed auxiliary transmission and a CVT variator (metal belt). The auxiliary transmission consists of 2 simple planetary gears and 1 clutch / 2 brakes. It offers a wider gear ratio with two forward speeds and one reverse speed.
The CVT variator uses hydraulic pressure to continuously vary the CVT ratio by changing the belt contact radius. A new oil pump provides the hydraulic flow for CVT pressure control, lubrication and cooling. Hyundai claims a 9.5% improvement in fuel efficiency and 7.8 % performance improvement (0 →100 kph). According to a Hyundai spokesperson, the Kappa CVT is currently in use in the Kia Ray (Korea market).
|Kappa CVT specifications|
Tucson fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV): ix35
Hyundai showed the fuel cell electric vehicle based on the Tucson. The power generating unit is compactly designed and stored under the hood. The vehicle can operate in sub-zero temperatures. The Tucson body allows more space for passengers and cargo.
|Tucson FCEV specifications|
|Vehicle weight||4,070 lbs|
|Max. driving range||365 miles|
|Fuel tank capacity||12.4 lb at 10,000 psi|
|Exhaust emission||Water vapor|
|Fuel efficiency||3.4 lb H2/100 miles|
|Operation pressure||Near ambient|
|Motor||100 kW induction motor|
|Max. motor torque||221 lb-ft|
|Max. speed||100 mph|
|Fuel cell power||100 kW|
|Battery||24 kw Li-Polymer|
|Acceleration||12.5 sec (0-62 mph)|
|Hyundai fuel cell electric vehicle||Hyundai fuel cell stack and components|
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