VW Tiguan Teardown: ADAS (Advanced driver-assistance system)

Continental's forward radar, Bosch's rear radar, Valeo's surround view monitor, etc.

2019/04/10

Summary

VW Tiguan分解調査
VW Tiguan teardown

  The 2nd generation VW Tiguan compact crossover SUV was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015 and was the first SUV to be released in Europe and other regions from the beginning of 2016. It adopts the MQB platform (an engineering architecture for front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FF) car layouts and FF-based 4WD vehicles) developed by the VW Group.

  This report describes the findings of the VW Tiguan vehicle teardown survey conducted as a benchmarking activity of Hiroshima Industrial Promotion Organization in February 2019, and explains the electronic parts mounted on Tiguan, focusing on the preventive safety functional parts to understand the latest ADAS systems of the VW Group.


Related reports:
VW Tiguan Teardown: 1.4L TSI engine (March 2019)
Honda Civic Teardown: ADAS (Advanced driver-assistance system)(August 2018)
Toyota C-HR Teardown: ADAS (Advanced driver-assistance system)(March 2018)

 

Previous teardown reports
Toyota C-HR
Toyota C-HR Teardown: 1.2-liter downsized turbo engine Oct. 2018
ADAS (Advanced driver-assistance system) (Apr. 2018)
Volkswagen Passat
1.4L turbo-gasoline engine(Oct. 2016)
Nissan Serena
ProPILOT autonomous driving technology(Mar. 2017)
BMW i3
 Battery System (Apr. 2017)
 CFRP Life Module Vehicle Structure (Apr. 2017)
 Aluminum chassis frame (Oct. 2017)
4th-Generation Toyota Prius
Powertrain units miniaturized and lightened to achieve 40km/liter fuel economy(Feb. 2016)
New TNGA platform enhances dynamic performance; advanced aerodynamics and chassis technologies(Mar. 2016)
Body structure based on TNGA, sound insulating, absorbing and damping technologies(Apr. 2016)
Photographs of TNGA parts/components and a list of parts suppliers(May 2016)
Toyota's Flagship Sedan
(Part 1) 2.5-liter V6 engine "4GR-FSE"(May 2016)
(Part 2) Chassis technology for high-end rear-wheel drive cars common to Toyota and Lexus vehicles(Jun 2016)
(Part 3) High-rigidity body structure for crash safety, handling stability, and quietness(Sep. 2016)
(Part 4) Photographs of 203 parts and a list of suppliers(Oct. 2016)
Daihatsu Move (Feb.-Mar. 2015)
(Part 1) Suppliers list, chassis, seats, and electrical components
(Part 2) Turbo engine and CVT with 3-shaft gear train has lightweight and compact design
(Part 3) Rigid body improves impact safety, handling, riding comfort and quietness


Volkswagen “All in Safety”

  The safety aspect of the VW Tiguan is based on the "Volkswagen All in Safety" concept of adopting a full suite of safety control technologies to avoid critical safety situations comprehensively in the three safety phases of "preventive safety", "collision safety" and "secondary damage prevention".

 

Volkswagen All in Safety

Volkswagen オールイン・セーフティ

Source: VW Japan

  1. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
    A feature used to follow a leading vehicle at a set speed using millimeter wave radar. The system supports all vehicle speed tracking functions from 0 km/h. In the case of the Tiguan, when the vehicle comes to a stop for more than 2 seconds, the electric parking brake is automatically engaged to hold the vehicle in the stop position. To reactivate driving in the ACC mode, the driver presses the steering switch or the accelerator pedal slightly to resume driving with the ACC system activated.
  2. Lane-Keeping Assistant (Lane Assist)
    The feature detects the lane by a monocular camera installed at the foot of the interior mirror at the top of the windshield and the system automatically intervenes to control the steering so that the vehicle stays at the center of its lane. The system is automatically activated when the vehicle is traveling at a speed of 65 km/h or more. A torque sensor incorporated in the steering system alerts the driver of unintended lane changes and disengages the system when for a fixed period of time it detects the driver’s deliberate movement to change lanes.
  3. Traffic Assist
    The traffic assist system combines "Lane Keep Assist" with "ACC" to support driving in situations where there are there is a lot of stop and go during heavy traffic conditions. The system is activated when the driver is touching the steering wheel while driving at vehicle speeds of 30 km/h or more. If the ACC function is active while driving at vehicle speeds 0 to 60 km/h, the steering and lane keeping functions also come into play, in addition to automatically accelerating and decelerating to maintain a certain distance between vehicles.
  4. Static cornering light
    When turning a curve at low speeds, the cornering lights are automatically activated in conjunction with the steering angle of the steering wheel and the turn signal. The feature makes it easier to check for pedestrians at intersections, and can also alert pedestrians accordingly.
  5. Dynamic light assist
    The feature reduces the intensity of the vehicles headlights to avoid dazzling oncoming traffic. The front camera calculates the position and distance of the oncoming vehicle and the traffic ahead, and based on the results, finely adjusts the headlamp illumination area so that it is appropriate for the driving situation. The system makes it possible to illuminate the road surface and the shoulders of the road brightly and widely without dazzling the driver of an oncoming vehicle or the preceding vehicle. The high beam assist system uses a camera on the windshield to detect and analyze the traffic ahead as well as oncoming traffic to automatically switch between high and low beams accordingly.
  6. Rear view camera (Rear Assist)
    The system assists drivers to see behind the vehicle when backing up. When the gear is put in reverse, an image of the rear of the vehicle is displayed on the vehicle’s dashboard screen, as well as guidelines superimposed on the camera image to indicate to the driver how the steering wheel must be turned to assist in safely parking a vehicle into a parking garage space or for parallel parking.
  7. Surround view camera (Area View)
    In the bird's eye view, touch operation can be used to select the four cameras to give detailed views of the areas in front of, behind and to the left and right of the vehicle. By allowing the driver to see the entire area surrounding the vehicle, the system assists in situations such as narrow alleys to confirm the presence of objects that are not directly within the driver’s line of sight.
  8. Parking assistance system (Park Assist)
    The system allows semi-automatic maneuvering for parallel parking or a parking garage by using ultrasonic sensors to detect the parking space and steer the vehicle into position accordingly. To park a vehicle using the system, the driver needs only to operate the accelerator, brakes, and shift lever in accordance with the parking maneuver images displayed on the vehicle’s dashboard screen.
  9. Driver Fatigue Detection System
     By closely monitoring how the driver is steering the vehicle, the system alerts the driver with visual and acoustic signals when the system detects any erratic steering wheel movements or lane deviation, signaling to the driver that it may be time to take a break from driving.
  10. パークディスタンスコントロール
    Park Distance Control
    1Equipped with 12 ultrasonic sensors(Source: VW)
    Park Distance Control (Optical parking system)
    The system uses six ultrasonic sensors located in the front bumper and six in the rear bumper to indentify obstacles approaching the vehicle. The system operates when 1) the center shift lever is set to "R", 2) the vehicle is moving backwards, and 3) the vehicle approaches the front of an object at a speed of less than 15 km/h.
  11. Rear Traffic Alert
    By monitoring the traffic conditions behind the vehicle with a millimeter wave radar mounted inside the rear bumper, the system can detect another vehicle approaching in cross traffic behind the car, alerting the driver with an acoustic warning signal.
  12. Pre-crash brake system (Front Assist)
    A 76GHz millimeter wave radar mounted on the backside of the front emblem enables the pedestrian detection function to operate while traveling at vehicle speeds of 5 to 65 km/h, while automatic emergency braking operates at low vehicle speeds of 5 to 30 km/h. The system detects pedestrians as well as vehicles, and automatic emergency braking is applied to avoid a collision or mitigate the severity of collision damage.


Forward millimeter wave radar

  Attached to the back of the center emblem on the front grill is mounted Continental’s 76GHz millimeter wave radar. This radar has improved performance, making it possible to also detect pedestrians, which until now has been considered difficult, using the low reflectivity of radio waves.

前方ミリ波レーダー
Continental’s forward millimeter wave radar


  The control board performs all control functions mainly using NXP's automotive-grade MCU [SC5773] (32-bit Power Architecture), and the communications block provides dual CAN communication lines with 2 NXP High Speed transceiver ICs [TJA1042].

  Although the quasi-millimeter wave radar in the 24/26GHz bandwidth (UWB, 4GHz bandwidth) is widely adopted for use as SRR (Short Range Rader) to detect pedestrians, the transmission power is controlled to low levels to avoid interference with satellite communications, so it is unable to detect distant objects. Because of this, the more sensitive 77GHz radar is being introduced on premium segment vehicles. Compared with the 24GHz band millimeter-wave radar, the 77GHz radar has the features of the LRR (Long Range Radar) that can detect objects at distances of more than 200m and at narrow angles. Also for the Tiguan, the 77GHz millimeter-wave radar is adopted for upgraded ADAS functions.  Continental’s front millimeter-wave radar adopts the same components as that on the Toyota C-HR.



Forward camera

  Bosch's monocular camera is used as the forward camera and installed at the foot of the interior mirror at the top of the windshield. This camera is of the same type as that of the camera adopted on the Honda Civic.
  The single lens Bosch camera has a resolution of 1280 x 960 pixels, a horizontal viewing angle of 50 degrees, and a vertical viewing angle of 28 degrees.

  The system configuration consists of Dual-Core's microprocessor and Xilinx's FPGA (field-programmable gate array). The background behind the adoption of FPGAs was to design a system capable of updating detection logic by image processing while being prepared for future functional improvements.

  The detection range of this camera system depends on the size of the object being detected, and can detect vehicles at distances of 120m or more and pedestrians at distances of up to 60m.

 

Bosch製の単眼カメラ
Bosch’s monocular camera


  VW Tiguan's ADAS features provide the safety benefits of both the Toyota C-HR and the Honda Civic. The Honda Civic uses a Bosch radar while the Toyota C-HR uses a Continental radar. The VW Tiguan combines both the Continental radar at the front and the Bosch radar at the rear.

Tiguan、C-HR、Civicの主なADAS機能
Main ADAS features of the Tiguan, C-HR, and Civic


Rear millimeter wave radar

  Radars are mounted inside the left and right sides of the rear bumper on the Tiguan. This radar is a Bosch 76-77GHz millimeter wave radar, and similar to the series adopted as the forward radar on the Honda Civic, but has been arranged for the rear only.

  The basic configuration of the Bosch MRR (Mid-Range Radar) sensor series is the same, but the detection range of the MRR is 0.36 to 80 meters for the rear (and 0.36 to 160 meters for the front). Furthermore, the detection angle for the front corresponds to ±75 degrees (close range) to ±10 degrees (60 meters). This makes it possible to easily detect other vehicles in a blind spot behind the vehicle. (BSW; Basic Software function)

リアバンパーの左右に装着されたレーダー リアバンパーの左右に装着されたレーダー
Radar mounted on the left and right sides inside the rear bumper


  The Bosch radar consists of 2 circuit boards, an antenna, a control board, and the power supply board. The Bosch radar is a bi-static multimodal radar with four independent receiving channels and digital beam forming (DBF). These technologies allow the millimeter-wave radar to be configured with independent antennas for different directions, which improves the angular measurement accuracy and allows the radar’s field of view to be adjusted depending on the situation.

  The same type of front radar is used on the Honda Civic, and by focusing the main antenna on a narrow main lobe with an opening angle of ±6 degrees, the system is capable of reacting to vehicles in front at long range (up to 160 meters). But, the radar mounted on Tiguan has been adjusted so that the rear radars are tuned to a wide range of ±5 to 75 degrees to the main antenna.

Bosch製レーダー
Bosch’s radar comprised of two boards (power board, antenna and control board)


  The power supply is based on the Bosch PMIC [40203] to generate the internal power supply. The communications block has two CAN communications systems consisting of the Bosch PMIC [40203] with internal CAN+FlexRay and Infineon’s High-Speed CAN transceiver IC [TLE6251-2G]. A bellows type coupling connector is disposed on the power supply board to connect the antenna and control boards.

電源部基板
Power supply board


  The control portion is a 2-chip configuration consisting of the A267BB from STMicroelectronics and NXP’s SC667226MMMA MCU.

  The RF front-end on the antenna board consists of a two chipset VCO (voltage controlled oscillator) made by Infineon with a built-in transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX). The IC on the TX side [RTN7735PL] is characterized by the number of parts that have been reduced by integrating the TX and VCO.

制御部基板
Control board
(Note: Image corrected in October 2019.)


  The difference between the forward radar of the Honda Civic and the VW Tiguan can be clearly seen by comparing the antenna portion of the Bosch MRR, which was adopted for both models. Also, even though the same Bosch 76-77GHz millimeter wave radar is used, the desired wave radiation pattern can change significantly depending on the antenna configuration. In the case of radars used in the forward direction, the role of the antenna to focus the concentration of radar waves into a narrow beam pattern is important to allow the system to react to vehicles in front at long range. So, we can see that in the Civic's forward radar, the configuration of the main antennas are concentrated using a sparse antenna array. In contrast, the rear radar antennas of the Tiguan have a wide array configuration to enable wide area object detection.

  One characteristic feature of the Civic's forward radar is the use of an elevation antenna (blue encircled area in the lower right image) to generate an additional upward elevation beam. This additional upward beam allows the system to accurately identify objects, determining whether a vehicle can pass under an object by measuring the height of all detected objects.

アンテナ部の比較
Comparison of the antenna parts of the rear and forward radars
(Note: Image corrected in October 2019.)


Ultrasonic sensors

Ultrasonic sensors mounted inside the bumpers at the front and rear of the vehicle are used for parking assistance and obstacle approach warning. The ultrasonic sensor manufactured by Bosch has a minimum detection distance of 15 cm and a maximum detection distance of 5.5 m.

超音波センサー 超音波センサー
Ultrasonic sensors mounted inside the front and rear bumpers


In the Tiguan, there are a total of 12 ultrasonic sensors, 6 mounted inside the front bumper and 6 mounted inside the rear bumper. The sensors are integrated using Bosch's PDC (Parking Distance Control) module.

Bosch製PDCモジュール
Bosch’s PDC module


Surround View Monitor

The 2016 model VW used a unit made by Clarion, but the teardown conducted for the Tiguan revealed that VW has changed to a system that uses a surround view monitor unit made by Valeo.

Valeo製アラウンドビューモニターユニット
Valeo’s Surround View Monitor Unit


The Surround View system provided by Valeo incorporates a 32-bit MCU from STMicroelectronics as the main processor, while the image processing unit employs a SoC (TITDAx series) for the Surround View system from Texas Instruments.

For the camera input, a Broadcom 7-port Ether Switch has been mounted, and the camera is connected by a LVDS I/F.

アラウンドビューシステム
Surround View System


Meter Display

  The Tiguan uses a full-color digital meter cluster with a large display instead of a conventional analog type meter cluster.

  The high-resolution display further improves graphic performance. In addition to the basic speedometer and tachometer display, when the navigation mode linked with VW’s Discover Pro system is selected, it is now possible to display a wider image of maps at the center of the screen. The driver can quickly and easily switch between basic screen layouts via the View button on the multifunction steering wheel or the Discover Pro system.

  This meter display unit is made by Continental. Originally, the VW/Audi group used Bosch’s full-color liquid crystal display, but depending on the car model, Continental’s has also come to be used.

フル液晶メーターディスプレイ
Full-color Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Meter

  The configuration of the meter unit is a simple structure comprised of a liquid crystal display and one control board.

メーターユニットの構成
Meter unit configuration


  The control board is equipped with a Renesas R-Car as the main processor. The 32-bit SUB processor mounted for communications and other control functions is also manufactured by Renesas.

  One characteristic of the control board is that it is installed with a programmable SoC of the ZYNQ series from XILINX. The Programmable SoC combines an ARM processor and an FPGA, and has hardware and software features that can be changed through programming.

  Continental's meter display module is designed to be versatile, and it is assumed that this circuitry is used for commonization. (For example, it can handle different communication methods.)

制御基板
Control Board


  From the timing of the launch of the Tiguan, it can be assumed that the R-Car D1 Renesas automotive SoC is used in the meter unit. According to the Renesas data, the R-Car D1 can be used for the two screens of the meter and SUB Display. As a result, the meter unit is configured to control the display of graphic images on both screens of the LCD meter and the center display.

RenesasのSoC
The Renesas SoC 2-screen control configuration

Source:Renesas



Overall configuration of the ADAS system (Assumed)

ADAS系システム全体構成(想定)
Overall configuration of the ADAS system (Assumed)


  Because the meter display is now a full liquid crystal display, it is configured to centrally control the images of the system. The Renesas R-Car SoC adopted for the meter display has the performance to handle two displays simultaneously, and graph drawings on the two liquid crystal displays, the center display and the meter display.

  The surround view monitors and the digital terrestrial tuners that are not related to the display in the meter are directly input to the video input of the center display, where switching between the two is performed.

  This configuration is similar to a combination of the Japan domestic Toyota Group ADAS and the Honda Sensing suite of advanced safety technologies. At this point in time, it can be said that the VW Tiguan is incorporated with an abundant variety of features required for ADAS.


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Keywords:
Teardown, VW, Tiguan, Continental, Bosch, Valeo, NXP, STMicroelectronics, Infineon, Renesas, XILINX, ADAS, millimeter wave radar, Camera, ultrasonic sensor, SoC, around view monitor, Meter, Display, Antenna, Instrument Panel, Cockpit Module, Car Navigation System, Cruise Control, Lane Keeping, Park Assist System

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