Turkey: Ford to consolidate production of LCVs in Europe

Hyundai doubles production capacity of passenger cars to 200K

2013/05/23

Summary

 In 2007, the annual production volume of vehicles in Turkey exceeded one million units for the first time. The volume decreased by 24.2% y/y to 869,605 units in 2009 after the economy was hit with the effect from the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers. However, the production in Turkey has maintained a level between 1.1 and 1.2 million units since 2010.

 Auto industry in Turkey has become an export hub mainly targeting Europe. About 70% of the vehicles produced within the country are exported. Turkey has a population of around 75 million (as of December 2012), and its domestic automobile market volume, which was around 500K units several years ago, has grown to approximately 900K units. Because the models produced in-country are limited, approximately 60% (over 70% for passenger cars) of the sales volume within Turkey are imports.

 The Turkish government has expanded investment incentives for 2012 and 2013 to enhance domestic automobile industry. It is planning to increase the automobile export value from the current 25 billion dollars to 75 billion dollars by 2023.

 As part of its restructuring strategy in Europe, Ford is closing two of its plants in the U.K., but it will enhance the production structure in Turkey to transfer the production of the Transit. A third plant will be constructed to make Turkey a development and production site for light commercial vehicles (LCVs) marketed in Europe.

 Hyundai Motor Company is planning to expand its business utilizing Turkey-South Korea FTA which went into effect in May 2013 and double its passenger car production capacity to 200K units by the end of 2013.

 Renault began production of the new Clio launched in the fall of 2012 at plants in Turkey and Flins, France. The company and the French government has been in dispute over the production ratio at these two plants, however, the production volume for January to March 2013 were 60% from the Turkey plant and 40% from the Flins plant in France. Renault also started the production of the new Fluence and Symbol.

 As for Japanese OEMs in Turkey, Toyota will start production of the next generation Corolla sedan from June 2013. Honda is considering producing the Urban SUV Concept based on the next generation Fit.

2014 Ford Transit Connect wagon
"2014 Ford Transit Connect wagon"
(sold as the Tourneo Connect in Europe)
showcased at 2013 Detroit Auto Show
Corolla Furia Concept
"Corolla Furia Concept" believed to
go into production from June 2013
(photo taken at 2013 Detroit Auto Show)

Production, exports and sales volumes in Turkey

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Jan.-Mar.
2012
Jan.-Mar.
2013
Production
Exports
1,147,110
910,261
869,605
628,970
1,094,557
754,469
1,189,131
790,966
1,072,978
729,923
281,240
200,383
277,146
205,373
Sales
Local
Imports
526,544
220,457
306,087
575,869
261,948
313,921
793,172
327,764
465,408
910,867
372,335
538,532
817,620
305,926
511,694
144,003
56,929
87,074
160,443
51,481
108,962
Exports/Production
Imports/Sales
79.4%
58.1%
72.3%
54.5%
68.9%
58.7%
66.5%
59.1%
68.0%
62.6%
71.2%
60.5%
74.1%
67.9%

Source: Otomotiv Sanayii Dernegi (OSD)
Note: numbers in blue are item breakdown of new vehicles sold.



Ford and Tofas (Fiat) mainly produce CVs

 Of the top three companies with highest production volumes, Ford and Tofas (Fiat) focused their productions on commercial vehicles (CVs). Ford's vehicles manufactured in Turkey are all CVs and 63% of the vehicles manufactured between 2010 — 2011 by Tofas(Fiat) were CVs. As a result, 46.2% of the total production volume for 2012 is CVs.

 Mercedes-Benz is also placing Turkey as its core production site for heavy-duty vehicles.

Production volume by vehicle types

2009 2010 2011 2012 Jan.-Mar.
2012
Jan.-Mar.
2013
Passenger Car 510,931 603,394 639,734 577,296 154,479 142,426
Commercial Vehicle 358,674 491,163 549,397 495,682 126,761 134,720
Minibus 11,829 16,978 22,475 29,335 6,600 9,693
Midibus 2,624 2,658 3,509 4,158 818 1,289
Bus 5,931 5,268 6,907 6,427 1,531 2,336
Pick-Up (Kamyonet) 330,044 442,408 479,110 426,633 110,421 114,362
Truck 8,246 23,851 37,396 29,129 7,391 7,040
Total 869,605 1,094,557 1,189,313 1,072,978 281,240 277,146
Source: Otomotiv Sanayii Dernegi (OSD)
Note 1. The numbers in blue represent breakdowns for CVs.
2. "Pickup" is an English translation for a local term, Kamyonet, generally referring to LCVs such as vans, pickup trucks with GVW 3.5t or less.


 As of 2012, Turkey has an annual production capacity of 1.58 million automobiles. The production performance for 2012 was 1.07 million units with a plant operation rate of 68%.

 Toyota, Honda, and MAN are wholly owned subsidiaries, but other Japanese, European, and South Korean automakers are establishing production structures jointly with local companies.

Annual production capacities by OEMs and vehicle types (2012)

Passenger
Car
Truck Pick up Bus Mini-Bus Midi-Bus Total
GVW
> 3.5t
GVW
3.5t or less
26
Passengers
or more
Up to 14
Passengers
15-25
Passengers
Oyak-Renault 360,000 360,000
Ford Otosan 10,000 270,000 50,000 330,000
Tofas (Fiat) 400,000 400,000
Toyota 150,000 150,000
Hyundai 100,000 15,000 10,000 125,000
Honda 50,000 50,000
Mercedes-Benz 14,500 4,000 18,500
Karsan 16,000 61,400 1,350 16,300 95,050
Anadolu Isuzu 7,200 2,400 922 2,633 13,155
MAN 1,700 1,700
BMC 10,000 5,000 1,800 3,200 20,000
Otokar 4,200 1,000 1,500 2,100 8,800
Temsa Global 4,500 3,000 1,250 2,000 10,750
Total 1,060,000 62,200 361,000 11,100 81,922 6,733 1,582,955
Production in 2012 577,296 29,129 426,633 6,427 29,335 4,158 1,072,978
Source: Otomotiv Sanayii Dernegi (OSD)
Note 1. Ford Otosan is constructing a third plant with an annual production capacity of 110K units and plans to start the production of LCVs smaller than the current models from the end of 2013. Hyundai will expand its passenger car production capacity from the 100K units to 200K units by the end 2012.
2-1. Tofas is a vehicle manufacturing company established in 1968 with Fiat owing 37.8% of the company and Koc Holding owning 24.3%. The company manufactures vehicles for Fiat, PSA, Opel as well as its own brand (mainly taxies).
2-2. Tofas (Fiat) LCVs like the Doblo and Fiorino vans (classified under "Kamyonet"="Pickup" in volume related document from OSD) account for approximately 2/3 of the total production volume (compact vehicles built on a monocoque body mostly with a load limit of around 500 kg). The production capacity is classified under "P. Car" in the table above.
3. Karsan is a local company which manufactures licensed models from major OEMs (Peugeot Partner/Citroen Berlingo, Renault Truck, and Hyundai Truck) under contract as well as mini-buses under its original brand, "the J Series".

 

Production and export volumes by OEM

 Of the manufacturers locally producing vehicles in Turkey, Renault, Ford, and Fiat manufactures around 300K units annually followed by Toyota and Hyundai with 100K units. The companies export 60% to almost 90% of the vehicles manufactured.

Turkey: production and export volumes of major OEMs

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oyak-Renault Production 263,656 286,695 277,572 307,083 330,994 283,389
Exports 204,428 252,232 222,278 233,057 225,285 227,162
Ford Production 286,356 268,761 173,456 242,070 295,850 254,435
Exports 221,741 217,876 128,388 175,754 211,380 191,149
Tofas (Fiat)
(Note 2 & 3)
Production 212,493 267,436 253,090 312,245 307,788 208,947
Exports 146,177 209,443 168,353 193,737 180,690 154,068
Toyota Production 161,516 126,521 72,264 83,286 91,639 74,822
Exports 154,386 119,586 69,097 73,163 81,233 63,549
Hyundai Production 90,190 81,590 48,652 77,000 90,231 85,856
Exports 69,224 61,000 17,136 42,249 64,000 67,453
Honda Production 23,663 50,073 18,264 20,305 12,341 22,022
Exports 7,732 34,926 9,172 10,633 5,023 7,959
Mercedes-Benz Production 19,014 20,800 6,492 14,480 21,362 n.a.
Exports 8,708 9,083 3,317 3,471 4,735 4,054
Karsan Production 9,720 11,230 8,313 24,719 22,146 n.a.
Exports 1,632 482 7,287 19,441 15,119 10,994
A.I.O.S.
(Anadolu Isuzu)
Production 7,842 10,007 1,817 3,292 4,324 n.a.
Exports 750 1,042 565 498 429 943
Others Production 24,964 23,996 9,685 10,077 12,456 n.a.
Exports 5,592 4,591 3,377 2,466 3,072 2,592
Total Production 1,099,414 1,147,110 869,605 1,094,557 1,189,131 1,072,978
Exports 820,370 910,261 628,970 754,469 790,966 729,923
Source: Otomotiv Sanayii Dernegi (OSD), Marklines Data Center
Note 1. 2007-2011 & 2012 total value is from OSD. 2012 breakdown is from Marklines Data Center.
2. The 2011 performance for Tofas (Fiat) includes the production volume (68,166 units) of the Peugeot Bipper/Citroen Nemo (a sister model of the Fiat Fiorino), which began production in 2007.
3. The 2012 performance for Tofas (Fiat) does not include the volumes for the two PSA models mentioned above (42,481 units) and the Opel Combo (33,578 units), a Fiat Doblo based model, which started production in 2012.

 

 



Turkish government announces investment incentives for auto industry

Expansion of investment incentives by Turkish government

 The Turkish government made announcements on incentives to expand investment into the Turkish auto industry in June 2012 and February 2013. While the auto industry is driving the Turkish economy, the companies rely heavily on imports for intermediate commodity, especially for modules with high added values. The government hopes to improve the situation by increasing local procurement rate from the current 56% to 85%.
 In addition to manufacturing of automobiles in general, investments relating especially to the production of engines, engine parts, transmissions, and electrical units will be given privileges to taxes such as value-added tax, import duty, and corporation tax for purchasing machineries and facilities. Furthermore, with the introduction of these incentives, the government will put an effort into inviting Volkswagen to Turkey which currently does not have local manufacturing site (the VW group sold 123,006 imported vehicles in 2012 which is the second highest volume after the Renault-Nissan group with 138,330 units).
 It aims to strengthen the competitiveness in production of high value-added products and increase the annual automobile export value from the current 25 billion dollars to 75 billion dollars by 2023, the 100th anniversary of the country with these measures.

 

 



Ford to consolidate development and production of CVs in Europe

 Restructuring of business in Europe, currently in a slump, is under way at Ford; the production of the Transit will be transferred to a plant in Turkey after the Southampton plant in the U.K. closes in 2013. The third plant in Turkey is in construction to start production within 2013.

 At the same time, the OEM will consolidate development and production function of CVs targeting Europe to Turkey. It is reviewing CV line-ups for Europe and product mixes for cargo vans as well as People-movers (the Tourneo series) consisting of four models each will be completed by mid-2014. The company aims to increase the annual sales volume for the entire Transit series including both cargo and passenger vehicles from 250K—300K units to 400K units by 2016.

 The Turkey plant has manufactured a total of over 2.25 million CVs exporting them to 70 countries around the world since the production of the Transit began in 2001 (21% were shipped to North America between January and March 2013).

Four cargo van models

Models Overview Start of production/sales
Transit  Load capacity between 1,500 kg and 2,000 kg. 2001
Transit Custom  One-ton class load capacity. Manufactured
from July 2012
Transit Connect  A 700 kg class van based on a C-platform. Exported to the U.S. from 2009. 2002
Transit Courier Van  A compact van based on a B-segment platform measuring 4.16m in length. Sold from Spring of 2014

Note: the Transit Custom is a new model placed between the large-sized Transit and the compact Transit Connect, with production beginning from July 2012 together with the Tourneo Custom.

Four Tourneo models and Transit Minibus (People-movers)
Models Overview Start of production/sales
Transit Minibus  A Transit based mini-bus (14-seater or less) is being sold and manufactured. -
Tourneo Custom  An eight to nine-seater passenger van. Available with a body length of 4.97m and 5.34m. Powered with a 2200cc diesel engine. Manufactured
from July 2012
Tourneo Connect  A C-segment five-seater vehicle sharing the platform with the Focus. It measures 4.42 m in length. Available with a 1.6-liter diesel engine or a 1.0 and 1.6-liter Ecoboost engine. Sold from the
end of 2013
Grand Tourneo
Connect
 A seven-seater Grand Tourneo Connect is added to the Tourneo Connect line-up. The body length measures 4.82m ; 400mm longer than the standard model.
Tourneo Courier  A B-segment five-seater vehicle sharing the platform with the Fiesta. It measures 4.16m in length. Available with a 1.5 and 1.6-liter diesel engine or a 1.0-liter Ecoboost engine. Currently in development at a R&D site in Turkey. Manufactured at the third plant in Turkey; sold from Spring of 2014

Note: Ford is launching a new People-mover series from 2012 under the name the "Tourneo" in Europe. Cargo vans sold in Europe and North American models (both cargo and passenger models) will continue to be released under the Transit/Transit Connect model names.

 

Ford constructs third plant in Turkey; strengthen sites in Turkey in Europe restructuring

 Ford will construct a third plant in Turkey. 260 million Euros will be spent on this project. The plant will have an annual production capacity of 110K units. The production of LVCs will start within 2013.
 The company is in the process of restructuring its business in Europe, which has been in a slump. The Southampton vehicle plant and the Dagenham stamping plant in the U.K. will be closed in 2013 (manufacturing of engines will continue at the Dagenham plant), and the Genk vehicle plant in Belgium will be shutdown in 2014. The Transit vans manufactured at the Southampton plant (annual production volume of 28,755 units in 2011, 11,400 units in 2012) will be transferred to Ford Turkey, and the production at the Genk plant will be transferred to a plant in Spain.
 Turkey is the only country making a profit in Europe for Ford. Of all the European OEMs, Ford has come up with the most aggressive restructuring plan. The restructuring will bring Ford in Europe a savings of 450 to 500 million dollars annually from the decrease in fixed cost and increase in plant operation rate, giving Ford an advantage among European automakers.

 

 



Hyundai Motor Company to double production capacity to 200K units by the end of 2013

 Hyundai Motor Company plans to double its passenger car production capacity from 100K to 200K units. Additionally, it will construct an engine production and a R&D site. The company also announced its plan to jointly manufacture CVs with a local Turkish company, Karsan.

Hyundai Motor Company to double production capacity to 200K units

 Hyundai is currently producing the Accent and the i20 at its Turkey plant. The production of the new i20 started in May 2012. The automaker announced that it will double its passenger car production capacity from the current 100K units to 200K units by the end of 2013 in order to start production of an A-segment vehicle, the i10, at the end of 2013.
 It also plans to construct an engine plant and a R&D site. The completion of the R&D site will make it the third development site in Turkey after Ford and Fiat.
Hyundai and Karsan jointly manufacture CVs
 In November 2012, Hyundai Motor Company and an automobile manufacturing company, Karsan, announced that they will jointly manufacture CVs under the Hyundai brand. With Hyundai investing 200 million dollars and Karsan 60 million dollars, CVs between GVW 3-6 tons will be manufactured. Hyundai will provide Karsan with KD sets to start production at the end of 2014. The companies plan to have an annual production volume of 200K units in seven years. Eighty-five percent of the CVs manufactured at the plant will be exported to countries in Europe.
Note 1. FTA went into effect between Turkey and South Korea on May 1, 2013. This will immediately relieve 93% of customs duty on industrial products exported from Turkey to South Korea. Customs duties on industrial products between the two countries will completely be abolished over the next seven years. 52% of the customs duties on agricultural products will be abolished over the next ten years.
2. Import customs duties on some of the vehicles and auto-parts will also be reduced in stages to be abolished in seven years. This will be advantageous for Hyundai and related suppliers.

 

 



Renault starts production of new Clio, Fluence, and Symbol from fall 2012

Renault produces approximately 60% of the new Clio in Turkey

 Renault showcased its latest (fourth generation) Clio at the Paris Motor Show held in September 2012 and began production at the Turkey and Flins (France) plants. A dispute regarding production ratio between Renault and the French government has been reported. Renault wants to increase production at the Turkey plant; conversely the French government wishes to increase the production in France. There is a cost difference of 1,300 Euros to manufacture one unit of the Clio in Turkey versus France.
 Renault has not announced the production volume plan at both plants, but according to a research by Marklines Data Center, about 60% (53,872 units) were produced at the Turkey plant and the remaining 40% (36,718 units) at the Flins plant in France between January and March 2013 (over 50% was manufactured in Turkey between 2010 and 2012).
 In March 2013, agreement was made between Renault and a labor union, which represents two thirds of its workforce, to increase the annual production volume in France to 180K units by 2016 in return for the union's compromising on working conditions. As a result, (1) Renault announced the production of 82K units of the Nissan Micra to be sold in Europe at the Flins plant from 2016. (2) A part of the Clio produced at the Turkey plant is planned to be transferred to France.
Renault starts production of the new Fluence and Symbol from the end of 2012
 Renault showcased the new Fluence and Symbol at the Istanbul Auto Show in November 2012 and began production at OYAK-Renault. The Fluence is a C-segment sedan (a hatchback Megane based model) and the Renault Symbol (sold under the name Thalia in some regions) is a sister model of the new Dacia Logan launched in 2012. Note: the previous generation of the Symbol was a sedan based on the Clio.

 

 



Toyota produces new Corolla and Honda considers production of Urban SUV Concept

Toyota starts production of new Corolla from June 2013

 Toyota is currently manufacturing the Auris and Verso at its Turkey plant (74,822 units were manufactured for 2012). The production of the "Corolla Furia Concept," showcased at the Detroit Auto Show held in January 2013, will start from June 2013 manufacturing 100K units annually shipped to 30 countries. The production of the Auris will be transferred to the U.K.
 Toyota will spend 160 million Euros to the Turkey plant to organize production and increase annual production volume to 210K units and expand the export value from Turkey plants from the current 1.5 billion dollars to 2.5 billion dollars.

Honda considers production of Urban SUV Concept

 Honda manufactures the Civic sedan at its plant in Turkey. The plant has an annual production capacity of 50K units, but the actual volume produced stayed at 20K units between 2009 and 2012.
 Honda showcased "the Urban SUV Concept" based on the next generation Jazz (the Fit in Japan) at the Detroit Auto Show held in January 2013. The model will go into production in 2013 for Japan and 2014 in Mexico plants mostly marketed for the U.S. market. The OEM is currently considering producing vehicles for Europe at the Turkey plant. A final decision will be made based on the situation in the European market.

 

 



Sales volume and shares in Turkey by OEMs

 800K - 900K units including imported cars were sold between 2010 and 2012 in Turkey.

 Fiat, Ford, and Renault are in the lead with higher local production volumes. However, the VW group, which does not produce locally, is continuing to grow. The group sold 123,006 imported vehicles in 2012.

 The volume of new cars sold in Turkey in 2012 decreased to 820K units from 910K units in 2011. Ford's local subsidiary, Ford Otosan, expects the market volume to exceed 800K units in 2013.

Breakdown of new vehicles sold

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Jan.-Mar.
2012
Jan.-Mar.
2013
PC 305,998 369,819 509,784 593,519 556,280 97,536 114,434
CV 220,546 206,050 283,388 317,348 261,340 46,467 46,009
Total 526,544 575,869 793,172 910,867 817,620 144,003 160,443

Source: Otomotiv Sanayii Dernegi (OSD)

 

Turkey: sales volume of "passenger cars+ LCVs" from major OEMs (includes imported vehicles)

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Fiat Group PC 39,346 28,773 31,196 45,187 60,382 46,461
LCV 41,282 35,034 55,964 67,865 74,721 59,810
Total 80,628 63,807 87,160 113,052 135,103 106,271
Ford PC 38,139 28,350 35,733 60,376 61,003 47,030
LCV 68,922 48,180 51,263 62,032 73,546 59,136
Total 107,061 76,530 86,996 122,408 134,549 106,166
Renault-Nissan
(Including Dacia)
PC 68,279 55,430 70,842 102,525 129,806 119,454
LCV 30,806 24,533 18,743 24,905 31,092 18,876
Total 99,085 79,963 89,585 127,430 160,898 138,330
Hyundai Group
(including Kia)
PC 36,649 35,636 66,048 56,506 54,424 55,535
LCV 16,055 7,800 4,455 2,871 3,249 3,323
Total 52,704 43,436 70,503 59,377 57,673 58,858
VW Group PC 42,185 33,358 39,236 60,893 80,997 96,958
LCV 28,248 19,181 10,603 23,264 26,187 26,048
Total 70,433 52,539 49,839 84,157 107,184 123,006
PSA
(Peugeot/Citroen)
PC 21,910 18,315 20,410 30,313 30,709 29,230
LCV 12,687 17,082 23,512 44,478 38,031 30,876
Total 34,597 35,397 43,922 74,791 68,740 60,106
GM
(Opel/Chevrolet)
PC 32,822 30,281 33,153 57,828 74,588 67,635
LCV 5,459 4,602 2,021 1,802 2,112 682
Total 38,281 34,883 35,174 59,630 76,700 68,317
Toyota PC 31,429 26,021 24,606 40,590 37,934 31,961
LCV 2,235 1,743 1,156 82 1,514 2,615
Total 33,664 27,764 25,762 40,672 39,448 34,576
Honda PC 22,103 20,827 16,200 16,259 15,123 16,516
Daimler Group PC 4,715 4,711 9,736 12,350 13,795 12,826
LCV 9,093 6,835 3,440 5,262 8,307 9,726
Total 13,808 11,546 13,176 17,612 22,102 22,552
BMW PC 8,061 5,450 7,313 12,742 18,179 17,005
Top eleven companies PC 345,638 287,152 354,473 495,569 576,940 540,611
LCV 214,787 164,990 171,157 232,561 258,759 211,092
Total 560,425 452,142 525,630 728,130 835,699 751,703
Others PC 11,839 18,834 15,336 26,936 25,308 15,669
LCV 22,115 21,283 14,091 1,987 8,389 10,389
Total 33,954 40,117 29,427 28,923 33,697 26,058
Total Industry PC 357,477 305,986 369,809 522,505 602,248 556,280
LCV 236,902 186,273 185,248 234,548 267,148 221,481
Total 594,379 492,259 555,057 757,053 869,396 777,761

Source: JATO Dynamics, Marklines Data Center
Note: the table shows retail sales volume of passenger cars and LCVs including imported vehicles. The total is not consistent with the volume released by OSD because the data is from a different source and does not include heavy commercial vehicles.

Shares for "passenger cars + LCVs" from major OEMs (includes imported vehicles)
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Fiat PC + LCV 13.6% 13.0% 15.7% 14.9% 15.5% 13.7%
Ford 18.0% 15.5% 15.7% 16.2% 15.5% 13.7%
Renault-Nissan 16.7% 16.2% 16.1% 16.8% 18.5% 17.8%
Hyundai Group 8.9% 8.8% 12.7% 7.8% 6.6% 7.6%
VW Group 11.8% 10.7% 9.0% 11.1% 12.3% 15.8%
PSA 5.8% 7.2% 7.9% 9.9% 7.9% 7.7%
GM 6.4% 7.1% 6.3% 7.9% 8.8% 8.8%
Toyota 5.7% 5.6% 4.6% 5.4% 4.5% 4.4%
Honda 3.7% 4.2% 2.9% 2.1% 1.7% 2.1%
Daimler Group 2.3% 2.3% 2.4% 2.3% 2.5% 2.9%
BMW 1.4% 1.1% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.2%
Top eleven companies 94.3% 91.9% 94.7% 96.2% 96.1% 96.6%
Others 5.7% 8.1% 5.3% 3.8% 3.9% 3.4%
Total Industry 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

 

Number of imported passenger cars by brand

2009 2010 2011 2012 Jan.-Mar.
2013
Volkswagen 26,752 39,822 55,550 66,792 16,735
Ford 33,462 55,212 58,807 47,030 7,801
Opel 22,689 39,768 52,624 49,143 9,407
Hyundai 25,091 16,418 17,157 25,141 5,358
Toyota 18,637 29,341 26,450 20,099 4,551
Citroen 6,627 11,462 14,469 14,711 4,382
Audi 6,251 9,656 12,064 13,720 2,796
Peugeot 13,783 18,851 15,480 14,519 4,527
Kia 5,403 8,934 9,714 11,870 2,357
Fiat 6,099 11,215 12,002 8,774 1,668
Renault 5,908 5,291 7,534 5,965 4,853
Honda 7,233 5,505 5,891 2,728 630
Others 65,607 102,675 126,289 129,184 24,523
Passenger car total 243,542 354,150 414,031 409,676 89,588
LCV total 65,890 101,409 112,334 92,082 17,539
Grand total 309,432 455,559 526,365 501,758 107,127

Source: Otomotiv Sanayii Dernegi (OSD)
Note: The grand total does not match with the sales volume of imported vehicles referred at the beginning of this report because it does not include mid-/heavy-duty commercial vehicles.

<Automotive Industry Portal MarkLines>