Research on revolutionary combustion technology(2): Contemplating the limits of innovation

Toyota and Daimler introduce brand new engine series, Nissan's e-Power

2017/01/06

Summary

  OEMs are actively updating their powertrains in anticipation of 2050. Due to new European CO2 regulations that will come into effect in 2021, strengthened ZEV regulations in the U.S. starting in 2018, and the trends of CAFE standards, automakers are facing a situation that urgently requires a practical response.

  In December 2016, Toyota announced plans to introduce a new powertrain, as well as a newly designed 2.5L 4-cylinder gasoline engine called the Dynamic Force Engine that will replace the old AR engine. The engine will be equipped in the third round of TNGA platform models (following the Prius and C-HR) such as the Camry. The new engine is available in two varieties: one for HEVs and another for regular gasoline engines. The HEV version has a maximum thermal efficiency of 41% and output of 52 kW/L (71 ps/L), while the regular version has a maximum thermal efficiency of 40%, and an output of 60 kW/L (82 ps/L). Both versions have improved fuel economy and output characteristics in comparison to previous models. Toyota has also developed an eight-speed transmission for FF vehicles, and a ten-speed automatic transmission for FR vehicles. Although HEVs continues to use the THS-II system, a new transaxle and power control module have been developed. In the future, the OEM plans to release 19 models and 37 variations around the world by 2021.

  In May 2016, Daimler announced that it will invest EUR 3 billion (approximately JPY 345 billion) to develop and release a new gasoline and diesel engine series designed with a modular structure that will be available with 4-, 6-, or 8-cylinders.

  Nissan implemented its series hybrid system for the first time in the Note, improved the range and charge time for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and topped domestic November sales for the first time in thirty years. This report will cover Toyota, which has announced it will transition to electrified cars for all its models by 2050, Daimler, which announced its transition to BEVs at the Paris Motor Show, and describe the powertrain updates planned by the three OEMs mentioned above.

Toyota's 2.5-liter Dynamic Force Engine
(Source: Toyota) Toyota's 2.5-liter Dynamic Force Engine
Daimler's new 2.0-liter gasoline engine
(Source: Daimler) Daimler's new 2.0-liter gasoline engine

Related reports:

Research on revolutionary combustion technology: Contemplating the limits of innovation :Nissan's variable compression ratio technology and Volkswagen's latest 1.4L TDI engine (Nov. 2016)
Volkswagen Passat teardown (1) 1.4L turbo-gasoline engine: Water-cooled intercooler and displacement management system (Oct. 2016)
Evolution of the internal combustion engine: Mazda's quest and AVL's roadmap (Feb. 2016)
JSAE Exposition 2015: Envisioning future of powertrains for passenger cars (1) (trends in Japan) (Jun. 2015)
JSAE Exposition 2015: Envisioning future of powertrains for passenger cars (2) (trends in Europe) (Jun. 2015)
European automaker technology trends: Electric Vehicles (Dec. 2016)



Toyota's powertrain renewal plan: debut of 19 powertrains and 37 variations by 2021

(Source: Toyota press release)


  In December 2016, Toyota announced it would develop and introduce 19 powertrains and 37 variations based on the TNGA concept in countries around the world by 2021. The OEM will improve and maximize engine, transmission, and HV system efficiency.

(Source: Toyota press release)


  The OEM expects that this will result in over 60% of the vehicles that it sells  being equipped with the TNGA powertrain by 2021 (Japan, U.S., Europe, China), and projects that CO2 will be reduced by 15% or more in comparison to 2015.

(Source: Toyota press release)

Engine: modular development of large, mid-size, and small engines


(Source: Toyota press release)


  Previously, Toyota updated its engines by engine family, but under the TNGA concept, underlying technology features a modular design. The automaker will apply this concept to large, mid-size, and small engines with a unified structure and technology. This will result in a 40% reduction in engine type variations. Toyota will include modular technologies such as long strokes (larger stroke length than the cylinder bore), widened valve angles, tumble reinforcement, and high-speed combustion in its Dynamic Force Engine series.

  Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. developed laser-clad valve seats using a new method unique to Toyota that results in them transferring heat from the valve head to the water jacket more effectively than the conventional method of inserting valve seats into the cylinder head port. This structure not only enables more efficient cooling valve head capabilities, but also allows for larger ports. With wider valve angles, tumble can also be increased, contributing to faster combustion. Combined with increased fuel pressure (up to 300 kPa), regular gasoline engines have achieved 40% maximum thermal efficiency, and HEV engines 41%.

Note) Laser-clad valve seat processing is an original method developed by Toyota. It involves injecting metal powder that is suitable for valve seat material into the ports and achieving adhesion through the use of lasers.

(Source: Toyota press release)

[2.5-liter engine (Dynamic Force Engine) specs]

Cylinder
arrange-
ment
Engine
model
Displace-
ment
(CC)
Fuel
type
Super
charger
Compression
ratio
Bore
(mm)
x
stroke
Bore
pitch
(mm)
S/B
ratio
Equipped
vehicle
Major
implemented
technology
Exterior
L4 Standard specification

Exhaust gas compatible
LEV III
(SULEV 30)
2,487 G
(gasoline)
None 13
Output
(151 kW/
6,600 rpm)

Torque
(250 Nm/
4,800 rpm)

Thermal efficiency
40%
87.5
x
103.54
NA 1.2 Camry,
etc.

Wide valve angle (41 degrees)
+ tumble port
* Laser-clad valve seats (World's first) High compression ratio (13 and 14)
* High energy ignition coil
* New D4-S
* Multi HoleDirect-injection injector (300 kPa)
* Electric water pump
* Electronically controlled thermostat
* Continuously variable displacement oil pump(world's first)
* Electric variable valve timing control (intake)
* Hydraulic variable valve timing control (exhaust)
* Concave cam
* Small Hydraulic Lash Adjuster
* High response inspiratory volume control
* Built-in EGR cooler head
* Rear exhaust
* Piston oil jet

Toyota's press releases
HV

Exhaust gas compatible
LEV III
(SULEV 30)
14 output
(130 kW/
5,700 rpm)

Torque
(220 Nm/
3,600-5,200 rpm)
Thermal
efficiency
41%
Toyota's press releases

(Source: Created by MarkLines based on Toyota's press releases)



Transmissions: Adding stages to multistage transmissions for FF and FR layouts and reducing their size

  FF vehicle-use 6-speed ATs have been increased to eight-speeds.


  In terms of performance:


1. The transmission was designed for high efficiency and low fuel consumption, and has realized high level performance.
2. The transmission delivers driving performance that immediately responds to accelerator pedal operations.
* Although the gear structure and torque converter were fully redesigned, the transmission is 5 mm shorter than previous versions.


  Featured technology includes:


1. Low-loss friction material reduces clutch drag resistance, eliminating 50% of toque loss.
2. A high-performance, small torque converter has been developed to improve lock-up usage rate by 30%, thereby realizing a direct shift feel and smooth performance.

(トヨタ広報資料)
(Source: Toyota press release)

The FR vehicle-use 8-speed AT was increased to 10-speeds. Ford and Audi currently use 10-speed transmissions, but this is a first for a Japanese OEM.

The new transmission was designed to provide a comfortable riding experience suitable for premium FR vehicles. The crossed gear steps and high-speed shifting create a rhythmical and pleasant driving experience. The developers aimed to make the transmission respond directly to acceleration pedal movements. The unit was designed with dimensions equivalent to conventional 8-speed transmissions.


The gear ratios from first to tenth gear have all been revised to realize fast, smooth, sharp shifting, and responsive driving.

(トヨタ広報資料)
(Source: Toyota press release)

THS II (hybrid system for 2.5-liter engines): Updates to the hybrid system for FF layouts

  The power-control unit, transaxle, and battery system for the FF 2.5L hybrid system have been fully redesigned, resulting in improved performance from conventional 2.5L hybrid components.

(Source: Toyota press release)

  The new transaxle for the 2.5L hybrid features a parallel reduction gear, achieving both reduced loss and tandem axle motors, and has had its length reduced length by 30 mm in comparison to previous versions.

(Source: Toyota press release)

  The power control unit has had its size reduced by 10%, and can be placed directly above the transaxle, similar to the Prius.

(Source: Toyota press release)

  Revisions to the battery pack structure and downsizing of cooling systems has led to an 11% reduction in battery size.

(Source: Toyota press release)



Multi-stage THS II (hybrid system for FR engines): aiming for responsiveness and a feeling of directness

  The hybrid system for FR layouts has been designated as the Multi-stage THS II, and was developed in combination with a 10-speed AT. The system generates more driving force from a standstill than a 5L V8 or 3.5L V6 engine, and provides responsive and direct acceleration. The addition of a sequential shifting mechanism makes it so the engine can be used to cover a wider range of speeds than its predecessor, and also amplifies the engine torque and motor torque. The engine's maximum RPM has been raised from 6,000 rpm to 6,600 rpm. (トヨタ広報資料)
(Source: Toyota press release)


Daimler's engine renewal plan: investment of JPY 345 billion to develop five new engines

  Among European OEMs, Daimler was first to announce it would be making updates to its ICE group. The automaker will invest EUR 3 billion (JPY 345 billion) to develop five engines, including an inline-four and V8, and will also bring back its cancelled inline-six. Although Daimler released a new 2.0L 4-cylinder diesel engine (featured on the E-Class) in the spring of 2016, in 2017 it will release a new 2.0L 4-cylinder gasoline engine, a 3.0L 6-cylinder gasoline and diesel engine, as well as a 4.0L V8 gasoline engine, and will prepare for real driving emissions (RDE) testing and the tightening of C02 regulations in 2021.

  The new engine groups will feature a modular design, as well as European state-of-the-art engineering and electrification technology. All engines will have a displacement of roughly 500 cc per cylinder, a unified bore pitch of 90 mm, and a stroke/bore ratio of 1.1, making them long-stroke engines. In Europe, diesel emissions regulations are becoming stricter with the introduction of RDE testing, and as gasoline engines will be subject to new particulate regulations, the engines will feature gasoline particulate filters for the first time in production vehicles.

[Daimler's new engine specs]

Cylinder
arrange-
ment
Engine
model
Displace-
ment
(CC)
Fuel
type
Super
charger
Compres-
sion
ratio
Bore
(mm)
x
stroke
Bore
pitch
(mm)
S/B
ratio
Equipped
vehicle
Major implemented technology Exterior
L4 OM654 1,950 D
(diesel)
Turbocharger 15.5 82x92.3 90 1.12 E220d * Aluminum block + steel pistons
* Diesel particulate filter (DPF)
* Common rail (250 Mpa)
* Piezo injectors
* Camtronic (variable valve timing)
* Two-stage turbo
* High-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) + low pressure EGR
* Water-cooled intercooler
* Offset cranks
OM654
L4 M264 2,000 G
(gasoline)
Twin scroll turbo NA 83x92.4 1.11 NA

High-output of 100 kW/L
* Belt-Driven Starter Alternator (BSA)
* BSA hybrid functions
* Gasoline particulate filters
* Linerless
* Common rail
* Piezo injectors
* Camtronic (variable valve timing)
* 48V
M264
L6 M256 2,999 G Turbo + electric compressor
(to eliminate turbo lag)
10.5 83x92.4 1.11 2017 new S-Class * Electric compressor (beltless)
* Gasoline particulate filters
* Linerless
* Common rail
* Piezo injectors
* Camtronic (variable valve timing)
* 48V
* Integrated Starter-Alternator (ISG)
M256
L6 OM656 2,927 D Turbocharger 15.5 82x92.4 1.13 NA
Improvement of fuel consumption by approximately 7% in comparison to the previous model
* Aluminum block + steel pistons
* DPF
* Common rail (250 Mpa)
* Piezo injectors
* Camtronic (variable valve timing)
* Two-stage turbo
* High-pressure EGR + low-pressure EGR
* Water-cooled intercooler
OM656
V8 M176 3,982 G Twin turbo 10.5 83x92 1.1 2017 new S-Class * Gasoline particulate filters
* Linerless
* Common rail
* Piezo injector
* Camtronic (variable valve timing) engine cylinder deactivation available
* 48V
* BSA
M176

(Source: Created by MarkLines based on Daimler's press releases)



Nissan's e-Power: release of the first domestic series hybrid

Nissan press release
(Source: Nissan press release)

  In November 2016, Nissan developed the first series hybrid for Japanese production vehicles and equipped it in the Note.

  The series hybrid was developed with four goals:


   1. Realization of powerful and smooth driving unique to motors

   2. Quietness equivalent to two vehicle classes above

   3. An easy, fun, and new driving experience

   4. Top-level fuel efficiency

  The series hybrid runs on a motor, using a 1.2L 3-cylinder engine to charge its battery. Powerful, smooth acceleration has been realized thanks to the motor control technology developed for the Leaf. The start acceleration and intermediate acceleration performance are said to exceed that of sports cars. Engine noise during starting and urban cruising is reduced via engine control. The S-type JC08 has a fuel economy of 37.2km/L. Likewise, drivers can decelerate with the acceleration pedal, resulting in a 70% reduction in accidental operation of the brake pedal.

 

[Powertrain for Nissan's Note (e-Power)]

Drive system e-Motor Power 80kW
e-Motor Torque 254Nm
Generating system Generator Power 55kW
ICE Type Gasoline L3
ICE Displacement 1.2L
Battery Battery Type Li-ion
Capacity 1.47kWh

(Source: Created by MarkLines based on Nissan's press releases)

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Keyword:
ICEV, TNGA, electrification

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