JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013: Parts Suppliers (1)
Several EV/HV and start/stop technologies exhibited
Reported below in Part (1) is an outline of exhibits covering electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electric vehicle (HV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV) and start/stop systems along with related technologies displayed by automotive parts suppliers at the Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013 held in Yokohama on May 22-24, 2013.
A large number of EV/HV systems combining motors and inverters or transmissions were exhibited. Also the exhibits included water-cooling systems for lithium-ion battery packs, and systems for using electric energy stored in EV drive batteries (Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi i-MiEV) or HV drive batteries (Toyota HVs) for outdoor or household use.
New start/stop systems and their parts are being adopted in an increasing number of vehicles. Exhibits at the Exposition included a system that stops the engine before the vehicle comes to a stop, and systems that produce more regenerative energy than existing systems.
Technologies focusing on weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines, lighting equipment, etc., will be reported in "JSAE Automotive Engineering Exposition 2013: Parts Suppliers (2)."
* Click on the photo for a larger image.
EV prototype and concept cars
|Electric bus on test run (exhibited by Toshiba)||EV prototype car equipped with four in-wheel motors and a steer-by-wire system (co-developed by NTN and Kanagawa Institute of Technology)|
EV prototype and concept cars
|Toshiba||Electric Bus||The electric bus, remodeled from Hino Motors' light-duty route bus Poncho (6,990mm long, 2,080mm wide, 3,100mm tall) and powered by Toshiba's 39.7kWh SCiB lithium-ion battery. It runs about 40km per charge at the maximum speed of 70km/h (on level ground). The battery can be recharged from a quick charger (maximum currenｔ: 125A ) or super-quick charger (maximum current: 400A).|
|Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group||EV Commuter Car Concept||The two-seater electric urban commuter concept car which measures 3,600mm long, 1,550mm wide and 1,325mm tall with a vehicle weight of 490kg.|
|The car is produced with a number of Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group's cutting-edge technologies that include the CFRP chassis, organic thin-film coated photovoltaics (fitted on the roof), PC plastic glazing (substitute for glass), low linear expansion plastic body, Glass Mat reinforced Thermoplastics(GMT) underbody shield, organic electroluminescence lighting, and plant-derived plastic trimming.|
|NTN||EV Prototype||An electric prototype car, jointly developed by NTN and Kanagawa Institute of Technology. It has four in-wheel drive motors and a steer-by-wire system for both the front and rear wheels. Driving forces and steering angles of all four wheels are controlled to minimize tire slip dissipation energy.|
|JATCO||CVT8 HYBRID||The HV system for front-wheel drive vehicles, with a 15kW motor integrated with the CVT8 for front-wheel drive mid- to large-size vehicles, is to be fitted first in Nissan's Pathfinder HV being launched in the United States this summer. The system is combined with a new 2500cc supercharged engine and delivers the same performance as the Pathfinder powered by a V6 3500cc engine while achieving a 24% improvement in fuel efficiency. The HV system will cost about 3,000 U.S. dollars.|
|The CVT8 HYBRID adopts the same "one motor/two clutch hybrid system" as the HV system for rear-wheel drive vehicles originally used on the Nissan Fuga HV. The engine is disengaged by a clutch entirely to increase the efficiency of motor-drive and energy recovery during deceleration.|
|NSK||EV drive System||The system consists of a 40,000rpm high-speed motor, a traction reduction gear (4.0 gear ratio) based on the principle of a half-toroidal CVT, and a two-stage transmission. It contributes to reducing the system size and weight and increasing the vehicle's range.|
|Hybrid toroidal IVT||The hybrid concept combines the toroidal variator for front-wheel drive cars (transmission system of the toroidal CVT) with a 20kW motor. The system assumes the use of a V6, 3.5-liter engine. "IVT" stands for Infinitely Variable Transmission and is characterized by a large torque amplification ratio and a super-wide range. This enables all-electric drive on a compact motor and contributes to reducing the motor/electric system size and costs.|
|Wheel hub motor||The wheel hub motor contains two compact motors and a two-stage transmission. This enables the use of the driving range of high motor efficiency to provide a large driving force in low speeds and a sufficiently high maximum speed. The planetary gear type final reduction gear is integrated with the hub bearing.|
|NTN||In-wheel motor system||The in-wheel motor, reduction gear and hub bearing are integrated and contained in the wheel as a unit. It increases the freedom of vehicle design.The in-wheel motor can be used for electric commuters.|
|Meidensha||EV drive unit||The EV drive unit, exhibited and currently co-developed by Univance, integrates the motor and the gear box (reduction gear). The EV drive unit prototype has a 35% shorter spindle length compared to the separate type and the motor is cooled by ATF (automatic transmission fluid). This leads to a compact drive unit size while achieving high efficiency. The motor has the maximum output of 50kW and is to be used in Toyota Vitz-class vehicles. The motor core is being developed by Meidensha and the gear box by Univance.|
|Univance||Gear variations for HV and EV||Univance exhibited an EV prototype in which the rear wheels are driven by a motor (may be converted to an all-wheel drive hybrid if fitted in a front-wheel drive car powered by an internal combustion engine). Univance also had panels proposing four different combinations of the motor and the gear box (shown below).|
|* Two-motor RH/LH independent drive type: Fitted in the EV prototype. * Two-motor unit with an integrated differential: The differential is positioned between two motors. One may be the main drive motor and the other a compact torque assist motor (including turn assist). * Single motor unit with an integrated differential: A set of a single motor and a differential. * In-wheel motor type|
|Planetary reduction gear set for In-wheel motors||A planetary gear type reduction gear for in-wheel motors. The planetary gear contributes to reducing the reduction gear size compared to reduction gears that use common gears.|
|Schaeffler||eDifferential||The differential gear is combined with two motors and transmission. Two motors are positioned each at both ends. The larger motor with 105kW maximum output on the left drives the vehicle, and the smaller 5kW motor on the right adjusts the torque reaching the right and left wheels (torque vectoring).|
|According to the exhibitor, the eDifferential may be developed for all-electric vehicles or positioned between the rear wheels of a front-wheel drive vehicle to convert it into an all-wheel drive hybrid.|
Motors and inverters for EV/HV
|QMET-II 80kW motor exhibited by Yaskawa Electric Corporation||Toshiba's two-motor inverter unit supplied to Ford|
|APM120 high-performance motor exhibited by Aim (gearbox and inverter integrated type)|
Motors and inverters
|Meidensha||Combinations of motors and inverters for EV/HV||Meidensha had panels introducing three combinations of motors and inverters currently being developed: (1) a 25kg (30kW) motor and a 3.5-liter inverter combination for mini vehicles, (2) a 35kg (60kW) motor and a 4.6-liter inverter combination for small-size vehicles, and (3) a 40kg (100kW) motor and a 7.2-liter inverter combination for mid-size vehicles.|
(Note) Meidensha supplies motors, generators and inverters for Mitsubishi Outlander PHV.
|Yaskawa Electric Corporation||Motor-drive with electronic winding change system||The motor-drive with electronic winding change system was co-developed with Mazda and used on the Demio EV. Motors for EV application must provide two critical performances, a large torque at low speeds and a high revolution at high speeds. These requirements contradict each other and, therefore, different structures are required to meet both requirements.|
|A special system (QMET-II) is used to meet the contradictory requirements in which two windings are selected as needed between low-speed and high-speed revolution modes. All windings are used for low-speed mode and only partial windings are used for high-speed mode so that both requirements are met with a single motor while increasing the total efficiency.|
|Toshiba||Motors||Toshiba exhibited the driving and generating motors being supplied for Ford Fusion Energi PHV.|
|Inverter||The inverter controls the two motors used on the Ford PHV mentioned above.|
|AIM||"APM120" Motor||Aim started providing automotive engineering services in 1998 and developed the V10 5,500cc engine for endurance races in 2007 (also exhibited).|
|In anticipation of the likely appearance of hybrid and electric vehicles in endurance races, Aim established an engineering base in the United Kingdom. In the spring of 2013, the company completed the APM120, a lightweight, compact high-performance motor. The motor weighs 12kg (20kg when combined with the gearbox and the inverter) and has the maximum output power of 120kW (160PS), with a maximum torque of 150Nm and a maximum speed of 12,000rpm.|
|Aim intends to use the motor on racing cars in the Le Mans and other endurance races and gain knowledge to develop hybrid and electric sports cars.|
Electric compressors and other components for EV/HV use
|Electric compressor and water heater for car air conditioners exhibited by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Water heater for EV/PHV use being developed by Calsonic Kansei|
Electric compressors and other components for EV/HV use
|Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Electric compressor||The electric compressor is used on the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, the Outlander PHV, the Chevrolet Volt PHV, etc., and replaces the conventional engine-driven compressors.|
|Water heater for air conditioner||The water heater with a PTC element is used on the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, etc.|
|A factory option, currently available on the Mitsubishi Outlander PHV, allows all-electric driving while the air heater is on. On vehicles without the option installed, the engine must keep running while the air heater is on.|
|Calsonic Kansei||Hot-water sheathed heater for high voltage||The high-voltage water heater for air conditioning is currently under development for EV/PHV. It uses nichrome wire in place of PTC element for cost reduction sake (PTC elements are currently used on the heaters on Nissan Leaf and Mitsubishi i-MiEV). The heater with nichrome wire is smaller and lighter than the one that uses PTC element.|
|Toshiba||SIN heat sink||SIN (silicon nitride substrate), a fine ceramic substance known for excellent insulation, heat dissipation and load bearing characteristics, is used widely as the heat sink of the PCU that controls the motor (use on automobiles began in 2007). Today, it is also used on PCU for electric power steering systems.|
V2H systems that divert electricity from EV/HV
Nichicon and Toyota Industries exhibited systems to utilize electric energy stored in EV/PHV batteries for outdoor or household use.
"LEAF to Home" is a two-way system with V2H (vehicle to home) and H2V (home to vehicle) modes and supplies electric energy as large as 6kW for use in homes, etc. "MiEV power Box" is a system that allows using electric energy from the onboard battery (up to 1500W) as an emergency power source on roads or at home. Toyota Industries exhibited an AC inverter for using electric energy stored in the onboard battery on Toyota HV (Prius PHV included) up to 1500W for use in the car.
|"LEAF to Home" EV power station available on Nissan Leaf (exhibited by Nichicon)|
V2H systems that divert electricity from EV/HV
|Nichicon||LEAF to Home||The two-way (V2H/H2V) system can charge the Leaf battery in half the time it takes for a common 200V charge source (full charge is completed as quickly as in four hours).|
|The V2H system is capable of supplying 100VAC (60A or less) with the maximum output of 6kW for a variety of home appliances. The system's 24kWh capacity may be used as a backup power supply and also to save on electric bills by applying the cheaper late-night rates.|
|MiEV power Box||The "MiEV power Box" was made available in March 2012 as a dealer's option on i-MiEV. When connected to the quick charge connector on the i-MiEV, the MiEV power Box can supply 100VAC from the driving battery for up to 1500W for outdoor use or as emergency power supply for home appliances.|
|When a 16kWh driving battery is fully charged, the MiEV power Box allows uninterrupted supply of electricity for five to six hours to a combined load up to 1500W (equivalent of daily power consumption in an average household).|
1500W AC inverters
|Toyota Industries||AC Inverters||The AC inverter converts the direct current voltage of the HV/PHV driving battery into alternating current voltage and supplies 100VAC power via outlet in the car or house for operating electric devices up to 1500W of load. It may be used as an emergency power supply to use a microwave oven or other home appliances that consume much electricity.|
|The inverter is used on the Toyota Prius HV/PHV, the Estima HV, the Alphard HV, the Vellfire HV and the Lexus CT200h HV.|
(Note) The AC inverters by Toyota Industries are available in a wide lineup ranging from 100W to 1500W and are used on many other vehicles in global markets.
Start/stop systems and related components
New types of start/stop systems are being introduced. These systems include stopping the engine before the vehicle stops, or collecting the braking energy more efficiently to further improve the fuel efficiency. Systems and components in support of the systems were exhibited by Toshiba, Denso and other manufacturers.
|Belt starter generator exhibited by Valeo||Battery pack for Suzuki's ENE-CHARGE system (exhibited by Toshiba; battery cells are packed by Denso)|
|RA-coated engine bearing exhibited by Taiho Kogyo for use with start-stop systems|
Start/stop systems and related technologies
|Valeo||Belt Starter Generator||The system is called "i-StARS" (Starter Alternator Reversible System) by Valeo. The starter/generator's rotation is connected by belt to the crankshaft rotation.|
|Originally developed as a "micro-hybrid (start/stop system)," but braking energy regeneration, torque assist and other functions were added to it in several phases. In Japan, it is equipped on the Nissan Serena Smart Simple Hybrid launched in August 2012. The all-new model is slated for market launch in Japan in the first quarter of 2014.|
|Denso||"Eco Cool" and "ENE-CHRGE" by Suzuki||<Cold Storage Evaporator> Named as "Eco Cool" by Suzuki, the evaporator's heat exchanger contains cold storage material that stores coolness while the air conditioning is on and releases it while the engine is inactive. The system nearly doubles the time during which a cool and comfortable environment is maintained in the car. In turn, it extends the time during which the engine can remain inactive. As a result, the system has improved fuel efficiency by 2 to 3%.|
|<Lithium-ion battery pack> Used in the Suzuki's ENE-CHARGE system, the lithium-ion battery pack, combined with the conventional lead-acid battery, was developed to achieve more effective energy regeneration (the SCiB battery cells are supplied by Toshiba). The charge acceptance during deceleration was increased to further improve fuel efficiency by 3%.|
|Toshiba||SCiB batterypack for ENE-CHARGE||Used in the ENE-CHARGE system on Suzuki WagonR, the SCiB battery pack consists of five 3Ah cells that are packed by Denso. The electric energy generated by a high-output alternator is stored smoothly in the battery pack.|
|Toyota Industries||DC/DC Converter (reference exhibit)||A voltage drop sometimes occurs in the 12V auxiliary battery when the engine restarts. The DC/DC converter prevents voltage drop and supplies stable voltages to onboard electric devices to eliminate interruptions. The DC/DC converter is also referred to as a voltage stabilizer by the exhibitor.|
|JTEKT||Electric oil pump for start/stop systems||The electric oil pump supplies standby oil pressure for the transmission needed for a smooth re-starting. The new oil pump has been downsized by more than 40% from the company's conventional pump of the same output. Used on the Suzuki WagonR, Nissan vehicles, etc.|
|Taiho Kogyo||Engine bearing for start/stop system||The engine bearing is finished with RA coating, a resin containing molybdenum disulfide of high lubricating property, for use on vehicles equipped with a start/stop system. When the engine stops, the lubricant film is lost and a larger friction occurs when the engine restarts. According to the exhibitor, the RA-coating is effective especially on vehicles equipped with a start/stop system as the engine stops and restarts frequently.|
|Used in connecting rods and other parts on the Lexus LS600h/GS450h, the Toyota Crown HV, the Camry HV and many other vehicles equipped with a start/stop system.|
Hella has classified start/stop systems and their progressive systems into three stages; (1) ordinary start/stop systems, (2) systems that stop the engine before the car stops, and (3) systems designed for more efficient deceleration energy regeneration. The company supplies different DC/DC converters to meet specific stages and also supports customers in their system designs.
|Dual voltage (48/12V) DC/DC converter exhibited by Hella|
Three stages of start-stop systems and their progressive systems in Hella's classification
|Ordinary start/stop systems||When the engine restarts, a large current sometimes flows and causes a voltage drop that affects onboard electric devices. Hella produces and supplies DC/DC converters, dubbed Voltage Stabilizers, that prevent the unwanted voltage drop, providing the stable flow.||12V power supply, DC/DC converter|
|Systems that stop the engine before the car stops||A lead-acid battery has a low charge acceptance and the conventional 12V power supply is not sufficient for this type of systems in which the engine remains inactive over a longer period. Hence, an auxiliary power supply and a DC/DC converter are required to make up for the power shortage.||12V power supply, auxiliary power supply, DC/DC converter|
|Systems for fuller deceleration energy regeneration||Hella is proposing the use of a high-performance alternator and two power systems (48V, 12V) for faster and fuller deceleration energy regeneration. A DC/DC converter is also required to connect the two power supplies.||48V power supply, 12V power supply, DC/DC converter|
(Note) Hella is a world market leader of DC/DC converters and produces 1.5 million units a year.
Lead-acid batteries and capacitors
|Electric double-layer capacitor developed by TPR|
Lead-acid batteries and capacitors
|Furukawa Battery||ECHNO HV Lead-acid battery for HV||The lead-acid battery for HV use is marketed under the trade name of ECHNO HV. Lead-acid battery is often placed under the rear seat of a hybrid vehicle as the engine compartment is usually filled up with engine and other components and no room is left for the lead battery. Hence, the lead battery must be leak free and without the need of electrolyte replenishment.|
|The ECHNO HV has the negative plate that absorbs the oxygen gas that generates during a charging process (the battery also has a special structure for discharging the gas externally). The electrolyte loss is kept minimal and the battery does not require fluid level check or replenishment. The battery capacity has been increased through optimization of the mass of the positive active material and the amount of fluid.|
|UltraBattery exclusive for vehicles with start/stop||Furukawa Battery has developed special lead-acid battery for vehicles equipped with a start-stop system. The product is called UltraBattery and marketed under the trade name of ECHNO IS. On vehicles equipped with a start/stop system, the lead battery is always subject to a short charge condition known as PSOC (partial stage of charge). It is also subject to other demanding conditions such as quick discharge of large current.|
|The lead-acid battery has positive plates made of lead dioxide and negative plates made of spongy lead. The UltraBattery has the positive plates made of lead dioxide and the negative lead and capacitor (porous carbon) plates that are connected in parallel into a single plate.|
|This design increases the battery's charge acceptance and extends life under PSOC while maintaining the original safety of the lead-acid battery.|
|TPR||EDLC||In the process of studying EV technologies, TPR and Okaya Electric Industries jointly developed laminated cell type electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC). The EDLC has twice larger capacity density than competitors. According to TRP, the product's life is virtually limitless.|
|The EDLC may be used on construction and agricultural machineries and also for smoothing the natural energy. TPR is also seeking its place in automotive markets in such applications as EV/HV driving battery assist and emergency power supplies.|
Onboard battery cooling systems
Systems for cooling onboard batteries with water were exhibited. Valeo exhibited such a system in combination with the chiller for cooling the refrigerant (LLC, long life coolant). According to Valeo, its system is ideal for quick charging batteries on EV/PHV.
|Battery cooling system (being developed by Calsonic Kansei)|
Onboard battery cooling systems
|T.RAD||Battery Cooling system||T.Rad exhibited the water-cooling heatsink being developed for cooling lithium-ion battery packs. It was displayed along with the intermediate heat exchange (HEX, LLC chiller) and an electric water pump.|
|Calsonic Kansei||Cooling plate, chiller and water pump||Calsonic Kansei exhibited the battery cooling system being developed consisting of a cooling plate, chiller and water pump. The system has a simple structure but effectively cools the densely packed large batteries to extend the battery life and extend the vehicle's cruising range.|
|Valeo||Battery Cooling Plate||The large water-cooling capacity and high heat-transfer performance of the plate effectively equalize the battery temperature (5 degree centigrade or lower at the plate surface). The system, currently supplied to Daimler, is ideal especially on EV/PHV.|
|Cooling chiller||The chiller is a device that cools the refrigerant flowing to the cooling plate. It is supplied to BMW and Volvo as well as Daimler.|
|Air battery cooler||The cooler optimizes the battery temperature to maximize the battery performance and life. It is supplied to Honda, Ford and PSA.|
Source: Printed materials and panels at the Exposition, press releases of the exhibitors
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