Detroit Auto Show 2011 (1): electric vehicles on display

Toyota unveils Prius-family, GM shows Chevy Volt, and Ford exhibits Focus EV ready for markets

2011/02/09

Summary

  Below is a summary of reports on electric vehicles, such as HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicles), EV (Electric Vehicles), and PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles) and their technologies unveiled at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) held in Detroit, Michigan, on January 10~23, 2011.

  The economy seems to be recovering gradually in the United States with auto sales there showing a steady growth to 11,590,000 vehicles in 2010, up 11.1% from the previous year. The auto industry in the U.S. saw some brisk activities focusing on electric vehicles toward the end of the year with GM starting production of its Chevrolet Volt PHEV and Nissan putting its LEAF EV on sale in the Californian and other market.

Displayed vehicles except EV/HEV are reported in "Detroit Auto Show 2011 (2): vehicles slated for sale and powertrains"

2011 Detroit Auto Show: Main electric vehicles and technologies exhibited by automakers

  HEV PHEV EV Others
Toyota Prius 3rd Generation,
Camry HEV,
Highlander HEV,
Lexus RX450h,
Lexus LS600hL,
Lexus CT200h*,
Prius v*,
Prius c Concept*, "
Prius PHEV* RAV4 EV*  
Honda CR-Z Technical models
of PHEV *
Fit EV* FCX Clarity*
(Fuel Cell EV)
Hyundai/KIA KIA Optima HEV,
2011 Sonata HEV*
     
GM Cadillac Escalade HEV,
2012 Buick LaCrosse
with eAssist*
Chevy Volt    
Ford Fusion HEV,
C-Max HEV*
C-Max Energi*
(PHEV)
Focus EV* Engine mounted on PHEV*,
Motors for EV *,
Li-ion Battery *
BMW Active Hybrid 750i,
Active Hybrid X6
     
Mercedes-Benz S400 HEV,
ML450 HEV,
F500 Mind* HEV
S500 PHEV* SLS AMG E-CELL*,
A-Class E-CELL*
B-Class F-CELL EV
(Fuel Cell EV)
Porsche Cayenne S HEV      
Smart     Electric Drive,
Passion Coupe*,
EV Bike*
 
VW Touareg HEV   Golf blue-e-motion*  
VOLVO     Electric C30*  
Tesla Motors,
USA
    Roadster 2.5,
*White body of
Model S
 
Venturi,
France
    Concept EV*,
Citroen Berlingo
(powered by Venturi)
 
BYD, China   F3DM,
S6DM*
e6*,
K9* (バス)
 

"*" indicates conceptual vehicles and vehicles slated for market launch in the near future.



Toyota: Introducing Prius family of Prius v , Prius c Concept and Prius PHEV

  Toyota exhibited the midsize Prius v HEV ("v" stands for versatility) in addition to the third-generation Prius, Camry HEV and Highlander HEV that are already available in the market. The Prius v uses a 1.8L hybrid system as does the third-generation Prius. Its rear section has been increased by 155mm/30mm/85mm in length, width and height with 50% larger interior luggage space, resulting in overall length, width and height of 4615/1775/1575mm, respectively. The HEV features Toyota's first resin-made panoramic roof and is slated for market introduction in the summer of 2011.

Toyota Prius v HEV
Toyota Prius v HEV

 

  Also exhibited by Toyota was the Prius c Concept HEV ("c" stands for city). The Prius c is a five-door hatchback model smaller in size than the Prius. Toyota defines it as a fuel-efficient car designed for young singles and couples seeking fun-to-drive sensation. The Prius c HEV and the Prius PHEV are to be put on sale in the first half of 2012.

  Toyota also exhibited the RAV4 EV that was unveiled at the Los Angeles auto show held last year. In the same year, Toyota formed a partnership with Tesla Motors, an American manufacturer of electric vehicles. Toyota plans to adopt the multipurpose lithium-ion battery technologies used on the Tesla Roadster for the RAV4, which is slated for market launch in 2012.

Toyota Prius c Concept HEV
Toyota Prius c Concept HEV

 

Toyota Prius PHEV
Toyota Prius PHEV

 

Toyota RAV4 EV
Toyota RAV4 EV

 

  Toyota exhibited CT200h and other HEV in the Lexus display arena. Toyota is currently selling four HEV models under the Lexus brand in the United States, namely the LS600hL (5L V8 engine), RX450h (3.5L V6 engine), GS450h (3.5L V6 engine) and HS250h (2.4L inline four-cylinder engine). The CT200h (1.8L inline four-cylinder engine) is planned for market launch in 2011 and will be the fifth Lexus HEV model then.

Lexus CT200h HEV
Lexus CT200h HEV

 



Honda: CR-Z HEV and Fit EV Concept

  Honda exhibited the CR-Z two-seater HEV that was put on sale last year in Japan and North America, the Fit EV Concept, and the fuel-cell vehicle FCX Clarity. The Fit EV Concept was first revealed in the 2010 Los Angeles Auto show and is said to be slated for market launch in Japan and the United States in 2012 for urban commuters.

  The driver can choose one of the three driving modes, namely NORMAL/ECON/SPORT. The Fit EV will use the same motor as the FCX Clarity (max. power 92kW, max. torque 256N・m) and have a cruising range of over 100 miles (in the U.S. LA4 test mode). The lithium-ion battery requires 12 hours of charging from a 120V source or 6 hours from a 240V source. The battery details have not been disclosed.

Honda CR-Z
Honda CR-Z

 

Honda Fit EV Concept
Honda Fit EV Concept

 

  Honda also exhibited the technical models of its next-generation PHEV. As is the case with the Fit EV, Honda will go through a series of proving tests with actual vehicles toward the goal of market launch of the PHEV in 2012. The PHEV's main specs are written below.

Engine Inline four-cylinder 2L Atkinson cycle i-VTEC engine
Transmission Electric CVT
Motor Two-motor system (drive, regeneration)
Motor max. power 120kW
Battery 6kWh lithium-ion battery
Range 500 miles and longer (LA4 test mode)
EV range 10~15 miles
EV max. speed 62mph
Charging time Up to 2~2.5 hours (110V); 1~1.5 hours (220V)

(Source: Honda website)

Honda PHEV technology models
Honda PHEV technology models

 



Hyundai and KIA: Hyundai Sonata HEV and KIA Optima HEV

  Hyundai exhibited the 2011 Sonata HEV planned for market launch in the United States in the first quarter of 2011. It is a parallel type HEV powered by the Atkinson cycle DOHC 2.4L inline four-cylinder engine (max. output 166hp, max. torque 154lb・ft) having a variable valve timing system on both the intake and exhaust lines, and a 40hp electric motor. The electric motor gives the max. speed of 62mph (100km/h).

  The vehicle is equipped with the six-speed AT, 270V lithium-polymer battery, regenerative brake and a generator that also functions as the hybrid starter. The parallel hybrid system gives the maximum horsepower of 206hp (compared to 187hp from Toyota's 2.4L Camry HEV and 156hp from Ford's 2.5L Ford Fusion HEV). According to the automaker, the HEV has the body cd value of 0.25 and the fuel economy of 40mpg on highway mode.

Hyundai Sonata HEV
Hyundai Sonata HEV

 

  KIA exhibited the 2011 Optima HEV unveiled at the 2010 Los Angeles auto show and planned for market launch in 2011. As is the case with the Hyundai Sonata HEV, Kia's Optima HEV is powered by the Atkinson cycle DOHC 2.4L engine, six-speed automatic transmission, 30kW (40hp)/151lb・ft electric motor and lithium-polymer battery supplied by LG Chem. The system has a maximum of 206 horsepower.

  Since the engine is disengaged during idling stop and EV mode travel, a clutch is positioned in place of the torque converter between the engine and the motor. The vehicle also features the hybrid starter generator that plays the role of an 8.5kW starter and a 270V generator for regenerative brake and the idling stop.

KIA Optima HEV
KIA Optima HEV

 



GM: Chevy Volt put in the market at 2010 end, and the 2012 Buick LaCrosse with eAssist

  GM exhibited the Chevy Volt, a serial type PHEV and the laureate of the North American Car of the Year for 2011. The car is equipped with a 1.4L inline four-cylinder gasoline engine producing 80hp electric power, and a motor with 149hp and maximum torque of 273lb・ft, 16kWh lithium-ion battery supplied by LG Chem, regenerative brake, and a generator used for charging exclusively (on-board generator).

  It has an EV range of approximately 35 miles (EPA estimation) and a hybrid range of 375 miles along with fuel efficiency of 93MPGe (EV mode) and 35mpg/40mpg (city/hwy mode). It takes approximately 10 hours for charging from a 120V home outlet and 4 hours from a 240V source.

GM's Chevy Volt
GM's Chevy Volt

 

Chevy Volt's structural model
Chevy Volt's structural model

 

  GM also exhibited the 2012 Buick LaCrosse HEV with eAssist that was unveiled at the Los Angeles auto show last year. The car, slated for market launch in the summer of 2011, is a mild HEV system equipped with the direct-injection DOHC 2.4L inline four-cylinder engine (134kW/233Nm), a six-speed automatic transmission, a water-cooled motor generator (15kW when generating, 11kW during electric assist), a 115V air-cooled lithium-ion battery, regenerative brake and an idle stop system. GM managed to suppress the vehicle weight increase to 29kg compared to the model without the eAssist feature and achieved approximately 25% improvement in city/hwy fuel mileage to 25mpg/37mpg, respectively.

2012 Buick LaCrosse eAssist
2012 Buick LaCrosse eAssist

 



Ford: Focus EV planned for market launch, and the new C-Max with HEV and PHEV versions currently being developed

  Ford displayed 75 vehicles and 22 panels occupying a 25% larger space than it did last year. The exhibits included the Fusion HEV already available in the market, and the Focus EV that was unveiled at the 2011 CES in Las Vegas.

  During the press conference held on the first day of the show, Ford announced plans to start production of the Focus EV at the Wayne, Michigan plant initially for the North American markets in the second half of 2011, and to start production later in Europe as well. The Focus EV will have a 92kW/246Nm motor (compared to Nissan Leaf's 80kW/280Nm motor) and water-cooled 23kWh lithium-ion battery (compared to Nissan Leaf's 24kWh) supplied by LG Chem (Chevy Volt also uses batteries supplied by LG Chem). The Focus EV has the maximum speed of 84mph (135km/h) and requires 3-4 hours (240V) or 18-20 hours (120V) of charging.

  Ford stressed the Focus EV's eco-friendly design as symbolized by the seat cushions made from 100% recycled polyester cloth and bio-foam. Also exhibited by Ford was the charging cord with a standard plug developed jointly with Yazaki Corporation.

Motor unit for Ford EV
Motor unit for Ford EV

 

Cut model of the motor for Ford EV
Cutaway model of the motor for Ford EV

 

Lithium-ion battery for Ford EV
Lithium-ion battery for Ford EV

 

Convenience cord for Ford EV
Convenience cord for Ford EV

 

  Ford also announced that the compact minivan Ford C-Max currently sold in Europe will be put on sale in North American markets as well. To be more exact, Ford will develop three grades for the North American markets, namely the gasoline-fueled vehicle, HEV and PHEV (C-Max Energi) to be produced at the Wayne Michigan plant, where the Focus EV will begin to roll out from 2012.

  The C-Max will be built on Ford's global C-car platform and the PHEV will have a cruising range of over 500 miles and city driving mileage of 47mpg, higher than the Fusion HEV's 41mpg, if all goes as envisioned. The seven-seater gasoline-fueled car, on which the C-Max is based, is powered by a 1.6L inline four-cylinder turbocharged EcoBoost engine.

Ford C-Max
Ford C-Max

 

Ford C-Max
Ford C-Max

 



Mercedes-Benz: Seven electric vehicles on display to appeal environmental readiness

  Environmental friendliness and higher fuel efficiency have been important initiatives among German automakers and their clean diesel engine technologies prevailing in European markets have been introduced actively in North America. But the market condition is changing as, among others, new regulations on fuel efficiency are placed by the state of California urging all automakers to bring in electric vehicles into market. As a result, German automakers are expediting efforts to develop or produce electric vehicles and a larger number of German-made electric vehicles were seen than ever at the Detroit auto show.

  Mercedes-Benz exhibited seven electric vehicles, the second largest number next to Toyota. Among them, two HEV models, namely the S400 Sedan and the ML450 SUV, are already available commercially in the United States. At the press conference on the first day of the Detroit auto show, Mercedes-Benz announced that the SLS AMG E-CELL sports car (EV) displayed at the show was to launch in the market in 2013.

Electric vehicles displayed by Mercedes-Benz

  S400 HEV S500 PHEV ML450 HEV F500 Mind
HEV
SLS AMG
E-CELL EV
A-Class
E-CELL EV
B-Class
F-CELL EV
Remarks On sale
in the U.S.
Concept
model
unveiled
at 2009
Frankfurt
auto show
On sale
in the U.S.
Concept
model
unveiled at
2003 Tokyo
auto show
Announced
at 2011
Detroit
auto show
Concept
model
unveiled at
2010 Paris
auto show
Available for
lease in
California
starting in
December
2010
Engine 3.5L V6
4OHC
3.5L V6
4OHC
3.5L V6
4OHC
4L V8
Diesel
EV EV Hydrogen-
fuel cell
Max.
system
output
220kW
(295hp)
354hp 335hp 314hp 392kW
(526hp)
70kW/94hp
(peak)
67hp
(permanent)
134hp
Max.
system
torque
284 lb・ft   381 lb・ft 634 lb・ft 649 lb・ft 214 lb・ft/
290Nm
214 lb・ft
Max.
speed
130mph 155 mph
(electric
brake limiter)
130 mph
(electric
brake limiter)
  155 mph
(electric
brake limiter)
93 mph
(electric
brake limiter)
106 mph
Drive wheel RWD   4WD   4WD   FWD
T/M 7AT   CVT
(w/8-speed
MT mode)
       
Motor 15kW(20hp)
118 lb・ft
44kW(59hp) 80 and 83 hp
192 and
173 lb-ft
50kW 4 motors   100kW
(134hp)
Battery 120V, 0.9kWh
Li-ion
>10kWh
Li-ion
(130Kg)
288V, 2.4kWh
Ni-MH
300V
Li-ion
48kWh,
40Ah(400V)
water-cooled
Li-ion
36kWh
Li-ion
1.4kWh
Li-ion
Charging
time
  1 hour
(20kW)
         
Range   20 miles
(EV mode)
524 miles   Over
90 miles
Over
150 miles
Around
270 miles
Fuel tank 23.8 gal   23.8 gal        
city/hwy
mileage
19mpg/25mpg 3.2L/100km
(NEDC mode)
20mpg/24mpg 20% less
fuel than
CDI engine
     
GVW 4474 Lbs   5227 Lbs       3750 Lbs

(Note) Spaces left blank where details are unavailable.

Mercedes-Benz S500 PHEV
Mercedes-Benz S500 PHEV

 

Mercedes-Benz F500 Mind HEV
Mercedes-Benz F500 Mind HEV

 

Mercedes-AMG SLS AMG E-CELL EV
Mercedes-AMG SLS AMG E-CELL EV

 

Mercedes- Benz B-Class F-CELL EV
Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL EV

 

  In addition to the vehicles on display, Mercedes-Benz had panels describing its clean diesel technologies on HEV and other electric vehicles and exhibited relevant parts. The Photo in the midst shows the "Hybrid Module" system used on the S400 HEV that consists of the compact Li-ion battery placed under the engine hood, and the motor-alternator built in between the V6 engine and the seven-speed automatic transmission. The A-Class E-CELL EV uses two Li-ion battery packs in addition to the motor and the reduction system (The Photo in the lower).

Mercedes-Benz technologies on display
Mercedes-Benz technologies on display

 

Engine, Li-ion battery and motor system on Mercedes-Benz S400 HEV
Engine, Li-ion battery and motor system on Mercedes-Benz S400 HEV

 

Motor and reduction system on Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-CELL EV
Motor and reduction system on Mercedes-Benz A-Class E-CELL EV

 



BMW:Active Hybrid 750i and Active Hybrid X6

  BMW exhibited, as it did last year, two types of HEV namely the ActiveHybrid 750i and the Active Hybrid X6. The two HEVs currently sold by BMW in the United States are characterized by high power outputs of 455hp and 480hp, respectively.

BMW ActiveHybrid 750i
BMW ActiveHybrid 750i

 

BMW ActiveHybrid X6
BMW ActiveHybrid X6

Main specifications of the two HEV models exhibited by BMW

  ActiveHybrid 750i
(Mild) HEV
ActiveHybrid X6
HEV
Engine Direct-injection 4.4L V8 4OHC 32-valves
Turbocharger 2 2
Variable valve timing mechanism Intake + Exhaust
Max. engine output 440hp 400hp
Max. engine torque 480 lb・ft 450 lb・ft
Drive method RWD 4WD
T/M 8-speed AT 7-speed AT
Motor 1-motor (15kW, 210Nm) 2-motors (62kW/260Nm each)
Battery Li-ion 120V Ni-MH 2.4kWh
Max. system output 455hp 480hp
Max. system toque 700N・m/515lb・ft 780N・m/575lb・ft
Regenerative brake Used
Start & Stop system Auto Start Stop
Fuel tank n.a. 85L(22.5gal)
city/hwy fuel efficiency 17mpg/26mpg 17mpg/19mpg
GVW 4795 Lbs 5765 Lbs

 



VW: Golf Blue-e-motion Concept EV and Touareg HEV

  VW exhibited the Blue-e-motion Concept based on the Golf that was revealed in Germany in May last year. VW is planning a market launch of the Golf EV and the Jetta EV in 2013 and will then start production of the Lavida EV in China.

  The Touareg HEV, currently sold in the United States, has a 3L engine with the addition of the supercharger and the motor resulting in the maximum output of 100hp higher than the 3.6L gasoline-fueled counterpart (280hp). Its city/hwy fuel efficiency of 20mpg/24mpg represents a significant improvement in city mode compared to the 16mpg/23mpg of the 3.6L gasoline-fueled model (see the table below).

VW Golf Blue-e-motion EV
VW Golf Blue-e-motion EV

 

VW Touareg HEV
VW Touareg HEV

Main specifications of the two HEV models exhibited by VW

  Golf EV Concept Blue-e-motion Touareg HEV for US market
Engine - Supercharged Direct Injection V6 3L DOHC 24 valves
Max. system output 85kW/115ps 380hp
Max. system torque 270Nm 425 lb・ft
Drive method FWD 4WD
T/M - 8 speed AT
Battery Li-ion 26.5kWh Ni-MH, 288V420A/75Ah173.8 Lbs(79Kg)
Motor 85kW/115ps, 270Nm 47hp/221lb・ft
Mileage Under 150km -
Max. speed 140km/h -
city/hwy fuel efficiency - 20mpg/24mpg
GVM 205 kg heavier than Golf TDI 5135 Lbs

 



Audi:New A6 and A6 HEV

  Audi introduced the new A6 during the press conference held on the first day of the show. Audi will start production in the first half of 2011 and add the HEV type to the gasoline-engine and diesel-engine lineup. The A6 HEV will be powered by an inline four-cylinder turbocharged gasoline-fueled engine, 33kW (45hp)/211Nm motor and lithium-ion battery (1.3kWh) with the system output of 180kW(245hp).

Audi's new A6 (gasoline-fueled model in photo)
Audi's new A6 (gasoline-fueled model in photo)

 



Tesla Motors: Roadster EV and Model S EV in development

  Tesla Motors exhibited the EV Roadster 2.5 currently available in market, and the skeleton model of the Model S EV currently being developed. Tesla has sold over 1500 units of the Roadster EV in more than 30 countries and, according to Tesla Motors, their total travel distances add up to 8.5 million miles, saving 415,000 gallons (1.57 million liters) of gasoline fuel.

  Tesla also exhibited the skeleton model of the Model S EV slated for production starting in 2012. The EV will have aluminum-made suspensions in both front and rear including the multi-links. It is a four-door sedan seating seven (five adults, 2 children), compared to the compact two-seater sports car Roadster, and the driver can choose from three types of cruising ranges (160, 230, and 300 miles).

Tesla EV Roadster 2.5
Tesla EV Roadster 2.5

 

Tesla Model S EV in development (skeleton)
Tesla Model S EV in development (skeleton)

 



BYD: F3DM PHEV and two other vehicles

  BYD exhibited the compact sedan F3DM PHEV already sold to the government agencies and fleet customers in China, the S6DM PHEV slated for market launch in the SUV segment, and the e6 EV Concept model. As were the case with BYD vehicles on display at last year's Detroit auto show, all BYD vehicles this year were displayed with all doors locked.

BYD PHEV S6DM
BYD PHEV S6DM

 



Smart: 'Electronic drive passion coupe' EV

  Smart exhibited an EV with a rather long name, electronic drive passion coupe. The two-seater RWD car, powered by a 30kW (41hp) motor and 16.6kWh lithium-ion battery, has the price tag of $44,837 (approx. Y3.7 million), maximum speed of 100Km/h (electric brake limiter) and cruising range of 98 miles (LA4 test mode) and takes 3.5 hours to charge (from a 220V source).

Smart EV
Smart EV

 



VOLVO: C30 EV and crash-tested car

  Volvo exhibited the C30-based EV and a crash-tested C30 EV. The C30EV unveiled at 2010 Detroit auto show is an experimental vehicle, powered by EnerDel's 230V/24kWh lithium-ion battery and an 82kW (111hp) motor, with the maximum speed of 81mph and cruising range of 94miles (NEDC mode). It takes up to eight hours to charge from a 230V source and the battery weighs 280Kg. Whether the C30 EV will be put on sale or when has not been disclosed.

VOLVO EV C30
VOLVO EV C30

 

EnerDel's Li-ion battery on VOLVO C30 EV
EnerDel's Li-ion battery on VOLVO C30 EV

 

VOLVO C30 EV after frontal offset crash test
VOLVO C30 EV after frontal offset crash test

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